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  • round (boxing)

    boxing: … range from 3 to 12 rounds, each round normally lasting three minutes.

  • round (music)

    Round, in music, a polyphonic vocal composition in which three or four voices follow each other around in a perpetual canon at the unison or octave. The catch is a particular type of

  • round (archery)

    archery: Competition: A round is a target-shooting competitive event in which a specified number of arrows are shot at a specified distance, and scoring is done after the round or rounds. Principal kinds of rounds include the American round, Hereford round, National round, and York round. FITA round…

  • round (economic conference)

    international trade: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: …WTO, multilateral trade conferences, called rounds, were held periodically by GATT countries to resolve trade problems. Most of these took place in Geneva, former site of GATT headquarters and current site of the WTO. At the time, the formula for multilateral tariff bargaining under GATT represented a major innovation in…

  • round character (literature)

    flat and round characters: round characters, characters as described by the course of their development in a work of literature. Flat characters are two-dimensional in that they are relatively uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a work. By contrast, round characters are complex and undergo development,…

  • Round City, the (national capital, Iraq)

    Baghdad, city, capital of Iraq and capital of Baghdad governorate, central Iraq. Its location, on the Tigris River about 330 miles (530 km) from the headwaters of the Persian Gulf, is in the heart of ancient Mesopotamia. Baghdad is Iraq’s largest city and one of the most populous urban

  • round dance (dance)

    country dance: …in three characteristic formations: (1) circular, for an indefinite number of couples (“round” dances), (2) “longways” set, double-file line for an indefinite number of couples, men on one side, women on the other, and (3) geometric formations (e.g., squares, triangles) or sets, usually for two, three, or four couples. The…

  • round fungus beetle (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Leiodidae (mammal-nest beetles, round fungus beetles, small carrion beetles) Small, shiny. wingless; feed on eggs and young of small arthropods in small-mammal nests; widely distributed; habitats vary (caves, fungi, mammal nests). Family Ptiliidae (feather-winged beetles) Among the smallest beetles;

  • round hand script (calligraphy)

    Round hand script, in calligraphy, the dominant style among 18th-century English writing masters, whose copybooks were splendidly printed from models engraved on metal. The alphabet was fundamentally uncomplicated; letters sloped 35 to 40 degrees to the right, and thick lines were produced on the

  • Round Heads (prehistoric art style)

    Tassili-n-Ajjer: …the earliest, known as the Round Heads (thus describing their typical human forms), are followed by naturalistic “Bovidian” paintings, which show numerous pastoral scenes with cattle and herdsmen with bows. The next phase is characterized by the more-schematic figures of the so-called Horse and Camel periods, made when the wheel…

  • Round Hill School (gymnasium, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States)

    physical culture: Humanism and national revivals: …founded the first American gymnasium, Round Hill School, in Northampton, Massachusetts, and hired German immigrant Charles Beck to teach calisthenics. But the true pioneer was George Barker Windship, a Harvard Medical School graduate (1857) who incorporated apparatus and heavy-lifting movements into an exercise regimen designed to promote the ideal of…

  • Round House, The (novel by Erdrich)

    Louise Erdrich: The Round House (2012), in which an Ojibwa teenager seeks justice after his mother is raped, won the National Book Award. LaRose (2016) investigates tragedy, grief, and Ojibwa tradition through the story of a boy whose parents give him to their neighbour’s family after his…

  • round kumquat (fruit)

    kumquat: The round, or Marumi, kumquat is F. japonica; it is indigenous to Japan and has orangelike fruits that are about 2.5 cm in diameter. The egg-shaped Meiwa kumquat (F. crassifolia), in which both the pulp and the rind of the fruit are sweet, is widely grown…

  • ’Round Midnight (film by Tavernier [1986])

    Dexter Gordon: …saxophonist in the 1986 film Round Midnight won him an Academy Award nomination; he also appeared in the film Awakenings (1990).

