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  • Russell, John Scott (British engineer)

    John Scott Russell, British civil engineer best known for researches in ship design. He designed the first seagoing battleship built entirely of iron. A graduate of the University of Glasgow (at age 16), Russell became professor of natural philosophy in 1832 at the University of Edinburgh, where he

  • Russell, John, 1st earl of Bedford (British noble)

    John Russell, 1st earl of Bedford, founder of the wealth and greatness of the house of Russell, who was a favourite of England’s Henry VIII and was created earl of Bedford during the reign of Edward VI. He was with Henry VIII at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 and, returning to military service

  • Russell, John, 4th duke of Bedford (British noble)

    John Russell, 4th duke of Bedford, leader of the “Bedford Whigs,” a major parliamentary force in the third quarter of the 18th century in England. Brother of the 3rd Duke (Wriothesley Russell), he joined the opposition to Sir Robert Walpole and in November 1744 became first lord of the Admiralty in

  • Russell, Jonathan (American politician)

    John Quincy Adams: Break with the Federalists: …men, with Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell, began negotiations with English commissioners that resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24 of that year. Adams then visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and next went to London, where, with Clay and…

  • Russell, Julius (American actor and comedian)

    Nipsey Russell, American actor and comedian known for the clever impromptu verses that he created for his television appearances. Russell was raised in Atlanta, where he began performing as a child in a singing and dancing troupe. He served in the army as a medic during World War II and later

  • Russell, Ken (British film director)

    Ken Russell, British motion-picture director whose use of shock and sensationalism earned him both praise and reprehension from critics. The son of a shoe-store owner, Russell became a cadet at the Nautical College at Pangbourne and subsequently joined the British Merchant Navy. After training as

  • Russell, Kurt (American actor)

    Kurt Russell, American actor who became a child star in the 1960s, appearing in a number of Disney films, and then transitioned to a successful career as a leading man, perhaps best known for his action dramas. When Russell was four, his family moved from Massachusetts to California. There his

  • Russell, Kurt Vogel (American actor)

    Kurt Russell, American actor who became a child star in the 1960s, appearing in a number of Disney films, and then transitioned to a successful career as a leading man, perhaps best known for his action dramas. When Russell was four, his family moved from Massachusetts to California. There his

  • Russell, Larry (American composer)
  • Russell, Leon (American songwriter, producer, and musician)

    Leon Russell, (Claude Russell Bridges), American songwriter, producer, and musician (born April 2, 1942, Lawton, Okla.—died Nov. 13, 2016, Nashville, Tenn.), was a session player for a large and varied number of artists before becoming a star in his own right in the 1970s. Russell sang in a raspy

  • Russell, Lillian (American actress)

    Lillian Russell, American singer and actress in light comedies who represented the feminine ideal of her generation. She was as famous for her flamboyant personal life as for her beauty and voice. Helen Leonard attended convent and private schools in Chicago. About 1877 or 1878 she was taken by her

  • Russell, Lord John (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, prime minister of Great Britain (1846–52, 1865–66), an aristocratic liberal and leader of the fight for passage of the Reform Bill of 1832. Russell was the third son of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford. (As the younger son of a peer, he was known for most of his

  • Russell, Majors and Waddell (American company)

    Russell, Majors and Waddell, business partnership formed by William Hepburn Russell, Alexander Majors, and William Bradford Waddell that operated the most prominent freight, mail, and passenger transportation company in the United States in the mid-19th century and, most famously, established the

  • Russell, Morgan (American artist)

    Morgan Russell, American painter who was an early proponent of abstraction. After studying under Robert Henri in New York City, Russell moved to Paris in 1906 and lived there for 40 years. In 1913–14 he and Stanton Macdonald-Wright established Synchromism (q.v.) as an avant-garde movement, issuing

  • Russell, Nipsey (American actor and comedian)

    Nipsey Russell, American actor and comedian known for the clever impromptu verses that he created for his television appearances. Russell was raised in Atlanta, where he began performing as a child in a singing and dancing troupe. He served in the army as a medic during World War II and later

  • Russell, Pee Wee (American musician)

    Pee Wee Russell, American jazz clarinetist who, with his unpredictable style, was the first post-swing-era modernist on that instrument. Reluctantly trained in violin as a child, Russell also tried piano and drums before settling on the clarinet, on which he became a distinctive stylist. Russell

  • Russell, Richard B. (United States senator)

