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  • Ryedale (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Ryedale, district, administrative county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It is named for a small dale and river draining into the Vale of Pickering. Malton is the administrative centre. The predominantly rural district is the largest in area in North Yorkshire.

  • ryegrass (plant)

    Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and

  • Ryerson Polytechnic Institute (institution, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

    Ryerson University, privately endowed institution of higher learning in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1948 as the Ryerson Institute of Technology, named after the educator Egerton Ryerson (1803–82). In 1963–64 the school’s name changed to Ryerson Polytechnic Institute, and in 2002 it

  • Ryerson University (institution, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

    Ryerson University, privately endowed institution of higher learning in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1948 as the Ryerson Institute of Technology, named after the educator Egerton Ryerson (1803–82). In 1963–64 the school’s name changed to Ryerson Polytechnic Institute, and in 2002 it

  • Ryerson, Adolphus Egerton (Canadian educator)

    Egerton Ryerson, Canadian provincial educator and Methodist church leader who founded the public education system of what is now Ontario province. After his own local education, Ryerson taught for a time at a nearby school. He took further studies in Hamilton, Ontario, and then entered the ministry

  • Ryerson, Egerton (Canadian educator)

    Egerton Ryerson, Canadian provincial educator and Methodist church leader who founded the public education system of what is now Ontario province. After his own local education, Ryerson taught for a time at a nearby school. He took further studies in Hamilton, Ontario, and then entered the ministry

  • Rykiel, Sonia (French fashion designer)

    Sonia Rykiel, (Sonia Flis), French fashion designer (born May 25, 1930, Paris, France—died Aug. 25, 2016, Paris), created ready-to-wear collections that were chic and eye-catching and at the same time comfortable and practical. Rykiel was known for her flattering knitwear collections and bold use

  • Ryknield Street (Roman road, Staffordshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Staffordshire: …are now Watling Street and Ryknield Street, intersecting near Lichfield. Roman settlements developed along those roads, including Letocetum (near Wall; at their intersection) and Pennocrucium (near Penkridge). From the 7th until the 9th century the area was the centre of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. Tamworth was the kingdom’s political…

  • Rykov, Aleksey Ivanovich (Soviet statesman)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov, Bolshevik leader who became a prominent Soviet official after the Russian Revolution (October 1917) and one of Joseph Stalin’s major opponents during the late 1920s. Rykov joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party at the age of 18, became a member of its Bolshevik

  • Rylance, Mark (British actor and director)

    Mark Rylance, British theatre actor and director recognized not only for his period-specific enactments of both male and female roles in the works of William Shakespeare but also for his poignant portrayals of contemporary characters. Rylance, habitually consumed by his roles, often kept in

  • Ryland v. Fletcher (British law case)

    tort: Strict liability statutes: …by the English decision of Ryland v. Fletcher (1868), which held that anyone who in the course of “non-natural” use of his land accumulates thereon for his own purposes anything likely to do mischief if it escapes is answerable for all direct damage thereby caused. The German statutes, however, deserve…

  • Ryland, William Wynne (British engraver)

    William Blake: Education as artist and engraver: …the successful and fashionable engraver William Wynne Ryland. Ryland’s fee, perhaps £100, was both “more attainable” than that of fashionable painters and still, for the Blakes, very high; furthermore the boy interposed an unexpected objection: “Father, I do not like the man’s face; it looks as if he will live…

  • Ryle, Gilbert (British philosopher)

    Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher, leading figure in the “Oxford philosophy,” or “ordinary language,” movement. Ryle gained first-class honours at Queen’s College, Oxford, and became a lecturer at Christ Church College in 1924. Throughout his career, which remained centred at Oxford, he

  • Ryle, Sir Martin (British astronomer)

    Sir Martin Ryle, British radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems and used them for accurate location of weak radio sources. With improved equipment, he observed the most distant known galaxies of the universe. Ryle and Antony Hewish shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in

  • Ryleev, Kondraty Fyodorovich (Russian poet)

