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  • ruby silver (mineral)

    Proustite, a sulfosalt mineral, silver arsenic sulfide (Ag3AsS3), that is an important source of silver. Sometimes called ruby silver because of its scarlet-vermilion colour, it occurs in the upper portions of most silver veins, where it is less common than pyrargyrite. Large, magnificent

  • ruby spinel (mineral)

    Ruby spinel, natural or synthetic gem-quality spinel (q.v.; magnesium aluminum oxide) that resembles ruby. The two natural gems are generally found together in gem gravels, to the extent that spinel has been called “mother of ruby.” Many historic rubies were probably spinels; the Timur Ruby in the

  • Ruby, Don’t Take Your Love to Town (song by Tillis)

    Kenny Rogers: …My Condition Was In),” “Ruby, Don’t Take Your Love to Town” (written by Mel Tillis), “Reuben James,” and “Something’s Burning.” The band also hosted Rollin’ on the River (1971–73), a variety show that took place on a Mississippi riverboat set and featured guests such as musicians Kris Kristofferson, B.B.…

  • Ruby, Jack (American assassin)

    Jack Ruby, American nightclub owner who killed Lee Harvey Oswald, the suspected assassin of Pres. John F. Kennedy, on November 24, 1963, as Oswald was being transferred to a county jail. Despite Ruby’s claims to the contrary—and a lack of evidence—some have posited that he was part of a larger

  • Ruby, Jack L. (American assassin)

    Jack Ruby, American nightclub owner who killed Lee Harvey Oswald, the suspected assassin of Pres. John F. Kennedy, on November 24, 1963, as Oswald was being transferred to a county jail. Despite Ruby’s claims to the contrary—and a lack of evidence—some have posited that he was part of a larger

  • Ruby, Karine (French snowboarder)

    Karine Ruby, French snowboarder (born Jan. 4, 1978, Bonneville, France—died May 29, 2009, Chamonix, France), was the most decorated female snowboarder in the world, with two Olympic medals, six Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) world championship gold medals, and 67 FIS Snowboard World Cup

  • ruby-crowned kinglet (bird)

    kinglet: In the ruby-crowned kinglet (R. calendula) of North America, the crown mark is a mere tick of red, appearing on the male only and usually concealed.

  • ruby-tailed wasp (insect)

    Cuckoo wasp, any member of the insect family Chrysididae (Chrysalidae) of the order Hymenoptera. The family is large, common, and widely distributed. More than 1,000 species of the genus Chrysis alone have been described. Most cuckoo wasps are small, seldom exceeding 1.2 cm (about 0.5 inch) in l

  • ruby-throated hummingbird (bird)

    hummingbird: Only the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) breeds in eastern North America, where it is found from Nova Scotia to Florida. The northernmost hummingbird is the rufous (Selasphorus rufus), which breeds from southeastern Alaska to northern California. The broad-tailed hummingbird (S. platycercus) breeds in the western United States…

  • Rubyfruit Jungle (work by Brown)

    American literature: New fictional modes: …who explored lesbian life in Rubyfruit Jungle (1973). Other significant works of fiction by women in the 1970s included Ann Beattie’s account of the post-1960s generation in Chilly Scenes of Winter (1976) and many short stories, Gail Godwin’s highly civilized The Odd Woman (1974), Mary Gordon’s portraits of

  • Rub? al-Khali (desert, Arabia)

    Rub? al-Khali, (Arabic: “Empty Quarter”) vast desert region in the southern Arabian Peninsula, constituting the largest portion of the Arabian Desert. It covers an area of about 250,000 square miles (650,000 square km) in a structural basin lying mainly in southeastern Saudi Arabia, with lesser

  • RUC (Northern Ireland police)

    Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), state police force in Northern Ireland, established in 1922. The RUC had a paramilitary character until 1970, when the force was remodeled along the lines of police forces in Great Britain. In 1970 the security of Northern Ireland became the responsibility of the

  • Rucelinus (French philosopher and theologian)