    Sam Nunn: Richard Russell. His most noteworthy legislative achievements include drafting the 1986 Department of Defense Reorganization Act and, with Sen. Richard Lugar, the 1991 Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The former resulted in the most-significant defense reorganization since the National Security Act of 1947, and the…

  • Russell, Richard Joel (American geologist)

    Richard Joel Russell, geologist known for his studies of coastal morphology. He was a professor of geology at Texas Technological College (Lubbock) from 1926 until 1928, when he joined the faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agriculture and Mechanical College (Baton Rouge), where he was

  • Russell, Robert Scott (British botanist and mountaineer)

    Robert Scott Russell, British botanist and mountaineer, became in 1957 the first director of the Agricultural Research Council Radiobiological Laboratory, a facility in the U.K. established to monitor and predict the consequences of nuclear fallout on food crops and human nutrition. He studied at

  • Russell, Rosalind (American actress)

    Rosalind Russell, American actress who was best remembered for her film and stage portrayals of witty, assertive, independent women. Russell attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and made her Broadway debut in 1930 in the Theatre Guild’s Garrick Gaieties. Four years later she was under

  • Russell, Thomas (Irish leader)

    Society of United Irishmen: …Tone, James Napper Tandy, and Thomas Russell to achieve Roman Catholic emancipation and (with Protestant cooperation) parliamentary reform. British attempts to suppress the society caused its reorganization as an underground movement dedicated to securing complete Irish independence. In April 1794 the society opened negotiations with Revolutionary France for military aid,…

  • Russell, William (British noble)

    William Russell, 1st duke and 5th earl of Bedford, eldest son of the 4th earl, who fought first on the side of Parliament and then on the side of Charles I during the English Civil War. In general, he played a minor part in politics. His son Lord William Russell (1639–83) was involved in the

  • Russell, William Felton (American basketball player)

    Bill Russell, American basketball player who was the first outstanding defensive centre in the history of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and one of the sport’s greatest icons. He won 11 NBA titles in the 13 seasons that he played with the Boston Celtics, and he became the first African

  • Russell, William Hepburn (American businessman)

    William Hepburn Russell, American businessman and coproprietor of Russell, Majors and Waddell, the most prominent freight, mail, and passenger transportation company in the United States in the mid-19th century. The company founded and operated the Pony Express (1860–61). Russell’s family was

  • Russell, William Howard (British journalist)

    history of publishing: Foundations of modern journalism: William Howard Russell, a reporter for the London Times during the Crimean War (1853–56), became famous as one of the first war correspondents, and his writings inspired Florence Nightingale to take up her mission to Crimea. More than 150 war correspondents reported on the American

  • Russell, William Russell, Lord (English politician)

    William Russell, Lord Russell, English Whig politician executed for allegedly plotting to murder King Charles II and his Roman Catholic brother James, Duke of York. Because the charges against Russell were never conclusively proved, he was lauded as a martyr by the Whigs, who claimed that he was

  • Russell-Brown, Anna Claudia (British entertainer)

    Anna Russell, (Anna Claudia Russell-Brown), British entertainer (born Dec. 27, 1911, London, Eng.—died Oct. 18, 2006, Rosedale, N.S.W., Australia), was hailed as “the Queen of Musical Parody” for her hilarious burlesques of operas and other “serious” art music, into which she interjected deadpan “

  • Russell-Saunders coupling (physics)

    spectroscopy: Total orbital angular momentum and total spin angular momentum: …the assignment is called the L-S coupling, or Russell-Saunders coupling (after the astronomer Henry Norris Russell and the physicist Frederick A. Saunders, both of the United States).

  • Russell-Silver syndrome (pathology)

    genomic imprinting: Imprinting and fetal development: Additionally, in Silver-Russell syndrome (or Russell-Silver syndrome), a maternal uniparental disomy (both copies of a chromosome or partial chromosome are inherited from one parent), growth restriction is present. Similar effects are found in other cases of disordered imprinting. Preeclampsia, for example, in which disordered imprinting has been…

  • Russert, Tim (American journalist)

    Tim Russert, American journalist who, as moderator (1991–2008) of the television program Meet the Press, was one of the most influential political commentators of his day. Russert studied political science at John Carroll University (B.A., 1972) in Ohio before earning a law degree from

  • Russert, Timothy John, Jr. (American journalist)

    Tim Russert, American journalist who, as moderator (1991–2008) of the television program Meet the Press, was one of the most influential political commentators of his day. Russert studied political science at John Carroll University (B.A., 1972) in Ohio before earning a law degree from

  • russet frog (amphibian)

    Common frog, (species Rana temporaria), largely terrestrial frog (family Ranidae), native to Europe, from Great Britain to central Russia. It is known in continental Europe as either grass frog or russet frog. The common frog is smooth-skinned, and adults are 7 to 10 cm (2.8 to 3.9 inches) long.

