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  • Rugg, Harold (American educator)

    Harold Rugg, American educator who created an influential social studies textbook series, Man and His Changing Society, in the 1920s and whose wide-ranging writings addressed measurement and statistics in education and teacher training, among other topics. Rugg earned a bachelor’s degree in civil

  • Rugg, Harold Ordway (American educator)

    Harold Rugg, American educator who created an influential social studies textbook series, Man and His Changing Society, in the 1920s and whose wide-ranging writings addressed measurement and statistics in education and teacher training, among other topics. Rugg earned a bachelor’s degree in civil

  • rugger (sport)

    Rugby, football game played with an oval ball by two teams of 15 players (in rugby union play) or 13 players (in rugby league play). Both rugby union and rugby league have their origins in the style of football played at Rugby School in England. According to the sport’s lore, in 1823 William Webb

  • Ruggie, John (American professor)

    epistemic community: …community was first introduced by John Ruggie and then refined by Peter M. Haas. These scholars focused on the role played by networks of actors and the consensus they hold about causes and effects on state policy and interstate cooperation.

  • Ruggie, John G. (American professor)

    epistemic community: …community was first introduced by John Ruggie and then refined by Peter M. Haas. These scholars focused on the role played by networks of actors and the consensus they hold about causes and effects on state policy and interstate cooperation.

  • Ruggie, John Gerard (American professor)

    epistemic community: …community was first introduced by John Ruggie and then refined by Peter M. Haas. These scholars focused on the role played by networks of actors and the consensus they hold about causes and effects on state policy and interstate cooperation.

  • Ruggieri, Michele (Jesuit missionary)

    Matteo Ricci: Early life and education: ) First Michele Ruggieri and then Ricci were called to the Portuguese province of Macau to prepare to evangelize China. Ruggieri, however, returned to Italy in November 1588, leaving to his younger compatriot the burden and the honour of founding the church in China.

  • Ruggiero (fictional character)

    Ruggiero, fictional character, a heroic Saracen knight beloved by Bradamante, a female Christian knight in Ludovico Ariosto’s Orlando furioso

  • Ruggiero (work by Hasse)

    Johann Adolph Hasse: …work for the stage was Ruggiero (1771), written for the wedding of the archduke Ferdinand at Milan.

  • Ruggiero, Renato (Italian diplomat)

    Renato Ruggiero, Italian diplomat who served as the first director-general (1995–99) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Ruggiero earned a law degree from the University of Naples in 1953. He entered the Italian diplomatic service in 1955 and was posted to Brazil, the Soviet Union, the United

  • Ruggles of Red Gap (novel by Wilson)

    Marmaduke Ruggles: …protagonist of the humorous novel Ruggles of Red Gap (1915) by American author Harry Leon Wilson.

  • Ruggles of Red Gap (film by McCarey [1935])

    Leo McCarey: Feature films: It was not until Ruggles of Red Gap (1935), however, that McCarey directed a film bearing many of his trademarks: a comic sense that blended reality and farce, a glorification of the American character concurrent with a condemnation of American materialism and na?veté, a reflection of McCarey’s own Roman…

  • Ruggles, Carl (American composer)

    Carl Ruggles, American composer and painter whose musical works, small in number, are characterized by highly dissonant, nonmetric melodies, wide dynamic range, and rich colouring. Ruggles played the violin for President Grover Cleveland at age nine; though a close friend of such innovative and

  • Ruggles, Charlie (American actor)

    Norman Z. McLeod: Middle years: …which featured the team of Charlie Ruggles and Mary Boland; Ruggles played a sleepwalker who becomes embroiled with gangsters but gets out of trouble with the help of his wife (Boland). In 1936 McLeod was loaned to Columbia, where he made Pennies from Heaven, a sentimental musical that was memorable…

  • Ruggles, Marmaduke (fictional character)

    Marmaduke Ruggles, fictional character, the protagonist of the humorous novel Ruggles of Red Gap (1915) by American author Harry Leon Wilson. Ruggles is the quintessential gentleman’s gentleman to an English earl. In Paris the earl loses Ruggles in a poker game to Egbert Floud, a rough-edged but

  • Ruggles, Mercy (American physician and educator)

    Mercy Ruggles Bisbe Jackson, American physician and educator, a pioneer in the struggle for the admission of women to the practice of medicine. Mercy Ruggles received what was for the time a good education. In June 1823 she married the Reverend John Bisbe, with whom she moved to Hartford,