    Kondraty Fyodorovich Ryleyev, Russian poet and revolutionary, a leader in the Decembrist revolt of 1825. Ryleyev came from a family of poor gentry. He served in the army, spending time in Germany, Switzerland, and France. After his return to Russia, he went to live in Voronezh province, where his

  • Ryleyev, Kondraty Fyodorovich (Russian poet)

    Kondraty Fyodorovich Ryleyev, Russian poet and revolutionary, a leader in the Decembrist revolt of 1825. Ryleyev came from a family of poor gentry. He served in the army, spending time in Germany, Switzerland, and France. After his return to Russia, he went to live in Voronezh province, where his

  • Ryman, Robert (American painter)

    Robert Ryman, American painter whose lifelong production of white paintings reflect a connection to minimalism. Despite the look of his paintings, however, Ryman did not consider himself an abstract painter because, as he said, “I don’t abstract from anything.…I am involved with real space, the

  • Rymer, Thomas (English critic)

    Thomas Rymer, English literary critic who introduced into England the principles of French formalist Neoclassical criticism. As historiographer royal, he also compiled a collection of treaties of considerable value to the medievalist. Rymer left Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, without taking a

  • Rynchopidae (bird)

    Skimmer, any of three species of water birds that constitute the family Rynchopidae in the order Charadriiformes. The skimmer is distinguished by a unique bladelike bill, the lower mandible of which is one-third longer than the upper mandible. By day the skimmer rests onshore, and at twilight the

  • Rynchops nigra (bird)

    skimmer: The largest skimmer is the black skimmer (Rynchops nigra; see photograph) of America, which grows to 50 cm (20 inches) long. The African skimmer (R. flavirostris) and the Indian skimmer (R. albicollis) are smaller.

  • ryo (musical scale)

    Japanese music: Tonal system: >ryo scale shows no great difference from the Chinese seven-tone scale. The ritsu scale, however, seems to reveal the early presence of an indigenous Japanese tonal ideal with the placement of its half steps.

  • Ryōan Temple (temple, Kyōto, Japan)

    Ryōan Temple, Japanese Buddhist temple in Kyōto, famous for its abstract meditation garden (c. 1500). An area approximately 30 by 70 ft (10 by 20 m) is covered with raked gravel and set with 15 stones divided into five unequal groups. The pattern of the design may be interpreted as rocky islets in

  • Ryōan-ji (temple, Kyōto, Japan)

    Ryōan Temple, Japanese Buddhist temple in Kyōto, famous for its abstract meditation garden (c. 1500). An area approximately 30 by 70 ft (10 by 20 m) is covered with raked gravel and set with 15 stones divided into five unequal groups. The pattern of the design may be interpreted as rocky islets in

  • Ryōbu Shintō (Japanese religion)

    Ryōbu Shintō, (Japanese: “Dual Aspect Shintō”, ) in Japanese religion, the syncretic school that combined Shintō with the teachings of the Shingon sect of Buddhism. The school developed during the late Heian (794–1185) and Kamakura (1192–1333) periods. The basis of the school’s beliefs was the

  • Ryōjin hishō (folk song collection)

    Japanese literature: Prose: The collection of folk songs Ryōjin hishō, compiled in 1179 by the emperor Go-Shirakawa, suggests the vitality of this burgeoning popular culture even as the aristocratic society was being threatened with destruction.

  • ryōkai mandara (Japanese painting)

    Japanese art: Esoteric Buddhism: …important iconographic images was the ryōkai mandara (“mandala of the two worlds”), which consisted of two parts—the kongō-kai (“diamond world”) and the taizō-kai (“womb world”)—that organized the Buddhist divinities and their relationships in a prescribed gridlike configuration. The deities or spiritual entities portrayed in these paired paintings represent, in the…

  • Ryōkan (Japanese poet)

    Ryōkan, Zen Buddhist priest of the late Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who was renowned as a poet and calligrapher. The eldest son of a village headman, he became a Buddhist priest at about the age of 17 under the religious name of Taigu Ryōkan. When he was 21 he met an itinerant monk, Kokusen, and