    Roscelin, French philosopher and theologian known as the originator of an extreme form of nominalism holding that universals are nothing more than verbal expressions. His only extant work seems to be a letter to the French philosopher Peter Abelard, who studied under him at Besan?on; the little

  • Rucellai, Giovanni (Italian merchant and banker)

    Florence: The early period: …chiefly Cosimo de’ Medici and Giovanni Rucellai in the 15th century, were able to shape civic politics and culture through a system of oligarchy and patronage. They underwrote the accomplishments that are now singled out with the term “Renaissance,” and their palaces came to dominate the city as fully as…

  • Rucellai, Giovanni (Italian author)

    blank verse: …poem Le api (1539) by Giovanni Rucellai. Rucellai was the first to use the term versi sciolti, which became translated into English as “blank verse.” It soon became the standard metre of Italian Renaissance drama, used in such major works as the comedies of Ludovico Ariosto, L’Aminta of Torquato Tasso,…

  • Rucellai, Palazzo (palace, Florence, Italy)

    Palazzo Rucellai, early Renaissance palace in Florence, designed c. 1445–70 by Leon Battista Alberti for the Rucellai, a wealthy Tuscan mercantile family. Alberti’s overriding concern with balance and proportion is evident in his symmetrical treatment of the palace’s facade. The use of the three

  • Ruch Autonomii ?l?ska (European history)

    Silesia: …by the founding of the Silesian Autonomy Movement (Ruch Autonomii ?l?ska) in 1990 and the Union of People of Silesian Nationality (Zwi?zek Ludno?ci Narodowo?ci ?l?skiej) in 1996. Central to the controversial assertion of Silesian nationality were conflicting linguistic interpretations: some scholars (and Silesian nationalists) argued that Silesian was a language…

  • Ruche, La (artists’ colony, France)

    The Beehive, artists’ settlement on the outskirts of the Montparnasse section of Paris, which in the early 20th century was the centre of much avant-garde activity. The Beehive housed the ramshackle living quarters and studios of many painters and sculptors, among them Marc Chagall, Fernand Léger,

  • Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomet 2 (weapon)

    small arm: Antitank weapons: …Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomet 2 (RPG-2), a “Light Antitank Grenade Launcher” featuring a reusable launcher that lobbed an 82-mm shaped-charge warhead more than 150 yards. After 1962, with their RPG-7, they combined recoilless launch with a rocket sustainer to deliver a 5-pound (2-kg) warhead to targets beyond 500 yards. The…

  • Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomet 7 (weapon)

    small arm: Antitank weapons: After 1962, with their RPG-7, they combined recoilless launch with a rocket sustainer to deliver a 5-pound (2-kg) warhead to targets beyond 500 yards. The Soviet RPGs became powerful weapons in the hands of guerrillas and irregular fighters in conflict against more conventionally armed and heavily armoured forces. As…

  • Rucho v. Common Cause (law case)

    gerrymandering: …of political gerrymandering claims in Rucho v. Common Cause (2019). There the Court’s conservative majority, over the bitter objections of its more liberal members, declared (5–4) that “partisan gerrymandering claims present political questions beyond the reach of the federal courts.”

  • ruck (sports)

    rugby: Principles of play: …is known as a “ruck.” In this situation, teams must approach the ball from their own side of the ball only and must remain on their feet while playing the ball. When the player with the ball is stopped but not taken down to the ground, the struggle for…

  • Rückblicke (work by Kandinsky)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Russian interlude: His autobiographical Rückblicke (“Retrospect”) was translated into Russian and published by the Moscow municipal authorities. In 1919 he created the Institute of Artistic Culture, became director of the Moscow Museum for Pictorial Culture, and helped to organize 22 museums across the Soviet Union. In 1920 he was…

  • Ruckelshaus, William D. (United States jurist)

    Watergate scandal: The Ervin hearings: …Night Massacre,” both Richardson and William D. Ruckelshaus, the deputy attorney general, resigned rather than carry out the order, and Cox was finally dismissed by a compliant solicitor general, Robert Bork. It was another extraordinary historical moment. Many responsible American officials literally feared a White House coup d’état.

