You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Rotonda, Villa (villa, Vicenza, Italy)

    Andrea Palladio: Visits to Rome and work in Vicenza: …for Giulio Capra, called the Villa Rotonda, near Vicenza. This was a hilltop belvedere, or summer house, with a view, of completely symmetrical plan with hexastyle, or porticoes on each of four sides and central circular halls surmounted by domes. The Villa Trissino at Meledo, of the same type, was…

  • Rotondi, Michael (American architect)

    Thom Mayne: …1972 Mayne and fellow architect Michael Rotondi launched the Santa Monica, California-based design firm Morphosis, taking the firm’s name from the Greek word meaning “to be in formation” or “taking shape.” That same year Mayne helped found the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-ARC), which became a leading school in…

  • rotor (engine part)

    gasoline engine: Rotary (Wankel) engines: …has an equilateral triangular orbiting rotor. The rotor turns in a closed chamber, and the three apexes of the rotor maintain a continuous sliding contact with the curved inner surface of the casing. The curve-sided rotor forms three crescent-shaped chambers between its sides and the curved wall of the casing.…

  • rotor (helicopter part)

    helicopter: Principles of flight and operation: …the rotating blade assembly (rotor) mounted atop its fuselage on a hinged shaft (mast) connected with the vehicle’s engine and flight controls. In comparison to airplanes, the tail of a helicopter is somewhat elongated and the rudder smaller; the tail is fitted with a small antitorque rotor (tail rotor).…

  • rotor (electric motor)

    electric generator: Rotor: An elementary synchronous generator is shown in cross section in Figure 2. The central shaft of the rotor is coupled to the mechanical prime mover. The magnetic field is produced by conductors, or coils, wound into slots cut in the surface of the cylindrical…

  • rotor (vortex)

    lee wave: …of sufficient amplitude for a rotor, a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation perpendicular to the direction of flow, to occur. In a rotor, the wind at the ground blows toward the mountain.

  • rotor cipher machine (cryptology)

    cipher: …in cryptodevices—the development of the rotor cipher machine. One common type of rotor system implemented product ciphers with simple monoalphabetic substitution ciphers as factors. The rotors in this machine consisted of disks with electrical contacts on each side that were hardwired to realize an arbitrary set of one-to-one connections (monoalphabetic…

  • rotor kite (aeronautics)

    kite: Kite structure: …deviation in form is the rotor, a kinetic kite that manifests lift and the Magnus effect through a horizontal spinning vane sandwiched between two cylinders—a rigid frame and sail in one.

  • rotor spinning (textiles)

    cotton: Cotton fibre processing: Faster production methods include rotor spinning (a type of open-end spinning), in which fibres are detached from the card sliver and twisted, within a rotor, as they are joined to the end of the yarn. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed…

  • rotorcraft

    helicopter: …more power-driven horizontal propellers or rotors that enable it to take off and land vertically, to move in any direction, or to remain stationary in the air. Other vertical-flight craft include autogiros, convertiplanes, and V/STOL aircraft of a number of configurations.

  • Rotorua (New Zealand)

    Rotorua, city (“district”), north-central North Island, New Zealand. It lies at the southwestern end of Lake Rotorua, for which it is named, between the Bay of Plenty to the northeast and Lake Taupo to the southwest. Founded in the early 1870s, it was constituted a special town district in 1881

  • Rotorua Museum of Art and History (museum, Rotorua, New Zealand)

    Rotorua: Other attractions include the Rotorua Museum of Art and History in the former government bathhouse on the lakeshore and its adjacent gardens and the remains of Te Wairoa, a village near Mount Tarawera that was buried in the 1886 eruption and is now preserved as a museum.

  • Rotorua, Lake (lake, New Zealand)

    Lake Rotorua, lake in north-central North Island, New Zealand, and largest of a group of about 20 lakes, including Rotoiti and Tarawera, that were formerly called the Hot Lakes. The lake is pear-shaped and measures 7.5 miles (12 km) by 6 miles (9.5 km). Lake Rotorua (Maori: “Crater Lake”) has a

  • Rotorua-Taupa Basin (geological formation, New Zealand)

    caldera: Examples are the Rotorua-Taupo Basin in New Zealand and the basin of Lake Toba in Sumatra.