  • Ruggles, Wesley (American director)

    Wesley Ruggles, American film director who was especially adept at comedies, though his best-known movie was arguably the classic western Cimarron (1931). Ruggles, who was the younger brother of actor Charles Ruggles, grew up just as the film industry was moving west. His screen acting career began

  • Ruggles, Wesley Heinsch (American director)

    Wesley Ruggles, American film director who was especially adept at comedies, though his best-known movie was arguably the classic western Cimarron (1931). Ruggles, who was the younger brother of actor Charles Ruggles, grew up just as the film industry was moving west. His screen acting career began

  • Ruggles-Brise, Sir Evelyn John (British prison reformer)

    Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise, prison reformer who was instrumental in the founding and development of England’s Borstal system for the treatment of young offenders. Appointed prison commissioner in 1895 (a position he held until 1921), he had the duty of applying the recommendations of the Gladstone

  • Rugi (people)

    Rugi, Germanic tribe that migrated from southwest Norway to Pomerania around ad 100 and from there to the Danube River valley. They were allies of Attila until his death (453) and then settled in what is now Austria. They then joined with the Ostrogothic army of Theodoric in its campaign to take

  • Rugolo, Pete (Italian-born American composer and arranger)

    Pete Rugolo, (Pietro Rugulo), Italian-born American composer and arranger (born Dec. 2, 1915, Sicily, Italy—died Oct. 16, 2011, Sherman Oaks, Calif.), helped to invent the bombastic, brassy, dissonant “progressive jazz” of Stan Kenton’s popular big band, produced important jazz albums, and composed

  • Rugosa (fossil coral)

    Horn coral, any coral of the order Rugosa, which first appeared in the geologic record during the Ordovician Period, which began 488 million years ago; the Rugosa persisted through the Permian Period, which ended 251 million years ago. Horn corals, which are named for the hornlike shape of the

  • rugosa rose (plant)

    rose: Major species and hybrids: …particularly the rugosa rose (R. rugosa), produce edible rose hips, which are a rich source of vitamin C and are sometimes used in preserves.

  • Rugova, Ibrahim (Kosovar writer and politician)

    Ibrahim Rugova, Kosovar nationalist writer and politician (born December 2, 1944, Cerrc?, Kosovo, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]—died January 21, 2006, Pristina, Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro), devoted his public life to peaceful attempts to gain independence for ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. After

  • Rugrats (cartoon series)

    Nickelodeon: …& Stimpy Show (1991–96), and Rugrats (1991–2004). By the mid-1990s the network had become the number one cable channel as measured by total daily viewers, and later programs, such as the animated SpongeBob SquarePants (1999– ) and the live-action sitcom iCarly (2007–12), frequently ranked among the highest-rated cable programs in…

  • rugs and carpets

    Rug and carpet, any decorative textile normally made of a thick material and now usually intended as a floor covering. Until the 19th century the word carpet was used for any cover, such as a table cover or wall hanging; since the introduction of machine-made products, however, it has been used

  • rugula (herb)

    Arugula, (subspecies Eruca vesicaria sativa), annual herb of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its pungent edible leaves. Native to the Mediterranean, arugula is a common salad vegetable in many parts of southern Europe and has grown in popularity around the world for its peppery, nutty

  • Rugulo, Pietro (Italian-born American composer and arranger)

    Pete Rugolo, (Pietro Rugulo), Italian-born American composer and arranger (born Dec. 2, 1915, Sicily, Italy—died Oct. 16, 2011, Sherman Oaks, Calif.), helped to invent the bombastic, brassy, dissonant “progressive jazz” of Stan Kenton’s popular big band, produced important jazz albums, and composed

  • Ruguru (people)

    Luguru, a Bantu-speaking people of the hills, Uluguru Mountains, and coastal plains of east-central Tanzania. The Luguru are reluctant to leave the mountain homeland that they have occupied for at least 300 years, despite the relatively serious population pressure in their area and the employment

  • Ruhā, Al- (Turkey)

    ?anl?urfa, city, southeastern Turkey. It lies in a fertile plain and is ringed by limestone hills on three sides. The city, of great age, controls a strategic pass to the south through which runs a road used since antiquity to travel between Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia. The modern name

  • Ruhanga (African deity)

    Ruhanga, creator god of the Nkole (Nyankore) of modern western Uganda and the Haya of northwestern Tanzania. Ruhanga is the creator of both the world and human beings. He is also associated with fertility as well as disease and death. One creation story relates that Ruhanga was hitherto living on

  • Ruhe ist die erste Bürgerpflicht (work by Alexis)

    Willibald Alexis: In Ruhe ist die erste Bürgerpflicht (1852; “To Remain Calm Is the First Civic Duty”), the activities of criminals are presented as symptomatic of Prussian degeneracy in 1806. The sequel, Isegrimm (1854), foreshadows a rebirth of patriotism.