  • Rucker, Joseph T. (American cinematographer)
  • Ruckers, Hans, the Elder (Flemish instrument maker)

    Hans Ruckers, the Elder, most famous of all harpsichord makers and founder of a dynasty of Flemish instrument makers whose harpsichords provided an important model for later north European builders. Little is known of his life. His earliest known instrument is a double virginal (a rectangular

  • Rückert, Friedrich (German poet)

    Friedrich Rückert, prolific German poet known for his facility with many different verse forms. Rückert studied at Würzburg and Heidelberg and qualified for, but withdrew from, an academic career. A gifted linguist, he was self-educated in Oriental languages and, through translations and imitations

  • Rückseite des Spiegels: Versuch einer Naturgeschichte menschlichen Erkennens, Die (work by Lorenz)

    Konrad Lorenz: …einer Naturgeschichte menschlichen Erkennens (1973; Behind the Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge), Lorenz examined the nature of human thought and intelligence and attributed the problems of modern civilization largely to the limitations his study revealed.

  • Rucuyen (people)

    South American forest Indian: Social organization: The Rucuyen, a Carib tribe of French Guiana, for some time maintained in servitude a great number of the Oyampī, their Tupí neighbours. In the northwest Amazon, Arawak and Tucano tribes hunt and enslave Makú men, who are forced to work in their gardens; the Makú…

  • Rud-e Aras (river, Asia)

    Aras River, river rising south of Erzurum in the Bing?l Da?lar? (mountains) of Turkey; it flows eastward, forming for approximately 275 miles (440 km) the international boundary between Armenia and Azerbaijan on the north and Turkey and Iran on the south. Below the eastern boundary of Armenia, the

  • Rūd-e Kārūn (river, Iran)

    Kārūn River, river in southwestern Iran, a tributary of the Shatt al-Arab, which it joins at Khorramshahr. It rises in the Bakhtīārī Mountains west of E?fahān and follows a tortuous course trending basically southwest. The Kārūn’s total length is 515 miles (829 km), though the direct distance from

  • Ruda ?l?ska (Poland)

    Ruda ?l?ska, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), south-central Poland, in the heart of the Upper Silesia coal-mining region. An old industrial city, Ruda ?l?ska was founded in the Middle Ages as an iron-mining settlement, but it was not incorporated until after World War II. Poland’s first coal

  • Rudabai Vav (stepwell, Adalaj, India)

    stepwell: Origins and major sites: …the new capital of Ahmadabad—the Rudabai Vav and the Dada Harir Vav. Both are five stories deep with octagonal subterranean pools, each commissioned by a female patron. Although the Rudabai Vav boasts three separate entrances (a rarity), it and the Dada Harir Vav are conceptual cousins, built virtually simultaneously just…

  • Rūdakī (Persian poet)

    Rūdakī, the first poet of note to compose poems in the “New Persian,” written in Arabic alphabet, widely regarded as the father of Persian poetry. A talented singer and instrumentalist, Rūdakī served as a court poet to the Sāmānid ruler Na?r II (914–943) in Bukhara until he fell out of favour in

  • Rudawlī (India)

    Chishtīyah: …in the 15th century at Rudawlī and the Ni?āmīyah, revived in the 18th century in Delhi.

  • Rudbeck, Olof (Swedish author and scientist)

    Swedish literature: The 17th century: It was Olof Rudbeck, however, who became interested in Verelius’s work and developed a theory that Sweden was the lost Atlantis and had been the cradle of Western civilization. He proposed this idea in Atland eller Manheim (1679–1702), which, translated into Latin as Atlantica, attained European fame.