  • Ryōnin (Japanese Buddhist leader)

    Ryōnin, Japanese Buddhist leader who founded the Yūzū Nembutsu (“All-Permeating Amida Buddha”) sect of True Pure Land Buddhism. He initiated the renewal of Buddhist thought in the Kamakura period (1192–1333), when other new schools of Buddhism, such as Zen and Nichiren, also

  • Ryorikh, Nikolay Konstantinovich (Russian set designer)

    Nicholas Roerich, Russian painter, scenic designer, and writer who is perhaps best known for his work with Serge Pavlovich Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes and especially for his monumental historical sets. One noteworthy example was his costume and stage design for the 1913 premiere of Igor Stravinsky’s

  • ryotwari system (Indian tax system)

    Ryotwari system, one of the three principal methods of revenue collection in British India. It was prevalent in most of southern India, being the standard system of the Madras Presidency (a British-controlled area now constituting much of present-day Tamil Nadu and portions of neighbouring states).

  • Rypien, Mark (American football player)

    Washington Redskins: Joe Theismann, Doug Williams, and Mark Rypien. Running back John Riggins, wide receiver Art Monk, and cornerback Darrell Green—all future Hall of Famers—starred for the Redskins during their Super Bowl-winning run, which was also famous for featuring rugged offensive lines known by the nickname “the Hogs.” Gibbs retired in 1993,…

  • Rypticus saponaceus (fish)

    soapfish: The greater soapfish (Rypticus saponaceus), the best known member of the group, is found in the Atlantic from the southern United States and northern South America to West Africa. The species is characterized by three distinct dorsal spines and is sometimes called the three-spined soapfish.

  • Rysanek, Leonie (Austrian singer)

    Leonie Rysanek, Austrian operatic soprano whose nearly 50-year career, with over 2,100 performances, was distinguished by notable portrayals of Richard Strauss and Richard Wagner heroines; at one performance the applause lasted throughout an entire intermission (b. Nov. 14, 1926, Vienna,

  • Rysbrack, John Michael (English sculptor)

    John Michael Rysbrack, one of the principal sculptors and designers in England in the 18th century. Rysbrack studied at Antwerp, probably in the workshop of Michael van de Voort. In 1720 he established himself in London, where he lived until his death. Rysbrack worked in a classical, sometimes

  • Rysdyk’s Hambletonian (American racehorse)

    Hambletonian, (foaled 1849), American harness racehorse (Standardbred) that was the ancestor of most present-day harness racers. The thrice inbred great-grandson of Messenger (foundation sire of the breed of Standardbreds), he was the son of Abdallah out of a crippled mare. His original owner sold

  • Rysselberghe, Théo Van (Belgian artist)

    Théo Van Rysselberghe, Belgian painter, sculptor, and designer who, together with Henry van de Velde, headed the large rank of Belgian artists that adhered to Neo-Impressionism. Van Rysselberghe studied in Ghent and Brussels, and he was among the founders of both the Twenty (Les XX) and the Free

  • Rysselberghe, Théophile Van (Belgian artist)

    Théo Van Rysselberghe, Belgian painter, sculptor, and designer who, together with Henry van de Velde, headed the large rank of Belgian artists that adhered to Neo-Impressionism. Van Rysselberghe studied in Ghent and Brussels, and he was among the founders of both the Twenty (Les XX) and the Free

  • Ryswick (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, gemeente (municipality), western Netherlands, on the southeastern outskirts of The Hague (’s-Gravenhage). The Reformed church dates from the 14th century, and there are some 17th-century houses. Although primarily residential, the town has oil wells, laboratories, and an important

  • Ryswick, Treaty of (Europe [1697])

    King William's War: …protracted war ended with the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697). Because of the importance of Indian participation, it is also known as the first of the four French and Indian Wars.