  • Rühmann, Heinz (German actor)

    Heinz Rühmann, German actor (born March 7, 1902, Essen, Germany—died Oct. 4, 1994, Berg, near Starnberg, Germany), had a motion-picture career that spanned more than 60 years and 100 films and was one of his country’s most beloved stars. Specializing in roles as the little man whose optimism and h

  • Ruhmkorff coil (electronics)

    Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff: …German mechanic who invented the Ruhmkorff coil, a type of induction coil that could produce sparks more than 1 foot (30 centimetres) in length.

  • Ruhmkorff, Heinrich Daniel (German inventor)

    Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff, German mechanic who invented the Ruhmkorff coil, a type of induction coil that could produce sparks more than 1 foot (30 centimetres) in length. After apprenticeship to a German mechanic, Ruhmkorff worked in England with Joseph Brahmah, inventor of the hydraulic press. In

  • Ruhr (region, Germany)

    Ruhr, major industrial region along the course of the Ruhr River, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. The river, an important tributary of the lower Rhine, rises on the north side of Winterberg and flows 146 miles (235 km) west past Witten (the head of navigation), Essen, and

  • Ruhr occupation (European history)

    Ruhr occupation, (1923–25) occupation of the industrial Ruhr River valley region in Germany by French and Belgian troops. The action was provoked by German deficiencies in the coal and coke deliveries to France required by the reparations agreement after World War I. French occupation of

  • Ruhr River (river, Germany)

    Ruhr River, river of Germany that flows through a major industrial region that shares its name. The Ruhr River is 146 miles (235 km) long and is an important right-bank tributary of the lower Rhine. It rises on the north side of Winterberg in the Sauerland at an elevation of 2,376 feet (724

  • Ruhr uprising (German history)

    Weimar Republic: Political disturbances at home: A workers’ rising led by Communists took place in the Ruhr in the spring of 1920. There was fierce fighting between workers and army and Freikorps units before the revolt was suppressed at the beginning of April. When miners in the Mansfeld district of central Germany took…

  • Ruhr-100 process (chemical technology)

    coal utilization: Advanced gasification systems: …the Lurgi gasifier is the Ruhr-100 process, with operating pressures about three times those of the basic Lurgi process. Developmental work on the Winkler process has led to the pressurized Winkler process, which is aimed at increasing the yield of methane in order to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG).

  • Ruhrgebiet (region, Germany)

    Ruhr, major industrial region along the course of the Ruhr River, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. The river, an important tributary of the lower Rhine, rises on the north side of Winterberg and flows 146 miles (235 km) west past Witten (the head of navigation), Essen, and

  • Ruhrkohle AG (German company)

    RAG Aktiengesellschaft, German company that was created in order to consolidate all coal-mining activities in the Ruhr region. Company headquarters are in Essen. Although coal represents one of Germany’s major mineral resources, the coal industry suffered a severe decline in the 1960s owing to

  • Ruhuhu River (river, Tanzania)

    Ruhuhu River, river in southern Tanzania, eastern Africa. It rises in the Kipengere Range south of Njombe and flows about 100 miles (160 km) southeast and southwest to enter Lake Nyasa just south of

  • Ruidi (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Zhengtong, reign name (nianhao) of the sixth and eighth emperor (reigned 1435–49 and 1457–64) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), whose court was dominated by eunuchs who weakened the dynasty by a disastrous war with Mongol tribes. In 1435 Zhu Qizhen ascended the throne and became known as the

  • Ruidi (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Jiaqing, reign name (nianhao) of the fifth emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign (1796–1820) a partial attempt was made to restore the flagging state of the empire. He was proclaimed emperor and assumed the reign title of Jiaqing in 1796, after the abdication of his father,

  • Ruimte (Flemish literary review)