  • Round Mound of Rebound (American basketball player)

    Charles Barkley, American professional basketball player and television personality whose larger-than-life character made him one of the most popular figures in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. Over the course of his 16-year NBA career, he became the fourth player to amass 20,000

  • Round Mountain (mountain, New South Wales, Australia)

    New England Range: The loftiest point is at Round Mountain (5,300 ft) on the eastern escarpment. The New England Range is generally wooded and is the source of many rivers, including the Richmond, Macleay, Clarence, Gwydir, Namoi, and Macintyre. The numerous river valleys are fertile and intensively cultivated with mixed crops, fruits, and…

  • round net

    commercial fishing: Seines: The seine net has very long wings and towing warps (tow lines), with or without bags for the catch. With purse seines, pelagic fish are surrounded not only from the side but also from underneath, preventing them from escaping by diving downward. Purse seines can be…

  • round robin tournament (sports and games event)

    tournament: …a third form, called a round robin, each contestant opposes every other contestant and the one with the highest percentage of victories is declared the champion.

  • round seizing (knot)

    seizing: …and more common method is round seizing.

  • round stingray (fish)

    stingray: The urolophid, or round stingrays, are considerably smaller, the largest attaining a length of about 75 cm. Round stingrays have relatively short tails and well-developed tail fins. They are found in the Pacific and western Atlantic.

  • Round Table (British periodical)

    George Geoffrey Dawson: …connected with the quarterly magazine Round Table, which sought to influence national policies through intimate and private exchanges with leading statesmen; he saw himself as the “secretary-general of the Establishment.” A firm believer in appeasement (see international relations), he became, both through The Times and in personal relations with ministers,…

  • Round Table (Arthurian legend)

    Round Table, in Arthurian legend, the table of Arthur, Britain’s legendary king, which was first mentioned in Wace of Jersey’s Roman de Brut (1155). This told of King Arthur’s having a round table made so that none of his barons, when seated at it, could claim precedence over the others. The

  • Round Table Conference (British-Indian history)

    Round Table Conference, (1930–32), in Indian history, a series of meetings in three sessions called by the British government to consider the future constitution of India. The conference resulted from a review of the Government of India Act of 1919, undertaken in 1927 by the Simon Commission, whose

  • Round Table Conference Agreement (Netherlands-Indonesia [1949])

    Hague Agreement, treaty ratified on Nov. 2, 1949, between the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia, that attempted to bring to an end the Dutch-Indonesian conflict that followed the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945. After prolonged disagreement over its provisions, the treaty

  • Round Table, The (literary group)

    Algonquin Round Table, informal group of American literary men and women who met daily for lunch on weekdays at a large round table in the Algonquin Hotel in New York City during the 1920s and ’30s. The Algonquin Round Table began meeting in 1919, and within a few years its participants included m

  • round the clock (dart game)

    darts: …an inner bull’s-eye; and “round the clock,” a singles game for any number of players, which requires that, after a starting double, each player must throw one dart into each of the sectors, in order, from 1 to 20.

  • round whitefish (fish)

    whitefish: The round whitefishes (Prosopium) are the best sport fishes of the family. The Rocky Mountain whitefish (P. williamsoni) attains a weight of approximately 3 kg (6.6 pounds) and is often found in trout streams.

  • round window (anatomy)

    human ear: Function of the ossicular chain: If the oval and round windows were exposed equally to airborne sound crossing the middle ear, the vibrations in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli would be opposed by those in the perilymph of the scala tympani, and little effective movement of the basilar membrane would result. As it…

  • Round, Henry Joseph (British engineer and inventor)

    Henry Joseph Round, English electronics engineer whose numerous inventions contributed to the development of radio communications. Round worked with Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd., from 1902 to 1914, first in the United States, where he improved the tuning components of radio receivers

  • round-arm bowling (sports)

    cricket: Technical development: Next came “the round-arm revolution,” in which many bowlers began raising the point at which they released the ball. Controversy raged furiously, and in 1835 the MCC rephrased the law to allow the hand to be raised as high as the shoulder. The new style led to a…