  • Rudbeckia (plant genus)

    coneflower: The third genus, Rudbeckia, has about 25 annual, biennial, and perennial species with simple or segmented leaves, yellow ray flowers, and brown or black disk flowers. Black-eyed Susan (R. hirta), thimble-flower (R. bicolor), and coneflower (R. laciniata) are grown as border plants. Golden glow (R. laciniata variety hortensia)…

  • Rudbeckia bicolor (plant)

    coneflower: hirta), thimble-flower (R. bicolor), and coneflower (R. laciniata) are grown as border plants. Golden glow (R. laciniata variety hortensia) is a popular double-flowered variety.

  • Rudbeckia hirta (plant)

    Black-eyed Susan, (Rudbeckia hirta), North American coneflower (family Asteraceae) commonly cultivated as an attractive garden ornamental. Growing as annuals or short-lived perennials, black-eyed Susans are native to prairies and open woodlands and are attractive to both birds and butterflies. The

  • Rudchenko, Panas (Ukrainian author)

    Ukrainian literature: Panas Myrny (pseudonym of Panas Rudchenko) was the major representative of Ukrainian realism. His depiction of social injustice and the birth of social protest in Khiba revut voly, yak yasla povni? (1880; “Do the Oxen Low When the Manger Is Full?”) had a new psychological…

  • rudd (fish)

    Rudd, (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), stout-bodied freshwater sport fish of the carp family, Cyprinidae, similar to the related roach, but more golden, with yellow-orange eyes, deep red fins, and a sharp-edged belly. The rudd is widely distributed in Europe and Asia Minor and has been introduced

  • Rudd’s mouse (mammal)

    African spiny mouse: …in this subfamily; these are Rudd’s mouse (Uranomys ruddi), the Congo forest mouse (Deomys ferrugineus), and brush-furred rats (genus Lophuromys).

  • Rudd, Amber (British politician)

    Theresa May: The novichok attack in Salisbury, air strikes in Syria, and the Windrush scandal: This time Amber Rudd, the home secretary and a key ally of May, was forced to resign because of her role in the implementation of the government’s controversial policy regarding individuals who had immigrated to Britain from the Caribbean in the 1950s and ’60s. Because the paperwork…

  • Rudd, Kevin (prime minister of Australia)

    Kevin Rudd, Australian politician, who served as leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP; 2006–10; 2013) and prime minister of Australia (2007–10; 2013). Rudd grew up on a farm in Eumundi, Queensland. Politically active from his youth, he joined the ALP in 1972. He attended the Australian

  • Rudd, Kevin Michael (prime minister of Australia)

    Kevin Rudd, Australian politician, who served as leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP; 2006–10; 2013) and prime minister of Australia (2007–10; 2013). Rudd grew up on a farm in Eumundi, Queensland. Politically active from his youth, he joined the ALP in 1972. He attended the Australian

  • Rudd, Mark (American activist)

    Weather Underground: Bernardine Dohrn, James Mellen, and Mark Rudd and advocated street fighting as a method for weakening U.S. imperialism. At the SDS national convention in June 1969, the Third World Marxists presented a position paper titled “You Don’t Need a Weatherman to Know Which Way the Wind Blows” in the SDS…

  • Rudd, Paul (American actor)

    Emma: Legacy: …Alicia Silverstone as Cher (Emma), Paul Rudd as Josh (Mr. Knightley), Brittany Murphy as Tai (Harriet), and Jeremy Sisto as Elton (Mr. Elton). Unlike the original novel, Clueless is set in Beverly Hills, California, in the mid-1990s. The film achieved cult status in the 21st century. Other notable screen adaptations…

  • Rudd, Steele (Australian writer)

    Steele Rudd, novelist, playwright, and short-story writer whose comic characters are a well-known part of Australia’s literary heritage. Son of a blacksmith, Rudd worked as a horsebreaker, stockman, and drover before going to Brisbane, where he became a clerk and began to write poems and sketches

  • rudder (steering mechanism)

    Rudder, part of the steering apparatus of a boat or ship that is fastened outside the hull, usually at the stern. The most common form consists of a nearly flat, smooth surface of wood or metal hinged at its forward edge to the sternpost. It operates on the principle of unequal water pressures.