    Belgian literature: After World War I: …the manifesto of the review Ruimte (1920–21; “Space”): ethics must take priority over aesthetics, and the art of the community over that of the individual. Expressionism was most apparent in lyrical poetry and drama. Wies Moens’s early poetry reflected this humanitarian trend, whereas Gaston Burssens remained less pathetic and more…

  • Ruin, the (Ukrainian history)

    Ukraine: The Ruin: Khmelnytsky’s successor, Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky, broke with Moscow and in 1658 concluded the new Treaty of Hadyach with Poland. By its terms, central Ukraine (attempts to include Volhynia and Galicia were unsuccessful) was to constitute—under the hetman and a ruling elite of nobles…

  • Ruina, Jack (American researcher)

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: Organization: For example, DARPA’s third director, Jack Ruina (1961–63), recognized that the problem of command, control, and communication of the nation’s military forces was one that computer technology might affect. Thus, in 1962 Ruina oversaw the creation of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) under the direction of Joseph Licklider, a…

  • Ruined Castle, The (work by Taki)

    Japanese music: Composers in Western styles: …is Kojo no tsuki (The Ruined Castle), written in 1901 by Taki Rentarō after his training in Germany. In its piano-accompanied version it recalls the style of Franz Schubert, but as sung in the streets it sounds Japanese. Yamada Kōsaku was training in Germany when the Meiji era ended…

  • Ruined Cottage, The (work by Wordsworth)

    William Wordsworth: The Recluse and The Prelude: …of Wordsworth’s greatest poems, “The Ruined Cottage,” composed in superb blank verse in 1797. This bleak narrative records the slow, pitiful decline of a woman whose husband had gone off to the army and never returned. For later versions of this poem Wordsworth added a reconciling conclusion, but the…

  • Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce, Les (work by LeRoy)

    architecture: Distinction between the history and theory of architecture: …distinction first became manifest in Les Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce (“The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece”), written in 1758 by a French architecture student, Julien-David LeRoy. Faced with the problem of discussing Athenian buildings constructed in the time of Vitruvius, he decided to…

  • Ruines, ou méditations sur les révolutions des empires, Les (work by Volney)

    Constantin-Fran?ois de Chasseboeuf, count de Volney: …les révolutions des empires (The Ruins: or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires). Seeking the origins of civil society and the causes for its dissolution, he saw revolution as a result of the abandoning of the principles of natural law and religion, equality, and liberty.

  • ruins of Windsor (historical site, Mississippi)

    Port Gibson: The ruins of Windsor (23 Corinthian columns) are all that remain of what was considered to be the state’s most extravagant Greek Revival mansion (1859–61; burned 1890). Grand Gulf State Park (8 miles [13 km] northwest), occupying the town site of Grand Gulf on the banks…

  • Ruins: or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires, The (work by Volney)

    Constantin-Fran?ois de Chasseboeuf, count de Volney: …les révolutions des empires (The Ruins: or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires). Seeking the origins of civil society and the causes for its dissolution, he saw revolution as a result of the abandoning of the principles of natural law and religion, equality, and liberty.

  • Ruisdael, Jacob Isaakszoon van (Dutch painter)

    Jacob van Ruisdael, Baroque artist often regarded as one of the greatest Dutch landscape painters. His subjects and style varied throughout his career, leading to a dynamic oeuvre that comprises around 700 paintings, 100 drawings, and several etchings. Ruisdael was probably the pupil of his father,

  • Ruisdael, Jacob van (Dutch painter)

    Jacob van Ruisdael, Baroque artist often regarded as one of the greatest Dutch landscape painters. His subjects and style varied throughout his career, leading to a dynamic oeuvre that comprises around 700 paintings, 100 drawings, and several etchings. Ruisdael was probably the pupil of his father,

  • Ruiter, L. de (Dutch biologist)

    mimicry: The importance of the signal receiver: …experiments of the Dutch biologist L. de Ruiter with stick caterpillars, which, by virtue of their close resemblance to twigs, are protected against insect-eating birds. As soon as the number of “twigs” becomes too large, however, the bird develops an interest in them, attacks some real twigs, and also finds…

  • Ruivo de Santana, Mount (mountain, Madeira Island, Portugal)

    Madeira Islands: …rises in the centre to Ruivo Peak (6,106 feet [1,861 metres] above sea level). The greater part of the interior above 3,000 feet (900 metres) is uninhabited and uncultivated; communities of scattered huts are usually built either at the mouths of ravines or upon slopes that descend from the mountains…