  • round-eared sengis (mammal)

    elephant shrew: …elephant shrews (genus Elephantulus), the round-eared sengis (Macroscelides proboscideus, M. flavicaudatus, and M. micus), and the four-toed elephant shrew (Petrodromus tetradactylus); those three genera are classified together in a subfamily separate from Rhynchocyon. Macroscelididae is the only family in the order Macroscelidea. There are eight extinct genera, some of which…

  • round-headed rampion (plant)

    rampion: Round-headed rampion (P. oribiculare) produces deep-blue heads of 15 to 30 flowers that sit on a circle of bractlike leaves atop a stem about 45 cm (1.5 feet) tall. Stem leaves are unstalked and narrow; basal leaves are long-stalked and oval and arise from a…

  • round-leaved wintergreen (plant)

    wintergreen: The flowers of round-leaved wintergreen (P. americana) are white, with widely spread petals.

  • round-off error (mathematics)

    error: In numerical analysis, round-off error is exemplified by the difference between the true value of the irrational number π and the value of rational expressions such as 22/7, 355/113, 3.14, or 3.14159. Truncation error results from ignoring all but a finite number of terms of an infinite series.…

  • round-tailed muskrat (rodent)

    muskrat: The Florida water rat (Neofiber alleni) is sometimes called the round-tailed muskrat. It resembles a small muskrat (up to 38 cm in total length), but its tail is round rather than flat. This animal is less aquatic than Ondatra and lives in the grassy marshes and…

  • roundel (heraldry)

    heraldry: The charges on the field: Some count the roundel as a subordinary, while others consign it to the “others” category as a simple charge.

  • roundelay (poetry)

    Roundelay, a poem with a refrain that recurs frequently or at fixed intervals, as in a rondel. The term is also loosely used to refer to any of the fixed forms of poetry (such as the rondeau, the rondel, and the roundel) that use refrains

  • rounder (baking device)

    baking: Rounding: The rounder closes these cut surfaces, giving each dough piece a smooth and dry exterior; forms a relatively thick and continuous skin around the dough piece, reorienting the gluten structure; and shapes the dough into a ball for easier handling in subsequent steps. It performs these…

  • rounders (English game)

    Rounders, old English game that never became a seriously competitive sport, although it is probably an ancestor of baseball. The earliest reference to rounders was made in A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744), in which a woodcut also showed the children’s sport of baseball. The Boy’s Own Book (2nd

  • Roundhead (English history)

    Roundhead, adherent of the Parliamentary Party during the English Civil War (1642–51) and after. Many Puritans wore their hair closely cropped in obvious contrast to the long ringlets fashionable at the court of Charles I. Roundhead appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the

  • rounding (gem cutting)

    brilliant cut: …of which are above the girdle (the widest part of the stone) and 25 of which are below. When the stone is cut so that the facets of the crown (above the girdle) make an angle of 35° to the plane of the girdle and those of the pavilion (below…

  • rounding (speech)

    Rounding, in phonetics, the production of a sound with the lips rounded. Vowels, semivowels, and some consonants may be rounded. In English, examples of rounded vowels are o in “note,” oo in “look,” and the u sound in “rule” and “boot”; w in “well” is an example of a rounded semivowel. Unrounding i

  • rounding error (mathematics)

    error: In numerical analysis, round-off error is exemplified by the difference between the true value of the irrational number π and the value of rational expressions such as 22/7, 355/113, 3.14, or 3.14159. Truncation error results from ignoring all but a finite number of terms of an infinite series.…

  • roundleaf bat (mammal family)

    Hipposiderinae, subfamily of insect-eating bats, suborder Microchiroptera, family Rhinolophidae, with 9 genera and approximately 66 species. Known as roundleaf bats, hipposiderine bats are characterized by a round nose leaf (fleshy appendage on the muzzle), consisting of an anterior

  • roundleaf sundew (plant)

    sundew: …and west European sundew, the roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), has small white or pinkish flowers 1.25 cm (0.5 inch) across or less and bears round, flat leaves with purplish hairs on a long fuzzy stalk. The Cape sundew (D. capensis) features long, narrow leaves with red-tipped glands and is commonly…

  • roundlet (clothing)

    dress: Medieval Europe: …so a padded roll evolved—the roundlet—with the separate shoulder cape sewn in place to one side and the liripipe to the other. Toward the end of the century, various styles of tall or broad-brimmed hats, decorated by coloured plumes, replaced the hood.