  • Rudder Grange (novel by Stockton)

    Frank Stockton: His adult novel Rudder Grange (1879), originally serialized in Scribner’s Monthly, recounted the whimsically fantastic and amusing adventures of a family living on a canal boat. Its success encouraged two sequels, Rudder Grangers Abroad (1891) and Pomona’s Travels (1894). The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine…

  • Rudder of the Ship of Knowledge (work by Nicodemus the Hagiorite)

    Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite: Nicodemus’ outstanding work, the Pedalion, or Rudder of the Ship of Knowledge, is a commentary on Greek church law. Its bias against the Latin church, although partly attributable to interpolations by another editor, reflects the author’s negative feelings toward the institutions of Western Christianity. Nicodemus did not hesitate, however,…

  • rudder pedal (mechanics)

    airplane: Elevator, aileron, and rudder controls: … or wheel control column and rudder pedals, which control the movement of the elevator and ailerons and the rudder, respectively, through a system of cables or rods. In very sophisticated modern aircraft, there is no direct mechanical linkage between the pilot’s controls and the control surfaces; instead they are actuated…

  • rudder reversal (aerial maneuver)

    air warfare: Air superiority: …executing a maneuver called a rudder reversal, in which he would turn and do a snap roll, suddenly reducing his forward motion so that the speeding attacker would overshoot and find the intended victim on his tail. Tight maneuvers such as the rudder reversal were most effective when attempted with…

  • Ruddigore; or, The Witch’s Curse (operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan)

    Arthur Sullivan: …The Town of Titipu (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), and The Gondoliers (1889). The collective works of Gilbert and Sullivan became known as the “Savoy Operas.”

  • ruddy duck (bird)

    duck: … group, typified by the blue-billed ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), are highly aquatic diving ducks characterized by legs set far toward the rear of the body. The whistling ducks (Dendrocygna), also called tree ducks, are not true ducks but are more closely related to geese and swans. Ducks that are not…

  • ruddy kingfisher (bird)

    coraciiform: Locomotion and feeding: The ruddy kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda), widespread in Southeast Asia, eats many large land snails. It seizes a snail with its bill and beats it against a rock until the shell is broken and the meat can be extracted.

  • ruddy shelduck (bird)

    shelduck: The ruddy shelduck (Casarca ferruginea), ranging from North Africa and Spain to Mongolia, is orangish, with a pale head and white wing patches. Drakes of most shelduck species have melodious whistling calls and are aggressive year-round. In the European species the hen is solitary at the…

  • ruddy turnstone (bird)

    Ruddy turnstone, shorebird species of the genus Arenaria. See

  • Ruddy, Albert S. (Canadian producer)
  • Rude, Fran?ois (French sculptor)

    Fran?ois Rude, French sculptor, best known for his social art (art that inspires and captures the interest of a broad public), including public monuments such as the Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 (1833–36), popularly called La Marseillaise. Rude rejected the classical repose of late 18th- and

  • Rudel, Julius (Austrian-American conductor)

    Julius Rudel, Austrian-born American conductor and opera impresario who was conductor or director of the New York City Opera, 1944–79. Rudel attended the Vienna Academy of Music and, after immigrating to the United States in 1938, studied at the Mannes School of Music in New York. In 1943 he joined

  • Rudenko, Ludmilla Vladimirovna (Ukrainian chess player)

    Ludmilla Vladimirovna Rudenko, Ukrainian chess player who was the women’s world champion (1950–53). Rudenko was trained as an economic planner in Odessa. Although she began playing chess as a child, Rudenko did not compete in tournaments before she moved to Moscow in 1925 to work for an economic

  • Rudenko, Mykola (Ukrainian poet)

    Ukraine: Ukraine under Shcherbytsky: …Ukraine, headed by the poet Mykola Rudenko; by the end of the 1970s, its members were almost all in concentration camps or in exile abroad. The expirations of political prisoners’ sentences were increasingly followed by rearrest and new sentences on charges of criminal activity. Incarceration in psychiatric institutions became a…

  • Rüdesheim (Germany)