  • Russi, Bernhard (Swiss skier)

    Olympic Games: Sapporo, Japan, 1972: Ironically, Bernhard Russi (Switzerland), who won the men’s downhill, had allowed an insurance corporation to use his likeness in media advertisements.

  • Russia

    Russia, country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December

  • Russia (work by Cobden)

    Richard Cobden: …Ireland, and America (1835) and Russia (1836)—in which he demanded a new approach to foreign policy, based not on attempts to maintain a balance of power but on the recognition of the prime necessity of promoting international economic expansion through the free movement of men and materials. He continued to…

  • Russia (historical state, Eurasia)

    Soviet Union, former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S.S.R.’s): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia (now Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya (now

  • Russia (work by Balakirev)

    Mily Balakirev: …ultimately became the symphonic poem Russia; he spent summer holidays in the Caucasus, gathering themes and inspiration for his brilliant piano fantasy Islamey (1869) and his symphonic poem Tamara (1867–82); he published the works of composer Mikhail Glinka and visited Prague to produce them; and for a time (1867–69) he…

  • Russia and Europe (work by Masaryk)

    Tomá? Masaryk: Early life: In Russia and Europe (1913) he provided a critical survey of the Russian religious, intellectual, and social crises—the contradictions and confusions of the “Byzantine” retardation of Russian society by the Orthodox church and reactionary ideas.

  • Russia and Europe (work by Danilevsky)

    Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky: …and historical philosopher, author of Rossiya i Evropa (1869; “Russia and Europe”), who was the first to propound the philosophy of history as a series of distinct civilizations. According to him, Russia and the Slavs should remain indifferent to the West and concentrate on the development of political absolutism, their…

  • Russia and the Russians (work by Turgenev)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev: In 1847 he published Russia and the Russians, regarded as one of the first comprehensive accounts of the development of Russian political thought.

  • Russia Company (English trade organization)

    Muscovy Company, body of English merchants trading with Russia. The company was formed in 1555 by the navigator and explorer Sebastian Cabot and various London merchants and was granted a monopoly of Anglo-Russian trade. It was the first English joint-stock company in which the capital remained r

  • Russia Today (Russian television network)

    Alex Salmond: … The Alex Salmond Show on RT (formerly Russia Today) television, the Russian-operated cable news channel that some observers in the West characterized as not only a propaganda outlet for Kremlin policy but also a tool for Russian intelligence operations. Criticism of Salmond’s presence on RT even came from SNP members,…

  • Russia, flag of

    horizontally striped white-blue-red national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.Tsar Peter I the Great had ambitious plans to transform Russia into a modern state. Building a Russian navy was part of that program, and he visited the Netherlands to learn about the most advanced shipbuilding

  • Russia, history of

    Russia: Prehistory and the rise of the Rus: …is now the territory of Russia since the 2nd millennium bce, but little is known about their ethnic identity, institutions, and activities. In ancient times, Greek and Iranian settlements appeared in the southernmost portions of what is now Ukraine. Trading empires of that era seem to have known and exploited…

  • Russian (people)

    Belarus: Ethnic groups: Russians, many of whom migrated to the Belorussian S.S.R. in the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s, form the second largest ethnic group, accounting for roughly one-tenth of the population. Most of the remainder are Poles and Ukrainians, with much smaller numbers of Jews, Latvians, Lithuanians, and…

  • Russian Academy of Artistic Sciences (academy, Moscow, Russia)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Russian interlude: In 1921 he founded the Russian Academy of Artistic Sciences. But by then the Soviet government was veering from avant-garde art to Social Realism, and so, at the end of the year, he and his wife left Moscow for Berlin.

  • Russian Academy of Arts (academy, Russia)

    Russia: The 19th century: In the 1830s the Russian Academy of Arts (which had been founded in 1757) began sending Russian painters abroad for training. Among the most gifted of these were Aleksandr Ivanov and Karl Bryullov, both of whom were known for Romantic historical canvases. A truly national tradition of painting did…

  • Russian alphabet

    Cyrillic alphabet: The modern Cyrillic alphabets—Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian—have been modified somewhat from the original, generally by the loss of some superfluous letters. Modern Russian has 32 letters (33, with inclusion of the soft sign—which is not, strictly speaking, a letter), Bulgarian 30, Serbian 30, and Ukrainian 32 (33).…

  • Russian and Chinese Turkestan (historical region, Central Asia)

    history of Central Asia: …19th-century explorers and geographers as Russian and Chinese Turkistan.