  • Ruivo Peak (mountain, Madeira Island, Portugal)

    Madeira Islands: …rises in the centre to Ruivo Peak (6,106 feet [1,861 metres] above sea level). The greater part of the interior above 3,000 feet (900 metres) is uninhabited and uncultivated; communities of scattered huts are usually built either at the mouths of ravines or upon slopes that descend from the mountains…

  • Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo (president of Mexico)

    Mexico: Prosperity and repression under the PRI: …in Mexico doubled when President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines enfranchised women with a constitutional amendment in 1953, though they did not actually vote until 1958. Electoral reform laws broadened the political base, but opposition parties grew slowly as the PRI dominated the political power mechanisms of the state. As late as…

  • Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan (Spanish dramatist)

    Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, Mexican-born Spanish dramatist of the colonial era who was the principal dramatist of early 17th-century Spain after Lope de Vega and Tirso de Molina. Born into a prosperous family in Mexico, Ruiz de Alarcón went to Spain in 1600 to study at the University of Salamanca, from

  • Ruiz de Santayana, Jorge Augustín Nicolás (Spanish-American philosopher)

    George Santayana, Spanish-American philosopher, poet, and humanist who made important contributions to aesthetics, speculative philosophy, and literary criticism. From 1912 he resided in Europe, chiefly in France and Italy. George Santayana was born in Madrid of Spanish parents. He never

  • Ruiz García, Samuel (Mexican Roman Catholic bishop and activist)

    Samuel Ruiz García, Mexican Roman Catholic bishop and activist (born Nov. 3, 1924, Irapuato, Guanajuato state, Mex.—died Jan. 24, 2011, Mexico City, Mex.), championed the indigenous Maya in the Mexican state of Chiapas while serving (1960–99) as bishop in San Cristóbal de las Casas and was

  • Ruiz Pino, Raúl Ernesto (Chilean-born French motion-picture director, screenwriter, and playwright)

    Raúl Ernesto Ruiz Pino, (Raoul Ruiz), Chilean-born French motion-picture director, screenwriter, and playwright (born July 25, 1941, Puerto Montt, Chile—died Aug. 19, 2011, Paris, France), combined his love of classic literature with his fondness for movies in more than 100 films that showcased his

  • Ruiz Soler, Antonio (Spanish dancer and choreographer)

    Antonio Ruiz Soler, ("ANTONIO"; "EL BAILARíN"), Spanish flamenco dancer and choreographer who was known for his artistry, showmanship, and technique and who brought the male back to prominence in Spanish dance (b. Nov. 4, 1921--d. Feb. 5,

  • Ruiz, Bartolomé (Spanish explorer)

    Francisco Pizarro: Discovery and conquest of Peru: Bartolomé Ruiz, who joined Pizarro and Almagro for the latter, sailed ahead and crossed the Equator, encountering a trading raft carrying embroidered fabrics and precious metals from Peru. He returned and led the expedition as far south as Ecuador. Pizarro and others remained on coastal…

  • Ruiz, John (American boxer)

    Evander Holyfield: …August 12, 2000, Holyfield defeated John Ruiz to win the vacant WBA heavyweight title but lost to Ruiz in a rematch in 2001. In December of that year Holyfield and Ruiz met again; the bout ended as a draw, allowing Ruiz to keep the title.

  • Ruiz, José Martínez (Spanish literary critic)

    Azorín, novelist, essayist, and the foremost Spanish literary critic of his day. He was one of a group of writers who were engaged at the turn of the 20th century in a concerted attempt to revitalize Spanish life and letters. Azorín was the first to identify this group as the Generation of ’98—a n

  • Ruiz, Juan (Spanish poet)

    Juan Ruiz, poet and cleric whose masterpiece, the Libro de buen amor (1330; expanded in 1343; The Book of Good Love) is perhaps the most important long poem in the literature of medieval Spain. Almost nothing is known of Ruiz’s life apart from the information he gives in the Libro: he was educated

  • Ruiz, Mount (volcano, Colombia)

    Mount Ruiz, volcano in the Cordillera Central of the Andes, west-central Colombia, noted for its two eruptions on Nov. 13, 1985, which were among the most destructive in recorded history. Located about 80 miles (130 km) west of Bogotá, it is the northernmost of some two dozen active volcanoes

  • Ruiz, Pablo (Spanish artist)

    Pablo Picasso, Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most-influential artists of the 20th century and the creator (with Georges Braque) of Cubism. (For more information on Picasso’s name see Researcher’s Note: Picasso’s full name.)