    Rüdesheim, town, Hessen Land (state), western Germany. It is situated in the Rheingau (region) at the foot of the Taunus Mountains and is a chief centre of the Rhine wine industry. It was first mentioned in 864. The Br?mserburg, an early castle of the archbishops of Mainz, was rebuilt as a

  • Rüdesheim am Rhein (Germany)

    Rüdesheim, town, Hessen Land (state), western Germany. It is situated in the Rheingau (region) at the foot of the Taunus Mountains and is a chief centre of the Rhine wine industry. It was first mentioned in 864. The Br?mserburg, an early castle of the archbishops of Mainz, was rebuilt as a

  • Rudge, Barnaby (fictional character)

    Barnaby Rudge, fictional character, the developmentally disabled protagonist of Charles Dickens’s historical novel Barnaby Rudge

  • Rudin (novel by Turgenev)

    Rudin, novel by Ivan Turgenev, published as a serial in the journal Sovremennik and as a book in 1856. The novel tells of an eloquent intellectual, Dmitry Rudin, a character modeled partly on the revolutionary agitator Mikhail Bakunin, whom Turgenev had known in Moscow in the 1830s. Rudin’s power

  • Rudin, Scott (American producer and casting director)
  • Rudinì, Antonio Starabba, marchese di (premier of Italy)

    Antonio Starabba, marquis di Rudinì, Italian statesman, premier of Italy (1891–92, 1896–98). A member of an aristocratic but liberal Sicilian family, Rudinì joined the revolutionaries of 1860, and, in 1864, following the Piedmontese annexation, he was appointed mayor of Palermo. In that post Rudinì

  • rudist (fossil mollusk)

    Cretaceous Period: Correlation: Rudist, inoceramid, and exogyrid bivalves have been used in many areas to subdivide (zone) the Cretaceous Period for the purpose of correlation. Rudist bivalves, for example, have been employed in conjunction with larger foraminiferans to zone sediments of the Tethyan regions in parts of Europe.…

  • rudite (mineral)

    sedimentary rock: Conglomerates and breccias: Sometimes the term rudite (or rudaceous) is used to collectively refer to both breccias and conglomerates.

  • Rūdkhāneh-ye Harīrūd (river, Central Asia)

    Harīrūd, river, Central Asia. It rises on the western slopes of the rugged Selseleh-ye Kūh-e Bābā range, an outlier of the Hindu Kush mountains, in central Afghanistan. Flowing west past Chaghcharān and the ancient city of Herāt (whence its name is derived), then north, it forms sections of the

  • Rudk?bing (Denmark)

    Langeland: …1550), and its principal town, Rudk?bing, was chartered in 1287. The undulating, well-wooded land has fertile clay loams that support grain, and cattle and pigs are raised. There is a well-preserved Stone Age barrow in the southern part of the island, and Rudk?bing has several medieval churches and houses. A…

  • Rudman, Warren (United States senator)

    Warren Bruce Rudman, American politician (born May 18, 1930, Boston, Mass.—died Nov. 19, 2012, Washington, D.C.), fought federal deficits during two terms of office (1980–93) as a Republican senator from New Hampshire and was a sponsor, with Sen. Phil Gramm of Texas and Sen. Ernest Hollings of

  • Rudman, Warren Bruce (United States senator)

    Warren Bruce Rudman, American politician (born May 18, 1930, Boston, Mass.—died Nov. 19, 2012, Washington, D.C.), fought federal deficits during two terms of office (1980–93) as a Republican senator from New Hampshire and was a sponsor, with Sen. Phil Gramm of Texas and Sen. Ernest Hollings of

  • Rudnicki, Adolf (Polish author)

    Adolf Rudnicki, Polish novelist and essayist noted for his depictions of the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Poland. Born into a Jewish family, Rudnicki was educated in Warsaw and worked as a bank clerk. Mobilized in the Polish army in 1939, he fought in the September campaign and was taken prisoner by

  • Rudnyi (Kazakhstan)