  • roundness (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Particle shape: …properties determine particle shape: form, roundness, and surface texture. Particle form is the overall shape of particles, typically defined in terms of the relative lengths of the longest, shortest, and intermediate axes. Particles can be spherical, prismatic, or bladelike. Roundness or angularity is a measure of the smoothness of particles.…

  • roundness trope (philosophy)

    universal: Trope nominalism: …trope” and a particular “roundness trope.” According to a trope metaphysics, things are red in virtue of having redness tropes as parts, round in virtue of having roundness tropes as parts, and so on. Such tropes are “abstract particulars”: the shape trope, for example, is not coloured (it has…

  • Rounds (novel by Busch)

    Frederick Busch: The same characters reappear in Rounds (1979), in which their lives are intertwined with those of a doctor and a psychologist. Domestic Particulars: A Family Chronicle (1976), a collection of interlinked short stories, catalogs in vivid detail the everyday lives of people caught up in often futile attempts to express…

  • Rounds, Marion Michael (United States senator)

    Mike Rounds, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 2014 and began representing South Dakota the following year. He previously served as governor of the state (2003–11). Rounds, who was the oldest of 11 children, was named after an uncle who had died during World

  • Rounds, Mike (United States senator)

    Mike Rounds, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 2014 and began representing South Dakota the following year. He previously served as governor of the state (2003–11). Rounds, who was the oldest of 11 children, was named after an uncle who had died during World

  • Roundup (herbicide)

    Monsanto: …claiming that its weed killer Roundup, which contained glyphosate, caused cancer. Against this backdrop, in 2016 Bayer, a German chemical and pharmaceutical company, announced that it was purchasing Monsanto in a deal valued at more than $60 billion. In 2018 the acquisition was finalized, and shortly thereafter the first Roundup…

  • Roundup (United States military strategy)

    World War II: Allied strategy and controversies, 1940–42: …in the autumn; then “Roundup,” an invasion of France by 30 U.S. and 18 British divisions, could follow in April 1943. The British agreed but soon began to doubt the practicability of mounting an amphibious invasion of France at such an early date.

  • roundwood product

    wood: Roundwood products: Poles, posts, and certain mine timbers are products in round form. Poles are used in supporting telegraph and telephone lines and as pilings (foundations for wharves and buildings); posts are used in fences, highway guards, and various supports. As a rule, roundwood products…

  • roundworm (animal)

    Nematode, any worm of the phylum Nematoda. Nematodes are among the most abundant animals on Earth. They occur as parasites in animals and plants or as free-living forms in soil, fresh water, marine environments, and even such unusual places as vinegar, beer malts, and water-filled cracks deep

  • roundworm (nematode species, Ascaris lumbricoides)

    ascariasis: …intestinal roundworms of the genus Ascaris. In humans, ascariasis typically is caused by A. lumbricoides; the large roundworm of pigs, A. suum, can also cause illness in humans. Although persons infected with Ascaris worms often are asymptomatic, heavy infestation can cause severe complications, particularly in children, who may experience malnutrition,…

  • Rouran (people)

    Juan-juan, Central Asian people of historical importance. Because of the titles of their rulers, khan and khagan, scholars believe that the Juan-juan were Mongols or Mongol-speaking peoples. The empire of the Juan-juan lasted from the beginning of the 5th century ad to the middle of the 6th

  • Rourea glabra (plant)

    Connaraceae: The bark of R. glabra, when used in tanning, produces a bright purple colour in animal skins.

  • Rourea volubilis (plant)

    Connaraceae: , Rourea volubilis, R. glabra, and Cnestis polyphylla). Others have properties that make them useful as folk medicines—e.g., to induce vomiting (Aglaea emetica leaves, in Madagascar), as a dysentery treatment (A. villosa leaves, in West Africa), and as an agent against gonorrhea (A. lamarckii leaves, in…

  • Rourke, Andy (British musician)

    the Smiths: October 31, 1963, Manchester), bassist Andy Rourke (b. 1963, Manchester), and drummer Mike Joyce (b. June 1, 1963, Manchester).