  • Ruiz, Raoul (Chilean-born French motion-picture director, screenwriter, and playwright)

    Raúl Ernesto Ruiz Pino, (Raoul Ruiz), Chilean-born French motion-picture director, screenwriter, and playwright (born July 25, 1941, Puerto Montt, Chile—died Aug. 19, 2011, Paris, France), combined his love of classic literature with his fondness for movies in more than 100 films that showcased his

  • Ruizong (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Ruizong, temple name (miaohao) of the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He was placed on the throne by his mother, the future empress Wuhou, in 684, before she decided to set him aside and rule the country herself in 690. This was the first such usurpation in Chinese history. Although

  • rujia (Chinese philosophy)

    Confucianism: The historical context: …by Chinese historians as the rujia, “scholarly tradition,” that had its origins two millennia previously, when the legendary sages Yao and Shun created a civilized world through moral persuasion.

  • Rukavishnikov, Nikolay Nikolayevich (Soviet cosmonaut)

    Nikolay Nikolayevich Rukavishnikov, Russian cosmonaut (born Sept. 18, 1932, Tomsk, Siberia, U.S.S.R.—died Oct. 19, 2002, Moscow, Russia), on his third trip into space, became the first cosmonaut to land a spacecraft manually. Rukavishnikov trained as an engineer at the Moscow Physical Engineering I

  • Rukeyser, Louis (American author and television personality)

    Louis Rukeyser, American author and television personality (born Jan. 30, 1933, New York, N.Y.—died May 2, 2006, Greenwich, Conn.), was the dapper host of PBS’s breakthrough financial television program Wall $treet Week, which featured a panel of experts giving their predictions on the movement o

  • Rukeyser, Muriel (American poet)

    Muriel Rukeyser, American poet whose work focused on social and political problems. Rukeyser attended private schools and in 1930–32 was a student at Vassar College. During that time she contributed poems to Poetry magazine and other periodicals. She worked on the staff of the Student Review in

  • Rukh (political party, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Political process: The centre-right, nationalistic Popular Movement of Ukraine, or Rukh, founded in 1989, was instrumental in the campaign for Ukrainian independence but afterward lost strength. The CPU—re-formed in 1993 after a 1991 ban on the Soviet-era CPU was lifted—retains support, mainly in the industrialized and Russophone reaches of eastern…

  • rukh (legendary bird)

    Roc, gigantic legendary bird, said to carry off elephants and other large beasts for food. It is mentioned in the famous collection of Arabic tales, The Thousand and One Nights, and by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo, who referred to it in describing Madagascar and other islands off the coast of e

  • rukhkh (legendary bird)

    Roc, gigantic legendary bird, said to carry off elephants and other large beasts for food. It is mentioned in the famous collection of Arabic tales, The Thousand and One Nights, and by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo, who referred to it in describing Madagascar and other islands off the coast of e

  • Rukhnama (work by Niyazov)

    Saparmurad Niyazov: Presidency: …the Turkmen people, the semi-autobiographical Rukhnama (“The Book of the Soul”). The work became the basis of education at all levels, even forming a part of the driver’s exams.

  • Ruki River (river, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Ruki River, river in northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo, central Africa. It is formed by the union of the Momboyo and Busira rivers above Ingende. The river flows 100 miles (160 km) west-northwest to the Congo River at Mbandaka and is navigable throughout its

  • Rukn ad-Dawlah (Būyid ruler)

    Būyid Dynasty: …seized Isfahan and Fārs, while ?asan and A?mad took Jibāl, Khūzestān, and Kermān (935–936). In December 945 A?mad occupied the ?Abbāsid capital of Baghdad as amīr al-umarā? (commander in chief) and, reducing the Sunnī caliphs to puppet status, established Būyid rule (January 946). Thereafter the brothers were known by their…

  • Rukn ad-Dīn Mas?ūd I (Seljuq sultan of Rūm)

    Anatolia: Seljuq expansion: …was his son Rukn al-Dīn Mas?ūd I. He seized Konya in 1116 with the help of his father-in-law Amīr Ghāzī Gümüshtegin Dānishmend, who had come to power after the death of his father Malik Dānishmend Ghāzī. During his nearly 40-year rule Rukn al-Dīn Mas?ūd held back the Byzantines while patiently…

