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  • Ramphastos dicolorus (bird)

    toucan: …common in zoos is the red-breasted (also called green-billed) toucan (R. dicolorus) of Amazonia. Another common zoo resident is the keel-billed toucan (R. sulfuratus), which is about 50 cm (20 inches) long. It is mainly black with lemon yellow on the face, throat, and chest, bright red under the tail,…

  • Ramphastos sulfuratus (bird)

    toucan: …common zoo resident is the keel-billed toucan (R. sulfuratus), which is about 50 cm (20 inches) long. It is mainly black with lemon yellow on the face, throat, and chest, bright red under the tail, and multicoloured markings on the bill.

  • Ramphastos swainsonii (bird)

    toucan: …several species, such as the chestnut-mandibled toucan, the fiery-billed aracari, and the yellow-ridged toucan, describe their beaks, which are often brightly coloured in pastel shades of green, red, white, and yellow. This coloration is probably used by the birds for species recognition, as many toucans have similar body patterns and…

  • Ramphele, Mamphela (South African activist, physician, academic, businesswoman, and political leader)

    Mamphela Ramphele, South African activist, physician, academic, businesswoman, and political leader known for her activism efforts for the rights of black South Africans and her fight against South Africa’s discriminatory policies of apartheid. She founded a political party, Agang SA, in 2013. The

  • Ramphele, Mamphela Aletta (South African activist, physician, academic, businesswoman, and political leader)

    Mamphela Ramphele, South African activist, physician, academic, businesswoman, and political leader known for her activism efforts for the rights of black South Africans and her fight against South Africa’s discriminatory policies of apartheid. She founded a political party, Agang SA, in 2013. The

  • ramphotheca (anatomy)

    passeriform: Bill: …with a horny sheath, the ramphotheca. The ramphotheca is worn down by normal use and, in most birds, is capable of growing to replace the lost material. In individuals with damaged bills or those (such as cage birds) that do not have the opportunity to wear down the constantly growing…

  • Ramphotyphlops braminus (reptile)

    blind snake: …tropics; however, one species, the flowerpot snake (Ramphotyphlops braminus), now occurs on many oceanic islands and all continents except Antarctica. It gained its worldwide distribution through its presence in the soil of potted plants and because of parthenogenesis, a form of reproduction that does not require fertilization to produce offspring.…

  • rampion (plant species)

    bellflower: Rampion (C. rapunculus) is a Eurasian and North African biennial grown for its turniplike roots and leaves, which are eaten in salads for their biting flavour. It produces ascending clusters of long-stalked lilac bells and has basal, broadly oval leaves that form a rosette around…

  • rampion (plant genus)

    Rampion, any member of the genus Phyteuma, of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), consisting of about 40 species of perennial plants with long, clustered, hornlike buds and flowers. The genus is native to sunny fields and meadows of the Mediterranean region. Round-headed rampion (P.

  • Rampling, Anne (American author)

    Anne Rice, American author who was best known for her novels about vampires and other supernatural creatures. Rice was christened Howard Allen O’Brien but hated her first name so much that she changed it to Anne in the first grade. The city of New Orleans, with its elaborate cemeteries and Vodou

  • Rampolla, Mariano (Italian clergyman)

    Mariano Rampolla, Italian prelate who played a notable role in the liberalization of the Vatican under Leo XIII. On completing his studies at the Capranica College in Rome and taking orders, Rampolla trained for a diplomatic career in the church at the College of Ecclesiastical Nobles. In 1875 he

  • Ramprasad Sen (Indian poet-saint)

    Ramprasad Sen, Shakta poet-saint of Bengal. Not much is known with certainty about his life. Legends abound, however, all of which are meant to highlight Ramprasad’s all-encompassing love for and devotion to the goddess Shakti. One such tale concerns the poet’s early career as a clerk for an

  • Rampur (India)

    Rampur, city, northwestern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. The city lies along the Kosi River, about 15 miles (24 km) east-southeast of Moradabad. Rampur is a road and rail junction, with connections to Moradabad and Bareilly (southeast). It is a trade centre for grain and other agricultural

  • Rampur Boalia (Bangladesh)

    Rajshahi, city, west-central Bangladesh. It lies just north of the upper Padma River (Ganges [Ganga] River) and of the border with West Bengal state in India. Rajshahi was selected by the Dutch in the early 18th century as the site of a factory (trading post) and was constituted a municipality