    Rūdnyy, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies on the Tobyl River. Rūdnyy, meaning “ore” in Russian, was founded in 1955 beside the huge ore-dressing combine, then under construction, which mines and processes the rich Sokolovka and Sarbay iron-ore deposits. A reservoir on the Tobyl supplies the city

  • Rudnyj (Kazakhstan)

    Rūdnyy, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies on the Tobyl River. Rūdnyy, meaning “ore” in Russian, was founded in 1955 beside the huge ore-dressing combine, then under construction, which mines and processes the rich Sokolovka and Sarbay iron-ore deposits. A reservoir on the Tobyl supplies the city

  • Rudnyy (Kazakhstan)

    Rūdnyy, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies on the Tobyl River. Rūdnyy, meaning “ore” in Russian, was founded in 1955 beside the huge ore-dressing combine, then under construction, which mines and processes the rich Sokolovka and Sarbay iron-ore deposits. A reservoir on the Tobyl supplies the city

  • Rūdnyy (Kazakhstan)

    Rūdnyy, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies on the Tobyl River. Rūdnyy, meaning “ore” in Russian, was founded in 1955 beside the huge ore-dressing combine, then under construction, which mines and processes the rich Sokolovka and Sarbay iron-ore deposits. A reservoir on the Tobyl supplies the city

  • Rudolf (count palatine of the Rhine)

    Germany: Constitutional conflicts in the 14th century: …of Brandenburg and his kinsman Rudolf, count palatine of the Rhine. The other five assembled at Rhens on July 11 and elected Charles under the title of Charles IV. The new king was spared a lengthy conflict with his rival, who died of a stroke in 1347. Shortly after his…

  • Rudolf (king of France)

    Rudolf, duke of Burgundy (921–936) and later king of the West Franks, or France (923–936), who, after a stormy career typical of the general political instability that characterized the age, succeeded in consolidating his authority shortly before he died. Rudolf was the son-in-law of Robert I,

  • Rudolf (antiking of Germany)

    Rudolf, German anti-king, opponent of Henry IV. Rudolf was granted the duchy of Swabia in 1057 by the dowager empress Agnes of Poitou, regent for her infant son Henry IV. She also appointed him administrator of the kingdom of Burgundy and gave him her daughter Matilda in marriage (1059). Rudolf at

  • Rudolf I (king of Germany)

    Rudolf I, first German king of the Habsburg dynasty. A son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Rudolf on the occasion of his father’s death (c. 1239) inherited lands in upper Alsace, the Aargau, and Breisgau. A partisan of the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperor Frederick II and his son Conrad IV, he

  • Rudolf I (king of Burgundy)

    Rudolf I, first king of Juran (Upper) Burgundy (888–912). The son of Conrad, count of Auxerre of the powerful German Welf (Guelf) family, Rudolf succeeded to the duchy of Burgundy in 885 or 886. In January 888 he was crowned king at the abbey of St. Maurice d’Agaune and quickly extended his rule

  • Rudolf II (Holy Roman emperor)

    Rudolf II, Holy Roman emperor from 1576 to 1612. His ill health and unpopularity prevented him from restraining the religious dissensions that eventually led to the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). The eldest surviving son of the emperor Maximilian II and Maria, who was the daughter of the emperor

  • Rudolf II (king of Burgundy)

    Rudolf II, king of Burgundy (912–937) who ruled Italy for nearly four years (923–926) during the chaotic period at the end of the Carolingian era. The son of Rudolf I, founder of the kingdom of Jurane (Upper) Burgundy (i.e., the part of Burgundy north of Provence), and a descendant of the Welf

  • Rudolf II (duke of Austria)

    Germany: Rudolf of Habsburg: …on Rudolf’s sons Albert and Rudolf in 1282. These acquisitions placed the Habsburgs in the first rank of the German territorial princes and lent impetus to a gradual shift in the political centre of gravity from the Rhineland to eastern and southern Germany. The growing Habsburg power, however, disquieted the…

  • Rudolf III (king of Burgundy)