  • Rourke, Constance Mayfield (American historian)

    Constance Mayfield Rourke, U.S. historian who pioneered in the study of American character and culture. After earning an A.B. from Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., (1907) and studying at the Sorbonne in Paris, Rourke taught English at Vassar. In 1915 she resigned, thereafter working as a

  • Rourke, Mickey (American actor)

    Stuart Rosenberg: Last films: Mickey Rourke gave a strong performance as a small-timer who aspires to greater things, and Eric Roberts was typically over-the-top as his hopelessly ill-fated cousin.

  • Rous sarcoma virus (retrovirus)

    cancer: Retroviruses and the discovery of oncogenes: …acutely transforming retrovirus, called the Rous sarcoma virus, could transform normal cells into abnormally proliferating cells, but they did not know how that happened until 1970. In that year researchers working with mutant forms of Rous sarcoma virus—i.e., nontransforming forms of the virus that did not cause tumours—found that the…

  • Rous, Elizabeth Leslie (Anglo-American minister and social reformer)

    Elizabeth Leslie Rous Comstock, Anglo-American Quaker minister and social reformer, an articulate abolitionist and an influential worker for social welfare who helped adjust the perspective of the Society of Friends to the changes wrought by the urban-industrial age. Elizabeth Rous was educated in

  • Rous, Francis Peyton (American pathologist)

    Peyton Rous, American pathologist whose discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966. Rous was educated at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and at the University of Michigan. He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical

  • Rous, Peyton (American pathologist)

    Peyton Rous, American pathologist whose discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966. Rous was educated at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and at the University of Michigan. He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical

  • Rouse, James Wilson (American real-estate developer)

    James Wilson Rouse, U.S. real-estate developer (born April 26, 1914, Easton, Md.—died April 9, 1996, Columbia, Md.), altered the U.S. landscape during the second half of the 20th century with a series of innovative projects. He pioneered the enclosed suburban shopping mall in the 1950s, created t

  • rousette bat (mammal)

    bat: Orientation: Rousette bats (megachiropteran genus Rousettus) have independently evolved a parallel echolocation system for obstacle avoidance alone. Echolocation pulses are produced by vibrating membranes in the larynx and emitted via the nose or the mouth, depending upon species. Nose leaves in some species may serve to…

  • Rousettus (mammal)

    bat: Orientation: Rousette bats (megachiropteran genus Rousettus) have independently evolved a parallel echolocation system for obstacle avoidance alone. Echolocation pulses are produced by vibrating membranes in the larynx and emitted via the nose or the mouth, depending upon species. Nose leaves in some species may serve to…

  • Rousettus aegyptiacus (bat species)

    filovirus: …the Old World fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus, which lives in areas throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This species is suspected to serve as a reservoir for the virus and may be responsible for outbreaks of Marburg disease in humans.

  • Rousey, Ronda (American mixed martial artist)

    mixed martial arts: Notable champions: …female MMA fighter was American Ronda Rousey, who won a bronze medal in judo at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing before embarking on her MMA career in 2011. She remained undefeated until 2015, when she suffered an upset loss to countrywoman Holly Holm in UFC 193. The bout generated…

  • Rousey, Ronda Jean (American mixed martial artist)

    mixed martial arts: Notable champions: …female MMA fighter was American Ronda Rousey, who won a bronze medal in judo at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing before embarking on her MMA career in 2011. She remained undefeated until 2015, when she suffered an upset loss to countrywoman Holly Holm in UFC 193. The bout generated…

  • Roussanou (monastery, Thessaly, Greece)

    Metéora: …called All Saints [áyioi Pándes]), Roussanou, St. Nikolas (áyios Nikolaos), Holy Trinity (áyia Triada), and St. Stephen (áyios Stéfanos). Some still serve a religious function, though they are now only sparsely populated by monks and nuns. Since the construction of paved roads through the area in the 1960s, it has…