  • Rampurva (India)

    South Asian arts: Mauryan period (c. 3rd century bce): …are found at Vaishali (Bakhra), Rampurva, and Lauriya Nandangarh. The Vaishali pillar is heavy and squat, and the animal lacks the verve of the other animals—features, according to some, designating it as an early work, executed before the Mauryan style attained its maturity. By contrast, the Rampurva lion, finished with…

  • ramrod (firearms)

    Leopold I: Introducing the iron ramrod (wooden ones tended to break in the heat of battle), the modern bayonet (replacing the plug bayonet that had to be removed from the barrel to fire the weapon), and the uniform marching step in his own regiment in the late 1690s, he extended…

  • Ramrod (film by De Toth [1947])

    André De Toth: …he made the hard-boiled western Ramrod (1947), featuring Joel McCrea and Veronica Lake (to whom De Toth was married from 1944 to 1952), and Pitfall (1948), a film noir starring Dick Powell as a straying husband and Lizabeth Scott as the treacherous woman who turns his life upside down. Slattery’s…

  • Ramsanehi (mendicant organization)

    Shahpura: …was the seat of the Ramsanehi (“Lovers of Rama”), a medieval sect of Hindu mendicants, and was the capital of the princely state of Shahpura. The princely state became part of the state of Rajasthan in 1949.

  • Ramsar Convention (international agreement)

    Keta: …placed on its list of Wetlands of International Importance by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and in 1999 work began on measures to limit further erosion and to control flooding of the coastal region. Pop. (2010) 147,618.

  • Ramsauer-Townsend effect (physics)

    Sir John Sealy Townsend: …Carl Ramsauer, he discovered the Ramsauer–Townsend effect: that the mean free path of electrons depends on their energy. This effect was later of extreme importance in understanding the electron’s wavelike nature as described in the quantum theory.

  • Ramsay family (fictional characters)

    Ramsay family, fictional characters, the protagonists of Virginia Woolf’s experimental novel To the Lighthouse (1927). Based partly on Woolf’s father, Sir Leslie Stephen, Mr. Ramsay is a philosophy professor who is esteemed by his students as an inspiring intellect but is disliked by his eight

  • Ramsay Gardens (area, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Edinburgh: The modern city: Ramsay Gardens, an extraordinary mixture of English cottage and Scottish baronial styles at the top of the High Street just below the Castle Esplanade, was designed for the professoriat of the university. It is one of the few tangible symbols of what came to be…

  • Ramsay, Allan (Scottish painter)

    Allan Ramsay, Scottish-born painter, one of the foremost 18th-century British portraitists. The son of the poet and literary antiquary Allan Ramsay, he received rudimentary artistic training in Edinburgh and then went to London and worked with the Swedish portrait painter Hans Hysing (1734). His

  • Ramsay, Allan (Scottish poet)

    Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet and literary antiquary who maintained national poetic traditions by writing Scots poetry and by preserving the work of earlier Scottish poets at a time when most Scottish writers had been Anglicized. He was admired by Robert Burns as a pioneer in the use of Scots in

  • Ramsay, Bertram Home (British officer)

    Bertram Home Ramsay, British naval officer who, during World War II, oversaw the evacuation of British forces from Dunkirk in 1940 and then commanded the naval forces used in the Normandy Invasion (1944). Ramsay became a midshipman in the Royal Navy in 1899 and commanded a destroyer in World War I.

  • Ramsay, Charlotte (British author)

    Charlotte Lennox, English novelist whose work, especially The Female Quixote, was much admired by leading literary figures of her time, including Samuel Johnson and the novelists Henry Fielding and Samuel Richardson. Charlotte Ramsay was the daughter of a British army officer who was said to have

  • Ramsay, Fox Maule (British statesman)

    Fox Maule Ramsay, 11th earl of Dalhousie, British secretary of state for war (1855–58) who shared the blame for the conduct of the last stage of the Crimean War. Originally named Fox Maule, he became 2nd Baron Panmure in 1852 and the earl of Dalhousie in 1860. In 1861 he assumed the Dalhousie

  • Ramsay, Gordon (Scottish chef and restaurateur)