  • Rotorvane (machine)

    tea: Rolling: The Rotorvane consists of a horizontal barrel with a feed hopper at one end and a perforated plate at the other. Forced through the barrel by a screw-type rotating shaft fitted with vanes at the centre, the leaf is distorted by resistor plates on the inner…

  • rotoscoping (animation)

    animation: The Fleischer brothers: The Fleischers invented the rotoscoping process, still in use today, in which a strip of live-action footage can be traced and redrawn as a cartoon. The Fleischers exploited this technique in their pioneering series Out of the Inkwell (1919–29). It was this series, with its lively interaction between human…

  • rototiller (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Primary tillage equipment: The rotary plow’s essential feature is a set of knives or tines rotated on a shaft by a power source. The knives chop the soil up and throw it against a hood that covers the knife set. These machines can create good seedbeds, but their high…

  • Rotrou, Jean de (French dramatist)

    Jean de Rotrou, one of the major French Neoclassical playwrights of the first half of the 17th century. He shares with Pierre Corneille the credit for the increased prestige and respectability that the theatre gradually came to enjoy in Paris at that time. Rotrou wrote his first play, the comedy

  • rotta (musical instrument)

    Rotta, medieval European stringed musical instrument. The name is frequently applied to the boxlike lyres with straight or waisted sides frequently pictured in medieval illustrations of musical instruments. Some surviving writings, however, indicate that contemporary writers may have applied the n

  • rotte (musical instrument)

    Rotta, medieval European stringed musical instrument. The name is frequently applied to the boxlike lyres with straight or waisted sides frequently pictured in medieval illustrations of musical instruments. Some surviving writings, however, indicate that contemporary writers may have applied the n

  • rotten borough (British history)

    Rotten borough, depopulated election district that retains its original representation. The term was first applied by English parliamentary reformers of the early 19th century to such constituencies maintained by the crown or by an aristocratic patron to control seats in the House of Commons. J

  • Rotten, Johnny (British musician)

    the Sex Pistols: The original members were vocalist Johnny Rotten (byname of John Lydon; b. January 31, 1956, London, England), guitarist Steve Jones (b. May 3, 1955, London), drummer Paul Cook (b. July 20, 1956, London), and bassist Glen Matlock (b. August 27, 1956, London). A later member was bassist Sid Vicious (byname…

  • Rotterdam (New York, United States)

    Rotterdam, town (township), Schenectady county, eastern New York, U.S. It adjoins the city of Schenectady south of the Mohawk River. The Jan Mabie House (1671) recalls early Dutch colonial settlement, as does the town’s official seal, which is identical with that of Rotterdam, Netherlands.

  • Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    Rotterdam, major European port and second largest city of the Netherlands. It lies about 19 miles (30 km) from the North Sea, to which it is linked by a canal called the New Waterway. The city lies along both banks of the New Meuse (Nieuwe Maas) River, which is a northern distributary of the Rhine

  • Rotterdam Junction (New York, United States)

    Rotterdam: Rotterdam Junction, a suburban community in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains, was, from 1883 to 1931, an important river and rail juncture for Erie Canal shipments. Industries in Rotterdam produce turbines, insulating materials, and other light manufactures. Area 36 square miles (93 square km).…

  • Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra (Dutch orchestra)

    Valery Gergiev: …as principal conductor of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra (1995–2008) and the London Symphony Orchestra (2007–15). In 2015 he became conductor of the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra.

  • rotting (biology)

    soap and detergent: Raw materials: …and, because the foam retards biological degradation of organic material in sewage, it caused problems in sewage-water regeneration systems. In countries where sewage water is used for irrigation, the foam was also a problem. Intensive research in the 1960s led to changes in the alkylbenzene sulfonate molecules. The tetrapropylene, which…

  • Rottmayr, Johann Michael (Bohemian painter)

    Western painting: Central Europe: The frescoes by Johann Michael Rottmayr in the castle of Vranov in Moravia (1695) and in Breslau (now Wroc?aw; 1704–06) constitute a prelude to the great development of Baroque painting in the Habsburg domains. There the vigorous and extremely colourful frescoes are closely integrated with the architecture. The…