  • Roussé (Bulgaria)

    Ruse, city of northern Bulgaria, on the Danube River near the mouth of the Rusenski Lom. Bulgaria’s principal river port and a transportation hub for road and rail, Ruse has regular shipping services on the Danube and an airport. Upstream is the Friendship Bridge, built in 1954, carrying road and

  • Rousseaceae (plant family)

    Asterales: Other families: Rousseaceae has four genera and 13 species of small trees and shrubs located primarily in eastern Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and Mauritius. Members of Pentaphragmataceae are found from Southeast Asia to New Guinea and constitute a single genus of 30 species of herbs. Alseuosmiaceae…

  • Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques (work by Rousseau)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The last decade: He also wrote Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques (1780; Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques) to reply to specific charges by his enemies and Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire (1782; Reveries of the Solitary Walker), one of the most moving of his books, in which the intense passion of his earlier…

  • Rousseau, Eugène (French glass designer)

    glassware: France: The second was Eugène Rousseau, a commissioning dealer in ceramics who had turned to glasswork at the end of the 1860s and was at the height of his achievement in the years c. 1880. Typically his glasses were thick walled and translucid, often with interior crackling and shot…

  • Rousseau, Henri (French painter)

    Henri Rousseau, French painter who is considered the archetype of the modern naive artist. He is known for his richly coloured and meticulously detailed pictures of lush jungles, wild beasts, and exotic figures. After exhibiting with the Fauves in 1905, he gained the admiration of avant-garde

  • Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste (French author)

    Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French dramatist and poet who enjoyed great popularity in the witty and decadent Parisian society of his day. The son of a poor shoemaker, Rousseau as a young man showed a talent for satiric verse. He later attempted to produce several of his plays, becoming involved in a

  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (Swiss-born French philosopher)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Swiss-born philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation. Rousseau was the least academic of modern philosophers and in many ways was the most influential. His thought marked

  • Rousseau, Lauren (American educator)

    Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: The shootings at Sandy Hook: …entered the classroom of teacher Lauren Rousseau and killed her and 14 children. He then went to a second classroom, where first-grade teacher Victoria Soto had hidden her students in a closet. She attempted to misdirect Lanza by telling him that her class was in the school’s auditorium on the…

  • Rousseau, Pierre-étienne-Théodore (French artist)

    Théodore Rousseau, French painter who was a leader of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. His direct observation of nature made him an important figure in the development of landscape painting. Rousseau, the son of a tailor, began to paint at age 14. In the 1820s he began to paint

  • Rousseau, Théodore (French artist)

    Théodore Rousseau, French painter who was a leader of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. His direct observation of nature made him an important figure in the development of landscape painting. Rousseau, the son of a tailor, began to paint at age 14. In the 1820s he began to paint

  • Rousseff, Dilma (president of Brazil)

    Dilma Rousseff, Brazilian politician who in 2011 became Brazil’s first female president. She was reelected in 2014 but impeached and removed from office in 2016. Rousseff was raised in an upper-middle-class household. Her father was a lawyer who immigrated to Brazil from Bulgaria, and her mother

  • Rousseff, Dilma Vana (president of Brazil)

    Dilma Rousseff, Brazilian politician who in 2011 became Brazil’s first female president. She was reelected in 2014 but impeached and removed from office in 2016. Rousseff was raised in an upper-middle-class household. Her father was a lawyer who immigrated to Brazil from Bulgaria, and her mother

  • Roussel, Albert-Charles-Paul-Marie (French composer)

    Albert Roussel, French composer who wrote in various styles and whose music is notable for its lyrical fervour, austerity of technique, and harmonic audacity. Roussel joined the French navy at the age of 18 and made several journeys to Southeast Asia, the exotic impressions of which he recalled in

  • Roussel, Gérard (French mystic)

    France: The age of the Reformation: …bishop of Meaux; the mystic Gérard Roussel; and Margaret of Angoulême, the king’s own sister. Although this circle was dispersed in 1525, Lutheranism had already established itself, especially in such trading centres as Lyon, where it found support among the poorer classes. The progress of the Reformation in France depended…