    Rudolf III, last of the independent kings of Burgundy (993–1032). Son and successor of Conrad the Peaceful, Rudolf was unable to control the rising power of the nobility and the increasing encroachments of Otto-William, count of Besan?on, and Emperor Henry II of Germany. In 1016 he was forced to

  • Rudolf III (duke of Austria)

    House of Habsburg: Austria and the rise of the Habsburgs in Germany: King Albert I’s son Rudolf III of Austria had been king of Bohemia from 1306 to 1307, and his brother Frederick I had been German king as Frederick III (in rivalry or conjointly with Louis IV the Bavarian) from 1314 to 1330. Albert V of Austria was in 1438…

  • Rudolf Island (Russia)

    Franz Josef Land: The easternmost includes Rudolf Island, whose Fligeli Cape is the northernmost point in Russia, and the large islands of Zemlya Vilcheka and Greem-Bell (Graham Bell). This group is separated from the central group, which contains most of the islands, by the Avstriysky (Austrian) Strait. The western group, divided…

  • Rudolf IV (duke of Austria)

    archduke: …(Pfalz-Erzherzog) was first assumed by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, on the strength of a forged privilege, in the hope of gaining for the dukes of Austria an equal status with the electors of the Holy Roman Empire. The emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title, and it was…

  • Rudolf of Habsburg (king of Germany)

    Rudolf I, first German king of the Habsburg dynasty. A son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Rudolf on the occasion of his father’s death (c. 1239) inherited lands in upper Alsace, the Aargau, and Breisgau. A partisan of the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperor Frederick II and his son Conrad IV, he

  • Rudolf of Rheinfelden (antiking of Germany)

    Rudolf, German anti-king, opponent of Henry IV. Rudolf was granted the duchy of Swabia in 1057 by the dowager empress Agnes of Poitou, regent for her infant son Henry IV. She also appointed him administrator of the kingdom of Burgundy and gave him her daughter Matilda in marriage (1059). Rudolf at

  • Rudolf of Saxony (German duke)

    Germany: Wenceslas: However, another elector, Duke Rudolf of Saxony, and a powerful group of northern German princes contended that the electors could not raise one of their own members to the kingship. The Golden Bull had declared otherwise, but Rudolf held his ground and declined to participate in the subsequent proceedings.…

  • Rudolf of Swabia (antiking of Germany)

    Rudolf, German anti-king, opponent of Henry IV. Rudolf was granted the duchy of Swabia in 1057 by the dowager empress Agnes of Poitou, regent for her infant son Henry IV. She also appointed him administrator of the kingdom of Burgundy and gave him her daughter Matilda in marriage (1059). Rudolf at

  • Rudolf the Pious (king of Burgundy)

    Rudolf III, last of the independent kings of Burgundy (993–1032). Son and successor of Conrad the Peaceful, Rudolf was unable to control the rising power of the nobility and the increasing encroachments of Otto-William, count of Besan?on, and Emperor Henry II of Germany. In 1016 he was forced to

  • Rudolf the Sluggard (king of Burgundy)

    Rudolf III, last of the independent kings of Burgundy (993–1032). Son and successor of Conrad the Peaceful, Rudolf was unable to control the rising power of the nobility and the increasing encroachments of Otto-William, count of Besan?on, and Emperor Henry II of Germany. In 1016 he was forced to

  • Rudolf von Ems (German poet)

    Rudolf von Ems, prolific and versatile Middle High German poet. Between about 1220 and 1254 he wrote five epic poems, totaling more than 93,000 lines. Though the influence of earlier masters of the courtly epic is evident in his work—his style is modeled on Gottfried von Strassburg, while his moral

  • Rudolf von Rheinfelden (antiking of Germany)

    Rudolf, German anti-king, opponent of Henry IV. Rudolf was granted the duchy of Swabia in 1057 by the dowager empress Agnes of Poitou, regent for her infant son Henry IV. She also appointed him administrator of the kingdom of Burgundy and gave him her daughter Matilda in marriage (1059). Rudolf at

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