  • Rottnest Island (island, Western Australia, Australia)

    Rottnest Island, Australian island in the Indian Ocean, lying 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Fremantle (at the mouth of the Swan River, near Perth), Western Australia. A coastal limestone fragment, the island measures about 7 by 3 miles (11 by 5 km) and has sand dunes and several salt lakes. It was

  • Rottweil (Germany)

    Switzerland: Expansion and position of power: …Mulhouse in Alsace (1466), and Rottweil in Swabia (1463), princes of the church such as the abbots of Sankt Gallen (1451), and the two other confederations of rural communities, the Valais and the Graubünden, eventually adopted the status of Swiss allies (Zugewandte). These allies took part in several wars and…

  • Rottweiler (breed of dog)

    Rottweiler, a breed of working dog which is thought to be descended from drover dogs (cattle-driving dogs) left by the Roman legions in Rottweil, Germany, after the Romans abandoned the region during the 2nd century ce. The Rottweiler accompanied local butchers on buying expeditions from the Middle

  • Rotuma Island (island, Fiji)

    Rotuma Island, island dependency of Fiji, South Pacific Ocean, 400 miles (640 km) north-northwest of Suva. Rotuma is a volcanic island surrounded by eight islets. Sighted in 1791 by the British naval ship Pandora during its search for the HMS Bounty mutineers, the main island was formerly called

  • Rotuman language

    Austronesian languages: Polynesian languages: …Polynesian languages are Fijian and Rotuman, a non-Polynesian language spoken by a physically Polynesian population on the small volcanic island of Rotuma northwest of the main Fijian island of Viti Levu; together with Polynesian, Fijian and Rotuman form a Central Pacific group. A number of proposals have been made regarding…

  • Rotunda (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: The black-letter, or Gothic, style (9th to 15th century): In Italy rotunda was the favoured book hand through the 15th century. It shares the dense colour of quadrata but not its angularity. Rotunda letters are condensed with sharp curves where the strokes change direction, and the feet of the minims end with an upward curve of…

  • rotunda (architecture)

    Rotunda, in Classical and Neoclassical architecture, building or room within a building that is circular or oval in plan and covered with a dome. The ancestor of the rotunda was the tholus (tholos) of ancient Greece, which was also circular but was usually shaped like a beehive above. An example

  • Rotunda Hospital (hospital, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: City layout: …Street, Bartholomew Mosse constructed his Rotunda Hospital, the “Lying-In,” which remains a maternity hospital to this day. The rotunda itself is now the historic Gate Theatre. Behind the hospital is Parnell (formerly Rutland) Square, laid out in 1750, with many of its original Georgian houses still intact. One of these,…

  • Roty, Oscar (French artist)

    medal: The Baroque period: …Jules-Clément Chaplain (1839–1909) and Louis Oscar Roty (1846–1911).

  • Rou (work by Wace)

    Wace: …de Brut (1155) and the Roman de Rou (1160–74), named respectively after the reputed founders of the Britons and Normans.

  • Rou (duke of Normandy)

    Rollo, Scandinavian rover who founded the duchy of Normandy. According to later Scandinavian sagas, Rollo, making himself independent of King Harald I of Norway, sailed off to raid Scotland, England, Flanders, and France on pirating expeditions. Early in the 10th century, Rollo’s Danish army

  • Rouault, Georges (French artist)

    Georges Rouault, French painter, printmaker, ceramicist, and maker of stained glass who, drawing inspiration from French medieval masters, united religious and secular traditions divorced since the Renaissance. Rouault was born in a cellar in Paris during a bombardment of the city by the forces

  • Rouault, Georges-Henri (French artist)

    Georges Rouault, French painter, printmaker, ceramicist, and maker of stained glass who, drawing inspiration from French medieval masters, united religious and secular traditions divorced since the Renaissance. Rouault was born in a cellar in Paris during a bombardment of the city by the forces

  • Roubaix (France)

    Roubaix, industrial city, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France, just northeast of Lille. It is situated on the Canal de Roubaix in the plain of Flanders near the Belgian frontier and is united in the north with Tourcoing. Roubaix obtained its first manufacturing charter in the

  • Roubaud, Jacques (French author)

    French literature: Postwar poetry: …the “crisis of verse” that Jacques Roubaud described in his study of French versification, La Vieillesse d’Alexandre (1978; “Alexander in Old Age”), remained unresolved.