  • Rysy, Mount (mountain, Poland)

    Ma?opolskie: Geography: Mount Rysy (8,199 feet [2,499 metres]), in the Tatra Mountains, is the highest peak in Poland. Other elevated features are the Krakowsko-Cz?stochowska Upland, the Carpathian Foothills, the West Beskid Mountains (the Beskidy), the Middle Beskids, and the Podhale, which includes the Pieniny Mountains. The main…

  • rythmique (dance)

    Eurythmics, harmonious bodily movement as a form of artistic expression—specifically, the Dalcroze system of musical education in which bodily movements are used to represent musical rhythms. Eurythmics was developed about 1905 by Swiss musician émile Jaques-Dalcroze, a professor of harmony at the

  • Ryti, Risto (Finnish politician)

    Finland: The Winter War: …a coalition government formed under Risto Ryti. Despite courageous resistance and a number of successful defense actions, the defense of the Karelian Isthmus broke down, and Finland had to initiate peace negotiations. By the Treaty of Moscow of March 12, 1940, Finland surrendered a large area of southeastern Finland, including…

  • ryū (Japanese mythology)

    dragon: …Chinese culture, and there (as ryū or tatsu) it became capable of changing its size at will, even to the point of becoming invisible. Both Chinese and Japanese dragons, though regarded as powers of the air, are usually wingless. They are among the deified forces of nature in Taoism.

  • Ryu Chishu (Japanese actor)

    Chishu Ryu, Japanese actor (born May 13, 1906, Tamamizu, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan—died March 16, 1993, Yokohama, Japan), was one of Japan’s most enduring character actors; he was best known for his long association with the acclaimed cinema director Yasujiro Ozu, having appeared in all but two o

  • Ryu, Chishu (Japanese actor)

    Chishu Ryu, Japanese actor (born May 13, 1906, Tamamizu, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan—died March 16, 1993, Yokohama, Japan), was one of Japan’s most enduring character actors; he was best known for his long association with the acclaimed cinema director Yasujiro Ozu, having appeared in all but two o

  • Ryugu (asteroid)

    Hayabusa: Hayabusa2: …from Kagoshima to the asteroid Ryugu. The spacecraft had the same basic design as the first Hayabusa. However, instead of one rover, it carried three: the MINERVA-II1 rovers 1A and 1B and MINERVA-II2 rover 2. It also had a small lander, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout), which had been developed…

  • Ryukyu Islands (archipelago, Japan)

    Ryukyu Islands, archipelago, extending some 700 miles (1,100 km) southwestward from the southern Japanese island of Kyushu to northeastern Taiwan. The archipelago defines the boundary between the East China Sea (west) and the Philippine Sea (east). With a total land area of 1,193 square miles

  • Ryukyu mouse (rodent)

    mouse: Natural history: …mice is exemplified by the Ryukyu mouse (M. caroli). This mouse loosens soil with its incisor teeth, carrying a load of debris in its mouth and piling it outside the burrow entrance or sometimes stacking loose soil inside the burrow and then pushing the pile out with its hind feet.…

  • Ryukyu Trench (trench, Pacific Ocean)

    Ryukyu Trench, deep ocean trench running north along the eastern edge of the Ryukyu Islands (Japan) in the Philippine Sea, between Taiwan and the Japanese archipelago. The Ryukyu Trench reaches a maximum depth of 24,629 feet (7,507 m) about 60 miles (90 km) south of Okinawa. It is 1,398 miles

  • Ryūkyū-Shotō (archipelago, Japan)

    Ryukyu Islands, archipelago, extending some 700 miles (1,100 km) southwestward from the southern Japanese island of Kyushu to northeastern Taiwan. The archipelago defines the boundary between the East China Sea (west) and the Philippine Sea (east). With a total land area of 1,193 square miles

  • Ryukyuan language (language)

    Ryukyu Islands: The Ryukyuan language, which is classified with Japanese, consists of three dialect groups corresponding to the main island clusters. There is no mutual intelligibility between these dialects and Japanese nor among the dialect groups. Japanese is commonly spoken by the majority of the Ryukyuans, but local…

  • Ryukyus, University of the (university, Okinawa, Japan)

    Naha: …also the seat of the University of the Ryukyus (1950). Pop. (2010) 315,954; (2015) 319,435.