  • Russian Army

    Russia: The Petrine state: …organization to a “European” professional army (as it developed in the course of the so-called military revolution of the 17th century) had been initiated during the reigns of Tsars Michael and Alexis. But it was Peter who gave it the full-fledged “modern” form it retained until the middle of the…

  • Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (Soviet organization)

    RAPP, association formed in the Soviet Union in 1928 out of various groups of proletarian writers who were dedicated to defining a truly proletarian literature and to eliminating writers whose works were not thoroughly imbued with Communist ideology. Under the leadership of Leopold Averbakh, RAPP

  • Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian government organization)

    Roskosmos, Russian government organization founded in 1992 that is responsible for managing the Russian space program. Its headquarters are in Moscow. The head of Roskosmos is assisted by a board, a science and engineering council, and the heads of 11 departments. Roskomos is the descendant of the

  • Russian Baptist Union (religious organization, Russia)

    Union of Evangelical Christian Baptists: …of Evangelical Christians and the Russian Baptist Union. The Baptists in Russia grew from religious revival movements that began in the 1860s and ’70s. In Ukraine, groups of Russians influenced by German Mennonite settlers gathered for Bible study and eventually adopted Baptist beliefs. In Georgia, German Baptists gained converts and…

  • Russian Baroque (architecture)

    St. Petersburg: The rise to splendour: Stasov, working in the Russian Baroque style, which combined clear-cut, even austere lines with richness of decoration and use of colour. To this period belong the Winter Palace, the Smolny Convent, and the Vorontsov and Stroganov palaces, among others; outside the city were built the summer palaces of Peterhof…

  • Russian Blue (breed of cat)

    Russian Blue, breed of domestic cat noted for the quality of its short, plushlike coat. Characteristically a quiet and gentle cat, the Russian Blue is a solidly coloured, blue-gray cat with round, green eyes and soft, silky fur that resembles sealskin in texture. A fine-boned cat with long, slim

  • Russian Catholic Church (religion)

    Russian Catholic church, an Eastern Catholic church of the Byzantine rite, in communion with Rome since the early 20th century. A small number of Orthodox Russians, influenced by Vladimir Solovyov, a philosopher and theologian, converted to Catholicism (c. 1900), retaining their rite. Just before

  • Russian Central Bank (bank, Russia)

    Russia: Finance: The Russian Central Bank (RCB), which took over the functions of the Soviet-era Gosbank, is exclusively responsible for regulating the country’s monetary system. The bank’s primary function is to protect and stabilize the ruble, which it attempts to do through its control of foreign exchange. Under…

  • Russian chant (music)

    Russian chant, monophonic, or unison, chant of the liturgy of the Russian Orthodox church. Musical manuscripts from the 11th to the 13th century suggest that, at first, chanting in Russia almost certainly followed Byzantine melodies, which were adapted to the accentual patterns of the Old Church

  • Russian Chemical Society (Russian organization)

    Dmitri Mendeleev: Activities outside the laboratory: …Russian Chemical Society (now the Mendeleev Russian Chemical Society) in 1868 and published most of his later papers in its journal. He was a prolific thinker and writer. His published works include 400 books and articles, and numerous unpublished manuscripts are kept to this day in the Dmitri Mendeleev Museum…

  • Russian Church Abroad

    Eastern Orthodoxy: The Orthodox diaspora and missions: …and became known as the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR). It had no canonical relation with the official Orthodox patriarchates and churches until May 2007. That year, following reforms within both Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, the…

  • Russian Civil War (Russian history)

    Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Russia’s disastrous performance in World War I was one of the primary causes of the

  • Russian Communist Party (political party, Soviet Union)

    Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the major political party of Russia and the Soviet Union from the Russian Revolution of October 1917 to 1991. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union arose from the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (RSDWP). The Bolsheviks,

  • Russian crash (textile)

    crash: The coarsest type is called Russian crash. Linen is generally used for the warp yarn, while linen, jute, or a mixture of linen and jute is used for the filler. Plain weave is normally employed, but twill is sometimes used.

  • Russian desman (mammal)

    desman: The tail of the Russian desman (Desmana moschata) is flattened horizontally and has scent glands at its base that exude a strong musky odour that envelops the animal. The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) of western Europe has similar scent glands. It has a cylindrical tail, flat near its tip…

  • Russian duck (cloth)

    duck: Russian duck is a fine white linen canvas.