  • Roubiliac, Louis-Fran?ois (French sculptor)

    Louis-Fran?ois Roubiliac, together with John Michael Rysbrack, one of the most important late Baroque sculptors working in 18th-century England. A native of Lyon, Roubiliac is said to have studied in Dresden with Balthasar Permoser, a sculptor of ivory and porcelain, and in Paris with Nicolas

  • Roubillac, Louis-Fran?ois (French sculptor)

    Louis-Fran?ois Roubiliac, together with John Michael Rysbrack, one of the most important late Baroque sculptors working in 18th-century England. A native of Lyon, Roubiliac is said to have studied in Dresden with Balthasar Permoser, a sculptor of ivory and porcelain, and in Paris with Nicolas

  • Roubini, Nouriel (Turkish-born American economist and educator)

    Nouriel Roubini, Turkish-born American economist and educator who was best known for predicting the 2007–08 subprime mortgage crisis in the United States and the subsequent global financial crisis. Born to Iranian Jewish parents, Roubini moved with his family to Iran and Israel before they settled

  • rouble (currency)

    Ruble, the monetary unit of Russia (and the former Soviet Union) and Belarus (spelled rubel). The origins of the Russian ruble as a designation of silver weight can be traced to the 13th century. In 1704 Tsar Peter I (the Great) introduced the first regular minting of the ruble in silver. During

  • Rouch, Jean (French anthropologist)

    Jean-Luc Godard: Early life and career: …influence on his work of Jean Rouch, an anthropologist who became the first practitioner and theoretician of the documentary-like film style cinéma vérité (“cinema truth”). Filmmakers of this school employ lightweight television equipment to observe their subject with the utmost informality and so completely without preconceived bias that the theme…

  • Rouch, Jean-Pierre (French filmmaker)

    Jean-Pierre Rouch, French documentary filmmaker and ethnologist (born May 31, 1917, Paris, France—died Feb. 18, 2004, northern Niger), pioneered the cinéma vérité style and techniques, notably the use of the hand-held camera. Rouch first went to Africa as a civil engineer in 1941; what he saw t

  • Rouché, Jacques (French director)

    Paris Opéra Ballet: …19th century was arrested by Jacques Rouché, director of the Paris Opéra and the Opéra-Comique from 1914 to 1944. After the successful avant-garde productions of Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes at the Opéra, Rouché engaged the Russian guest artists Michel Fokine, Anna Pavlova, and Bronis?awa Nijinska and in 1930 appointed Serge…

  • Roud, Richard (American writer)

    New York Film Festival: Its organizer, Richard Roud, had been inspired by the success of the London Film Festival, for which he served as program director. Among the inaugural festival’s selections were films by Robert Bresson, Ozu Yasujirō, and Roman Polanski.

  • Rouelle, Hilaire-Marin (French chemist)

    urea: …1773 by the French chemist Hilaire-Marin Rouelle. Its preparation by the German chemist Friedrich W?hler from ammonium cyanate in 1828 was the first generally accepted laboratory synthesis of a naturally occurring organic compound from inorganic materials. Urea is now prepared commercially in vast amounts from liquid ammonia and liquid carbon…

  • Rouen (France)

    Rouen, port city and capital of Seine-Maritime département, Haute-Normandie région, northwestern France. It is located about 78 miles (125 km) northwest of Paris, on the Seine River. Known to the Romans as Rotomagus, the city first became important in the 3rd century ce, when Christianity was

  • Rouen cathedral (cathedral, Rouen, France)

    Rouen: Contemporary city: …and its lack of symmetry, Rouen cathedral is considered one of the finest Gothic churches in France. Damaged during World War II, it has been admirably restored. The immense facade, covered with lacelike stonework, stands between two dissimilar towers, the left dating mostly from the 12th century, and the right…

  • Rouen lilac (plant)

    lilac: The Chinese lilac, or Rouen lilac (S. chinensis), is a thickly branched hybrid, a cross of the Persian and common lilacs.