  • Rousselot, Jean-Pierre (French linguist)

    speech disorder: Development of speech correction: …experimental phonetics was developed by Jean-Pierre Rousselot in Paris, who promptly recognized the great contributions that experimental phonetics could make to the study of normal and disturbed speech. This close collaboration of medical speech pathology with experimental phonetics has remained typical for the European continent where speech correction is customarily…

  • Rousselot, Philippe (French cinematographer)
  • Roussillon (region, France)

    Roussillon, historical and cultural region encompassing the southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales and coextensive with the former province of Roussillon. Its chief city has always been Perpignan. Ruscino (near Perpignan) was settled by a people with markedly Iberian affinities from

  • Roussimoff, André René (French professional wrestler and actor)

    Shepard Fairey: …wrestler André René Roussimoff, captioned Andre the Giant Has a Posse. He gained national attention and sold more than one million copies of another sticker with a refined version of the portrait and the single word Obey. A documentary short, André the Giant Has a Posse (1997; directed by Helen…

  • Roussos, Artemios Ventouris (Greek singer)

    Demis Roussos, (Artemios Ventouris Roussos), Greek singer (born June 15, 1946, Alexandria, Egypt—died Jan. 25, 2015, Athens, Greece), possessed a soaring and heartfelt tenor voice that made him a popular star throughout much of western Europe in the 1960s and ’70s, both as the vocalist for the

  • Roussos, Demis (Greek singer)

    Demis Roussos, (Artemios Ventouris Roussos), Greek singer (born June 15, 1946, Alexandria, Egypt—died Jan. 25, 2015, Athens, Greece), possessed a soaring and heartfelt tenor voice that made him a popular star throughout much of western Europe in the 1960s and ’70s, both as the vocalist for the

  • Roussy, Anne-Louis Girodet de (French painter)

    Anne-Louis Girodet, painter whose works exemplify the first phase of Romanticism in French art. Girodet began to study drawing in 1773. He later became a student of the Neoclassical architect étienne-Louis Boullée, with whose encouragement he joined the studio of Jacques-Louis David in late 1783 or

  • Roustchouk (Bulgaria)

    Ruse, city of northern Bulgaria, on the Danube River near the mouth of the Rusenski Lom. Bulgaria’s principal river port and a transportation hub for road and rail, Ruse has regular shipping services on the Danube and an airport. Upstream is the Friendship Bridge, built in 1954, carrying road and

  • route (travel)

    railroad: Interlocking and routing: …a clear signal for one route when clearance has already been given to a train on a conflicting route. Route-setting or route-interlocking systems are modern extensions of this principle. With them the signaling operator or dispatcher can set up a complete route through a complicated track area by simply pushing…

  • Route 66 (highway, United States)

    Route 66, one of the first national highways for motor vehicles in the United States and one that became an icon in American popular culture. The system of major interstate routes—12 odd-numbered ones, running generally north-south, and 10 even-numbered ones, running generally east-west—was laid

  • Route 66 (song by Troup)

    Route 66: Rise and demise of the route: …artists in subsequent years, “Route 66” invited the listener to “get your kicks” on that very road. From 1960 to 1964 a television series of the same name featured two adventurers who cruised the highway in a Chevrolet Corvette sports car. At the same time, the rapid expansion in…

  • Route 66 (television program)

    Richard Donner: Early work: …Wanted: Dead or Alive and Route 66. In 1961 he directed his first feature film, a Cold War drama called X-15, which starred one of the cinema’s least likely couples, Charles Bronson and Mary Tyler Moore. Donner then returned to television, and his credits during this time included Twilight Zone,…

  • route cipher (cryptology)

    cryptology: Transposition ciphers: …of transposition ciphers, known as route ciphers, that enjoyed considerable popularity in the early history of cryptology. In general, the elements of the plaintext (usually single letters) are written in a prearranged order (route) into a geometric array (matrix)—typically a rectangle—agreed upon in advance by the transmitter and receiver and…

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