    Gordon Ramsay, Scottish chef and restaurateur known for his highly acclaimed restaurants and cookbooks but perhaps best known in the early 21st century for the profanity and fiery temper that he freely displayed on television cooking programs. As a young boy, Ramsay moved with his family from

  • Ramsay, Jack (American basketball coach and TV analyst)

    Jack Ramsay, (John Travilla Ramsay; “Dr. Jack”), American basketball coach and TV analyst (born Feb. 21, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa.—died April 28, 2014, Naples, Fla.), stressed mental and physical discipline, team play, tough defense, and rapid ball movement as an NBA coach for 21 seasons (1968–89),

  • Ramsay, James Andrew Broun (governor-general of India)

    James Andrew Broun Ramsay, marquess and 10th earl of Dalhousie, British governor-general of India from 1847 to 1856, who is accounted the creator both of the map of modern India, through his conquests and annexations of independent provinces, and of the centralized Indian state. So radical were

  • Ramsay, John Travilla (American basketball coach and TV analyst)

    Jack Ramsay, (John Travilla Ramsay; “Dr. Jack”), American basketball coach and TV analyst (born Feb. 21, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa.—died April 28, 2014, Naples, Fla.), stressed mental and physical discipline, team play, tough defense, and rapid ball movement as an NBA coach for 21 seasons (1968–89),

  • Ramsay, Sir William (British chemist)

    Sir William Ramsay, British physical chemist who discovered four gases (neon, argon, krypton, xenon) and showed that they (with helium and radon) formed an entire family of new elements, the noble gases. He was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in recognition of this achievement. Ramsay,

  • Ramsden, Jesse (British tool maker)

    Jesse Ramsden, British pioneer in the design of precision tools. Ramsden was apprenticed as a boy to a cloth worker, but in 1758 he apprenticed himself to a mathematical instrument maker. He went into business for himself in London in 1762. He designed dividing engines of great accuracy for both

  • Ramses books (five-volume biographical epic by Jacq)

    Christian Jacq: The Ramses books are filled with stories of battles, magic, sex, and adventure. Enthralled fans lined up outside bookstores as each new volume was released, and Jacq was given much of the credit for a significant increase in the number of French tourists traveling to Egypt…

  • Ramses I (king of Egypt)

    Ramses I, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1292–90 bce), founder of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of Egypt. Probably descended from a nonroyal military family from the northeast Egyptian delta, Ramses found favour with Horemheb, the last king of the 18th dynasty (1539–1292 bce), who was also a

  • Ramses II (king of Egypt)

    Ramses II, third king of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of ancient Egypt, whose reign (1279–13 bce) was the second longest in Egyptian history. In addition to his wars with the Hittites and Libyans, he is known for his extensive building programs and for the many colossal statues of him found all

  • Ramses III (king of Egypt)

    Ramses III, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1187–56 bce) who defended his country against foreign invasion in three great wars, thus ensuring tranquillity during much of his reign. In his final years, however, he faced internal disturbances, and he was ultimately killed in an attempted coup d’état.

  • Ramses IV (king of Egypt)

    Ramses IV, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1156–50 bce) who strove through extensive building activity to maintain Egypt’s prosperity in an era of deteriorating internal and external conditions. Upon his accession, Ramses compiled a lengthy document (the Harris Papyrus) recording his father’s gifts

  • Ramses IX (king of Egypt)

    Ramses IX, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1126–08 bce), during whose reign serious civil problems troubled Egypt. Amenhotep, the high priest of Amon, exercised many religious and governmental functions in Thebes while Ramses IX remained almost continuously at his capital in the Nile River delta.

  • Ramses the Great (king of Egypt)

    Ramses II, third king of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of ancient Egypt, whose reign (1279–13 bce) was the second longest in Egyptian history. In addition to his wars with the Hittites and Libyans, he is known for his extensive building programs and for the many colossal statues of him found all

  • Ramses V (king of Egypt)

    Ramses V, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1150–45 bce) who died relatively young, perhaps of smallpox. Ramses V was the successor and probably the son of Ramses IV and reigned only briefly. The priesthood of Amon was ascendant during the reign of Ramses V: as attested by the Wilbour Papyrus, a major

  • Ramses VI (king of Egypt)