  • Rouen ware (pottery)

    Rouen ware, faience (tin-glazed earthenware) and porcelain wares that made Rouen, Fr., a major pottery centre. In the 16th century faience was used as an element of architectural decoration and in apothecary jars. A Rouen potter, Edme Poterat, who opened a factory in Rouen in 1647, is credited

  • Rouen, Battle of (French history [1418–1419])

    Battle of Rouen, (31 July 1418–19 January 1419). In his campaigns to capture Normandy during the Hundred Years’ War, Henry V of England besieged and took the city of Rouen. With more than 70,000 inhabitants, it was one of the most important cities in France, and its capture was consequently a major

  • Rouen, Siege of (French history [1418–1419])

    Battle of Rouen, (31 July 1418–19 January 1419). In his campaigns to capture Normandy during the Hundred Years’ War, Henry V of England besieged and took the city of Rouen. With more than 70,000 inhabitants, it was one of the most important cities in France, and its capture was consequently a major

  • Rouen, Treaty of (France-Scotland [1517])

    John Stewart, 2nd duke of Albany: …in 1517 he concluded the Treaty of Rouen, which renewed the alliance between France and Scotland and stipulated that a daughter of Francis I of France should marry James V of Scotland.

  • Rouergue (ancient province, France)

    Rouergue, ancient province of south central France, corresponding to much of the modern départements of Aveyron and Tarn-et-Garonne. It was bounded on the north by Auvergne, on the south and southwest by Languedoc, on the east by Gévaudan and the Cévennes mountains, and on the west by Quercy. It

  • Roufail, Nazeer Gayed (Egyptian religious leader)

    Shenouda III, 117th pope of Alexandria and patriarch of the see of St. Mark. As the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an autocephalous (ecclesiastically independent) church of the Oriental Orthodox communion, Shenouda expanded the church’s membership both in Egypt and abroad while

  • Rouge (film by Kie?lowski [1994])

    Krzysztof Kie?lowski: … (1994; White), and Rouge (1994; Red); respectively, they explored the themes of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The films were released several months apart and, although each can stand on its own, they were designed to be seen as a single entity. One theme, the frailty of human relations, emerged from…

  • rouge (cosmetics)

    cosmetic: Foundations, face powder, and rouge: …colour can be provided with rouge, which is used for highlighting the cheekbones; the more modern version is the blusher, which is used to blend more colour in the face. Small kits of compressed face powder and rouge or blusher are commonly carried by women in their handbags.

  • Rouge et le noir, Le (novel by Stendhal)

    The Red and the Black, novel by Stendhal, published in French in 1830 as Le Rouge et le noir. The novel, set in France during the Second Restoration (1815–30), is a powerful character study of Julien Sorel, an ambitious young man who uses seduction as a tool for advancement. The Red and the Black

  • Rouge et noir (ballet by Massine)

    Léonide Massine: Rouge et noir (1939), set to Dmitry Shostakovich’s First Symphony, had scenery and costumes by Henri Matisse. Nobilissima Visione, St. Francis (1938) had libretto and music by Paul Hindemith and decor by Pavel Tchelichew. Surrealist painter Salvador Dalí designed three major experimental ballets. Because of…

  • Rouge et Noir (card game)

    Trente et Quarante, (French: “Thirty and Forty”, ) (“Red and Black”), French card game played at Monte- Carlo and French and Italian gambling casinos. It is not popular in North America. The name Trente et Quarante is derived from the fact that the winning point always lies between thirty and

  • Rougemont, Denis de (French writer)

    angel and demon: Relationship to views of a tripartite cosmos: A 20th-century French writer, Denis de Rougemont, maintained in his book La Part du Diable (1942; The Devil’s Share) that the Devil and the demonic forces that plague the modern world can be well documented in modern society’s return to barbarism and inhumanity. In the 2nd century ce Clement…

  • Rouges (political party, Canada)

    Liberal Party of Canada: History: …provinces of Quebec and Ontario—“Rouges” (Reds) in the former and Clear Grits in the latter. The looseness and instability of all party formations at the time were especially persistent on what came to be called the Liberal side.