  • Russian Empire (historical empire Europe)

    Russian Empire, historical empire founded on November 2 (October 22, Old Style), 1721, when the Russian Senate conferred the title of emperor (imperator) of all the Russias upon Peter I. The abdication of Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, marked the end of the empire and its ruling Romanov dynasty.

  • Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian government organization)

    Roskosmos, Russian government organization founded in 1992 that is responsible for managing the Russian space program. Its headquarters are in Moscow. The head of Roskosmos is assisted by a board, a science and engineering council, and the heads of 11 departments. Roskomos is the descendant of the

  • Russian Federation

    Russia, country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December

  • Russian Figure Skating Federation (Russian sports organization)

    figure skating: Regional and national: The Russian Figure Skating Federation is composed of more than 40 clubs, each with its own separate championships. The clubs are then split into several regions. To gain a berth at the Russian nationals, skaters must acquire a high number of competition points and finish in…

  • Russian Five, The (Russian composers)

    The Five, group of five Russian composers—César Cui, Aleksandr Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov—who in the 1860s banded together in an attempt to create a truly national school of Russian music, free of the stifling influence of Italian opera, German lieder,

  • Russian Formalism (literary criticism)

    Formalism, innovative 20th-century Russian school of literary criticism. It began in two groups: OPOYAZ, an acronym for Russian words meaning Society for the Study of Poetic Language, founded in 1916 at St. Petersburg (later Leningrad) and led by Viktor Shklovsky; and the Moscow Linguistic Circle,

  • Russian Futurism (art movement)

    Cubo-Futurism, Russian avant-garde art movement in the 1910s that emerged as an offshoot of European Futurism and Cubism. The term Cubo-Futurism was first used in 1913 by an art critic regarding the poetry of members of the Hylaea group (Russian Gileya), which included such writers as Velimir

  • Russian icon (art)
  • Russian language

    Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet: RussianThe Russian Cyrillic alphabet.principal state and cultural language of Russia. Together with Ukrainian and Belarusian, the Russian language makes up the eastern branch of the Slavic family of languages. Russian is the primary language of the overwhelming

  • Russian Law (Russia [1016])

    Russia: Social and political institutions: …code (1016), called the “Russian Law,” was one of the “Barbarian” law codes common throughout Germanic Europe. It dealt primarily with princely law—that is, with the fines to be imposed by the prince or his representative in the case of specified offenses.

  • Russian Liberation Army

    Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov: The Russian Liberation Army, which he also headed, was composed of former Russian soldiers captured by the Germans. Near the end of the war, Vlasov’s 50,000 troops were allowed by their distrustful German sponsors to go into battle against the advancing Red Army. Most of them…

  • Russian literature

    Russian literature, the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century. The unusual shape of Russian literary history has been the source of numerous controversies. Three major and sudden breaks divide it into four

  • Russian Mountains (roller coaster)

    roller coaster: Origins in Europe: …of a ride called the Russian Mountains (Les Montagnes Russes). Small wheels were added to the sleds on this ride, a key modification that later persuaded some historians to credit it as the first wheeled coaster. Little attention was given to safety measures, yet, oddly enough, the injuries that passengers…

  • Russian mulberry (plant)

    mulberry: Major species: …white mulberry are the cold-resistant Russian mulberry (M. alba, variety tatarica), introduced into western North America for shelterbelts and local timber use, and fruitless sorts such as the ‘Stribling’ and ‘Mapleleaf’ cultivars. The weeping mulberry (M. alba ‘Pendula’) is frequently used as a lawn tree.

  • Russian National Unity (Russian paramilitary organization)

    fascism: Russia: The Russian National Unity (Russkoe Natsionalnoe Edinstvo; RNE), a paramilitary organization founded in 1990 by Aleksandr Barkashov, claimed to have an extensive network of local branches, but its electoral support was significantly less than that of the LDPR. Barkashov, a former commando in the Russian army,…

  • Russian olive (tree)

    Oleaster, small deciduous tree of Eurasia, about 4.5 to 6 m (15 to 20 feet) high. It has smooth, dark brown branches that often bear spines and narrow, light green leaves that are silvery on the undersides from a covering of minute scales. The flowers are small, greenish, fragrant, and

  • Russian Orthodox Church

    Russian Orthodox Church, one of the largest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, Eastern Orthodox churches in the world. Its membership is estimated at more than 90 million. For more on Orthodox beliefs and practices, see Eastern Orthodoxy. Christianity was apparently introduced into the

  • Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia

    Eastern Orthodoxy: The Orthodox diaspora and missions: …and became known as the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR). It had no canonical relation with the official Orthodox patriarchates and churches until May 2007. That year, following reforms within both Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, the…

  • Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of America

    Orthodox Church in America, ecclesiastically independent, or autocephalous, church of the Eastern Orthodox communion, recognized as such by its mother church in Russia; it adopted its present name on April 10, 1970. Established in 1794 in Alaska, then Russian territory, the Russian Orthodox mission

  • Russian People, Union of the (political organization, Russia)

    Nicholas II: Early life and reign: …an extremist right-wing organization, the Union of the Russian People, which sanctioned terrorist methods and disseminated anti-Semitic propaganda. Witte, whom he blamed for the October Manifesto, was soon dismissed, and the first two Dumas were prematurely dissolved as “insubordinate.”

  • Russian Plain (region, Eastern Europe)

    Russian Plain, plain and series of broad river basins in eastern Europe (including western Russia). It extends over nearly 1,500,000 square miles (4,000,000 square km) and averages about 560 feet (170 m) in height. The plain is subdivided into a number of distinct regions, including the Valday

  • Russian Platform (geology)

    Black Sea: Geology: …structural block known as the Russian (or East European) Platform, dating from at least 540 million years ago, appear in the northwest. A second, related platform has a deep cover of sedimentary rocks that were laid later. The deepwater depression, generally considered to be a vast structural downwarp, is an…

  • Russian Primary Chronicle, The (Russian literature)

    The Russian Primary Chronicle, medieval Kievan Rus historical work that gives a detailed account of the early history of the eastern Slavs to the second decade of the 12th century. The chronicle, compiled in Kiev about 1113, was based on materials taken from Byzantine chronicles, west and south

  • Russian Provisional Government (Russian history)

    Russian Provisional Government, internationally recognized government of Russia from February to October (March to November, New Style) 1917. It was formed by the Duma after the collapse of the Romanov dynasty and was initially composed entirely of liberal ministers, with the exception of Aleksandr

  • Russian Public Television (Russian company)

    Boris Berezovsky: …state airline, Aeroflot, and of Russian Public Television (ORT), Russia’s main television channel.

  • Russian Revolution (Russian history [1917])

    Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken.

  • Russian Revolution of 1905

    Russian Revolution of 1905, uprising that was instrumental in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to attempt the transformation of the Russian government from an autocracy into a constitutional monarchy. For several years before 1905 and especially after the humiliating Russo-Japanese War (1904–05),

  • Russian Revolution, The (work by Luxemburg)

    Rosa Luxemburg: …her Die russische Revolution (1922; The Russian Revolution) chastised Lenin’s party on its agrarian and national self-determination stands and its dictatorial and terrorist methods. Luxemburg always remained a believer in democracy as opposed to Lenin’s democratic centralism. She was never able, however, to exercise a decisive influence on the new…

  • Russian S.F.S.R.

    Russia, country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December

  • Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party (political party, Russia)

    Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, Marxist revolutionary party ancestral to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Founded in 1898 in Minsk, the Social-Democratic Party held that Russia could achieve socialism only after developing a bourgeois society with an urban proletariat. It r

  • Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic

    Russia, country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December

  • Russian Space Agency (Russian government organization)

    Roskosmos, Russian government organization founded in 1992 that is responsible for managing the Russian space program. Its headquarters are in Moscow. The head of Roskosmos is assisted by a board, a science and engineering council, and the heads of 11 departments. Roskomos is the descendant of the

  • Russian State Library (library, Moscow, Russia)

    Russian State Library, national library of Russia, located in Moscow, notable for its extensive collection of early printed books and a collection of manuscripts that includes ancient Slavonic codices. Originally founded in 1862 as the library of the Rumyantsev Museum, it was reorganized after the

  • Russian State Museum (museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Russian State Museum, museum opened in St. Petersburg in 1898 as the central museum of Russian art and life. It is housed in the buildings of the former Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Karl Ivanovich Rossi and built in 1819–25. The buildings were converted to a museum in 1896–97, and the museum

  • Russian sturgeon (fish)

    sturgeon: Distribution: The Russian sturgeon, A. guldenstadtii, is one of the most valuable species inhabiting the rivers of Russia and occurs eastward to Lake Baikal. It is about the same size as the common sturgeon and is found particularly in the rivers feeding the Black and Caspian seas.…

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