  • Ryun, Jim (American athlete)

    Kip Keino: …metres Keino faced race favourite Jim Ryun of the United States. Despite his pain, Keino, with help from teammate Ben Jipcho, set a furious pace over the length of the race, negating Ryun’s powerful finishing kick. Keino won the race by 20 metres. At the 1972 Games in Munich, West…

  • Ryunosuke Akutagawa Prize (Japanese literary prize)

    Akutagawa Prize, Japanese literary prize awarded semiannually for the best work of fiction by a promising new Japanese writer. The prize is generally considered, along with the Naoki Prize (for the best work of popular fiction), Japan’s most prestigious and sought-after literary award. Novellas win

  • Ryurik (Norse leader)

    Rurik, the semilegendary founder of the Rurik dynasty of Kievan Rus. Rurik was a Viking, or Varangian, prince. His story is told in the The Russian Primary Chronicle (compiled at the beginning of the 12th century) but is not accepted at face value by modern historians. According to the chronicle,

  • Ryzhkov, Nikolay (premier of Soviet Union)

    Nikolay Ryzhkov, premier of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Little is known with certainty of Ryzhkov’s early career. He seems to have begun his working career as a miner and then, by 1950, was a shift foreman at the Ordzhonikidze Uralmash plant (for heavy machinery) in the Urals, later rising

  • Ryzhkov, Nikolay Ivanovich (premier of Soviet Union)

    Nikolay Ryzhkov, premier of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Little is known with certainty of Ryzhkov’s early career. He seems to have begun his working career as a miner and then, by 1950, was a shift foreman at the Ordzhonikidze Uralmash plant (for heavy machinery) in the Urals, later rising

  • Rzecz ludzka (work by Jastrun)

    Mieczys?aw Jastrun: … (1944; “A Curfew Hour”) and Rzecz ludzka (1946; “The Human Story”), reflect upon the national experience during the German occupation. Jastrun’s poems published after the mid-1950s, Gorácy popió? (1956; “Hot Ashes”) and Genezy (1959; “Genesis”), move from politics toward metaphysical and philosophical themes. He also wrote a number of biographical…

  • Rzeczpospolita Polska

    Poland, country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries,

  • Rzeczpospolita Polska Ludowa

    Poland, country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries,

  • Rzeszów (Poland)

    Rzeszów, city, capital of Podkarpackie województwo (province), southeastern Poland. It lies along the Wis?ok River at the juncture of the Carpathian Mountains and the Sandomierz Basin. Rzeszów lies on the main Kraków-Lviv (Ukraine) road and rail line. The city’s economy has expanded greatly since

  • R?ev (Russia)

    Rzhev, city, Tver oblast (region), northwestern Russia. It lies along the upper Volga River at the crossing of the Moscow-Riga and St. Petersburg–Bryansk trunk railways. First mentioned in 1216 as an independent princedom, Rzhev has always been a route centre on the western approaches to Moscow.

  • Rzewuski, Henryk (Polish author)

    Polish literature: Romanticism: Henryk Rzewuski belonged spiritually to the 18th century: Pami?tki J. Pana Seweryna Soplicy (1839; “Memoirs of Mister Seweryn Soplica”) evoked the atmosphere of the Baroque tradition. As the century progressed, signs of a tendency toward Realism were discernible in Józef Korzeniowski’s novels Spekulant (1846; “The…

  • Rzhev (Russia)

    Rzhev, city, Tver oblast (region), northwestern Russia. It lies along the upper Volga River at the crossing of the Moscow-Riga and St. Petersburg–Bryansk trunk railways. First mentioned in 1216 as an independent princedom, Rzhev has always been a route centre on the western approaches to Moscow.

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