  • Rouget de Lisle, Claude-Joseph (French author)

    Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, author of “La Marseillaise,” the French national anthem. A lowly army officer and only a moderate republican, Rouget de Lisle never wrote anything else of significance. He composed both the words and music of “La Marseillaise” for his comrades in 1792 while stationed

  • Rough and Ready Lot, The (play by Owen)

    Alun Owen: In The Rough and Ready Lot, the four main characters, soldiers of fortune fighting for the independence of South American Indians, all represent opposing views of life. Three extremists—a political revolutionary, a fanatical Roman Catholic, and a “realist”—all eloquently expound their respective positions, but it is…

  • rough endoplasmic reticulum (biology)

    Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), series of connected flattened sacs, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that plays a central role in the synthesis of proteins. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is so named for the appearance of its outer surface,

  • rough ER (biology)

    Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), series of connected flattened sacs, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that plays a central role in the synthesis of proteins. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is so named for the appearance of its outer surface,

  • rough green snake

    green snake: aestivus), often called vine snake, is about 75 cm (23 inches) long.

  • rough joint fir (plant)

    Ephedra: Major species and uses: nevadensis), rough joint fir (E. aspera), and Torrey’s Mormon tea (E. torreyana). The plants have been used by native peoples and pioneers as sources of food and medicinals, and stem fragments of species in the southwestern United States and Mexico are used in a tealike preparation…

  • rough pigweed (plant)

    pigweed: …base of the leafstalks; and rough pigweed, or redroot (A. retroflexus), is a stout plant up to 3 metres (about 10 feet) tall.

  • rough prickly poppy (plant)

    prickly poppy: Rough prickly poppy (Argemone hispida), of the Rocky Mountains, is densely prickled. Common garden species grown as annuals in sunny places are A. grandiflora, with large cup-shaped white or yellow blooms; the crested, or thistle, poppy (A. platyceras), with 6- to 10-cm (2- to 4-inch)…

  • Rough Rider (United States cavalry)

    Rough Rider, in the Spanish-American War, member of a regiment of U.S. cavalry volunteers recruited by Theodore Roosevelt and composed of cowboys, miners, law-enforcement officials, and college athletes, among others. Their colourful and often unorthodox exploits received extensive publicity in the

  • Rough Rider (ride)

    roller coaster: Coney Island amusement park: …high-speed coaster, Drop-the-Dip (later called Rough Riders). These increased levels of danger, however, brought improvements in safety, such as the introduction of lap bars, which kept passengers seated. Prior to lap bars, riders simply held on to seat handles during inversions while being pressed into their seats by the g-forces…

  • Rough Rock Demonstration School (school, Rough Rock, Arizona, United States)

    Native American: Boarding schools: …continuous tribal administration was the Rough Rock Demonstration School in Arizona in 1966, while in Canada the Blue Quills First Nations College in Alberta was the first to achieve that status, in 1971.

  • rough-legged hawk (bird)

    hawk: Two notable rough-legged hawks are the ferruginous hawk (B. regalis)—the largest North American buzzard (up to 63 cm [25 inches] long)—and the rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus) of both the Old and New Worlds.

  • roughage (agriculture)

    feed: Roughages: Pasture grasses and legumes, both native and cultivated, are the most important single source of feed for ruminants such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. During the growing season they furnish most of the feed for these animals at a cost lower than…

  • Roughing It (novel by Twain)

    Roughing It, semiautobiographical novel by Mark Twain, published in 1872. This humorous travel book, based on Twain’s stagecoach journey through the American West and his adventures in the Pacific islands, is full of colourful caricatures of outlandish locals and detailed sketches of frontier life.

  • Roughing It in the Bush; or, Life in Canada (work by Moodie)

    Canadian literature: From settlement to 1900: …harsh, yet at times comical, Roughing It in the Bush (1852) was written to discourage prospective emigrants, but Traill’s Backwoods of Canada (1836) presents a more favourable picture of the New World.