  • Rukn ad-Dīn Q?l?ch Arslān IV (Seljuq sultan)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …his younger brothers Rukn al-Dīn Q?l?ch Arslān IV (1248–65) and ?Alā? al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh II (1249–57) were installed east of the K?z?l. From this point onward the Seljuq sultans were essentially figureheads, while real power remained in the hands of administrators such as Shams al-Dīn I?fahānī (1246–49), Jalāl al-Dīn Qara?āy (1249–54),…

  • Rukwa, Lake (lake, Tanzania)

    Lake Rukwa, lake, southwestern Tanzania, Eastern Africa. It is part of an inland drainage system in the Rukwa Trough, which probably at one time belonged to the East African Rift Valley system of which Lake Nyasa is a part. The lake covers an area of about 1,000 square miles (2,600 square km) and

  • rule (instrument)

    hand tool: Rules: The unit of linear measure in the ancient world, the cubit, was simply the length from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger. Although the cubit gave an order of magnitude, it was hardly a standard, and it varied widely in different…

  • rule (political science)

    Rule, in political science, a principle to which action should conform or a widely accepted standard of behaviour. The American political scientist Elinor Ostrom, a cowinner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Science, defined rules as prescriptions that define which actions are required,

  • Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying, The (work by Taylor)

    Jeremy Taylor: …of Holy Living (1650) and The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1651). These devotional handbooks were written to help members of the Church of England who were deprived of a regular ministry during the disturbances of the Commonwealth. The books’ beauty and spiritual insight made them popular with all…

  • Rule and Exercises of Holy Living, The (work by Taylor)

    Jeremy Taylor: …had written his enduring works: The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (1650) and The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1651). These devotional handbooks were written to help members of the Church of England who were deprived of a regular ministry during the disturbances of the Commonwealth. The books’…

  • Rule Book of the Emperors’ Special Account (ancient Egyptian regulations)

    ancient Egypt: Society, religion, and culture: …fiscal regulations such as the Rule-Book of the Emperors’ Special Account. The Rule-Book prescribed conditions under which people of different status might marry, for instance, or bequeath property, and it fixed fines, confiscations, and other penalties for transgression. When an edict of the emperor Caracalla conferred Roman citizenship on practically…

  • rule by one (political philosophy)

    democracy: Aristotle: Thus “rule by one” is monarchy in its ideal form and tyranny in its perverted form (see tyrant); “rule by the few” is aristocracy in its ideal form and oligarchy in its perverted form; and “rule by the many” is “polity” in its ideal form and…

  • rule by the few (political philosophy)

    democracy: Aristotle: …perverted form (see tyrant); “rule by the few” is aristocracy in its ideal form and oligarchy in its perverted form; and “rule by the many” is “polity” in its ideal form and democracy in its perverted form.

  • rule by the many (political philosophy)

    democracy: Aristotle: …its perverted form; and “rule by the many” is “polity” in its ideal form and democracy in its perverted form.

  • rule of law (political philosophy)

    Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a nonarbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism,

  • rule of necessitation (logic)

    formal logic: Alternative systems of modal logic: …theorem so is Lα (the rule of necessitation). The intuitive rationale of this rule is that, in a sound axiomatic system, it is expected that every instance of a theorem α will be not merely true but necessarily true—and in that case every instance of Lα will be true.

  • rule of nines (medicine)

    burn: The skin area on each arm is roughly 9 percent of the body total, as is the skin covering the head and neck. The percentage on each leg is 18, and the percentage on the trunk is 18 on the front and 18 on the…

  • Rule of Phase Applied to History (essay by Adams)

    Henry Adams: In two speculative essays, “Rule of Phase Applied to History” (1909) and Letter to American Teachers of History (1910), Adams calculated the demise of the world. Basing his theory on a scientific law, the dissipation of energy, he described civilization as having retrogressed through four stages: the religious, mechanical,…

  • rule of quantifier rearrangement (logic)

    formal logic: Logical manipulations in LPC: …be called the rule of quantifier rearrangement.

  • rule of quantifier transformation (logic)

    formal logic: Logical manipulations in LPC: …be called the rule of quantifier transformation. It reflects, in a generalized form, the intuitive connections between some and every that were noted above.

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