  • roughing plane (tool technology)

    hand tool: Plane: This fore plane had a slightly convex iron that removed saw and adz marks but left hollows that needed to be leveled by straight-iron planing. If the workpiece was long, a long-bodied trying, or jointing, plane having a length of about 76 cm (30 inches) was…

  • Rougon Family Fortune, The (work by Zola)

    émile Zola: Life: La Fortune des Rougon (The Rougon Family Fortune), the first novel in the series, began to appear in serial form in 1870, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Franco-German War in July, and was eventually published in book form in October 1871. Zola went on to produce these…

  • Rougon-Macquart cycle (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle, sequence of 20 novels by émile Zola, published between 1871 and 1893. The cycle, described in a subtitle as The Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, is a documentary of French life as seen through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the

  • Rougon-Macquart, Les (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle, sequence of 20 novels by émile Zola, published between 1871 and 1893. The cycle, described in a subtitle as The Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, is a documentary of French life as seen through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the

  • Rougon-Macquart: histoire naturelle et sociale d’une famille sous le second Empire, Les (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle, sequence of 20 novels by émile Zola, published between 1871 and 1893. The cycle, described in a subtitle as The Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, is a documentary of French life as seen through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the

  • Rougon-Macquart: Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, The (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle, sequence of 20 novels by émile Zola, published between 1871 and 1893. The cycle, described in a subtitle as The Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, is a documentary of French life as seen through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the

  • Rougon-Macquart: Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, The (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle, sequence of 20 novels by émile Zola, published between 1871 and 1893. The cycle, described in a subtitle as The Natural and Social History of a Family Under the Second Empire, is a documentary of French life as seen through the lives of the violent Rougon family and the

  • Rouhani, Hassan (president of Iran)

    Hassan Rouhani, Iranian politician and cleric who became president of Iran in 2013. Hassan Feridon grew up in Sorkheh, a small town in Semnān province. He began attending a seminary in Semnān province in the 1960s before traveling to Qom to complete his clerical training. He also studied at the

  • Rouher, Eugène (French statesman)

    Eugène Rouher, French statesman who was highly influential as a conservative minister under the Second Empire and as a leader of the Bonapartist party under the Third Republic. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1848, and his conservative attitudes and fear of disorder led him to support

  • rouille (food)

    bouillabaisse: Rouille, a paste of garlic, red pepper, bread crumbs, and fish stock, is added at table as a condiment to heighten the flavour. Bouillabaisse has inspired literary praise in verse and prose, notably a ballad by William Makepeace Thackeray on his enjoying a bouillabaisse in…

  • Roulers (Belgium)

    Roeselare, municipality, Flanders Region, western Belgium, lying on the Mandel River, south of Brugge (Bruges). An important linen market since the Middle Ages, it was the scene of a French victory over the Austrians (1794) during the French Revolutionary Wars. The canal (1872) to the Leie (Lys)

  • roulette (engraving tool)

    Ludwig von Siegen: …which he used a small roulette, a tool with a fine-toothed wheel. Seven known rouletted mezzotint plates by Siegen survive.

  • roulette (gambling game)

    Roulette, (from French: “small wheel”), gambling game in which players bet on which red or black numbered compartment of a revolving wheel a small ball (spun in the opposite direction) will come to rest within. Bets are placed on a table marked to correspond with the compartments of the wheel. It

  • roulroul (bird)

    partridge: The crested wood partridge, or roulroul (Rollulus roulroul), of Malaysia has an iridescent blue-green body, red feet and eye region, and crimson crest.

  • Roumanian Diary, A (work by Carossa)

    Hans Carossa: Rum?nisches Tagebuch (1924; A Roumanian Diary; republished in 1934 as Tagebuch im Kriege, “War Diary”) is an evaluation of Carossa’s observations as an army doctor in Romania during World War I and a probe into the deeper mysteries of life; it was the first of his books to…

  • Roumanille, Joseph (French poet)

    Joseph Roumanille, Proven?al poet and teacher, a founder and leader of the Félibrige, a movement dedicated to the restoration and maintenance of Proven?al language, literature, and customs. Félibrige stimulated the renaissance of the language and customs of the whole of southern France. While

  • Roume, Philippe (French colonial governor)

    Toussaint Louverture: Elimination of rivals: Succeeding Hédouville was Philippe Roume, who deferred to the black governor. Then a bloody campaign in 1799 eliminated another potential rival to Toussaint by driving Rigaud out and destroying his mulatto state. A purge that was carried out by Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the south was so brutal that…

Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载