    Ramses VI, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1145–37 bce), who succeeded to the throne after the early death of his nephew, Ramses V. Evidence indicates that Ramses VI was probably a son of Ramses III, the last outstanding ruler of the 20th dynasty (1190–1075 bce). After taking the throne, he annexed

  • Ramses VII (king of Egypt)

    Ramses VII, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1137–29 bce), probably the son of Ramses VI. His reign is known chiefly from several important economics papyri. Two documents, one a ship’s log and the other an account concerning the shipment of grain taxes to Thebes, have been assigned to the reign of

  • Ramses VIII (king of Egypt)

    Ramses VIII, king of Egypt (reigned 1128–26 bce) whose ephemeral reign occurred immediately after that of Ramses VII and is poorly documented. Some modern historians place this king before Ramses VII, following the list of princes—descendants of Ramses III, depicted in the temple of that pharaoh at

  • Ramses X (king of Egypt)

    Ramses X, king of Egypt (reigned 1108–04 bce), during whose poorly documented reign disorders that had become endemic under his predecessor continued. Only one year of his reign is definitely attested, by a diary from his third year, found in western Thebes. It reveals that tomb cutters were idle

  • Ramses XI (king of Egypt)

    Ramses XI, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1104–1075? bce), last king of the 20th dynasty (1190–1075 bce), whose reign was marked by civil wars involving the high priest of Amon and the viceroy of Nubia. At the end of his reign, new dynasties were founded in Upper and Lower Egypt. During his reign,

  • Ramsey (England, United Kingdom)

    Ramsey, town (parish), Huntingdonshire district, administrative county of Cambridgeshire, historic county of Huntingdonshire, east-central England. The town serves an intensively cultivated hinterland on the southwest border of the Fens, a reclaimed region adjoining the North Sea. Ramsey developed

  • Ramsey Abbey (abbey, Ramsey, England, United Kingdom)

    St. Oswald of York: …many new monasteries, Oswald founded Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, on a site provided by Aethelwine, ealdorman of East Anglia. From Ramsey, which had close ties with Fleury and became a great religious centre, Oswald founded several other Benedictine houses, including those at Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, and at Pershore, Worcestershire. He also brought…

  • Ramsey of Canterbury, Baron (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, archbishop of Canterbury (1961–74), theologian, educator, and advocate of Christian unity. His meeting with Pope Paul VI (March 1966) was the first encounter between the leaders of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches since their separation in 1534.

  • Ramsey’s numbers (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Ramsey’s numbers: If X = {1, 2,…, n} and if T, the family of all subsets of X containing exactly r distinct elements, is divided into two mutually exclusive families α and β, the following conclusion that was originally obtained by the British mathematician Frank…

  • Ramsey’s theorem (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Ramsey’s numbers: If X = {1, 2,…, n} and if T, the family of all subsets of X containing exactly r distinct elements, is divided into two mutually exclusive families α and β, the following conclusion that was originally obtained by the British mathematician Frank…

  • Ramsey, Al (British soccer player and manager)

    Sir Alfred Ernest Ramsey, (“Alf”), British association football (soccer) player and manager who played for Southampton (1944–49), Tottenham Hotspur (1949–55), and 32 times for England (1948–53); as the cool, ever-confident manager (1963–74) of the England national side, he overcame widespread

  • Ramsey, Arthur Michael, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, archbishop of Canterbury (1961–74), theologian, educator, and advocate of Christian unity. His meeting with Pope Paul VI (March 1966) was the first encounter between the leaders of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches since their separation in 1534.

  • Ramsey, Ed (United States Army officer)

    Ed Ramsey, U.S. Army cavalry officer and guerrilla fighter. He led the last horse-mounted cavalry charge in U.S. military history, against Japanese forces in the Philippines during World War II. Ramsey attended the Oklahoma Military Academy (now Rogers State University) in Claremore, Oklahoma, and

  • Ramsey, Edwin Price (United States Army officer)

    Ed Ramsey, U.S. Army cavalry officer and guerrilla fighter. He led the last horse-mounted cavalry charge in U.S. military history, against Japanese forces in the Philippines during World War II. Ramsey attended the Oklahoma Military Academy (now Rogers State University) in Claremore, Oklahoma, and

  • Ramsey, Frank (American basketball player)

    Boston Celtics: …Hall of Famers that included Frank Ramsey, Ed Macauley, Bill Sharman, ball-handling wizard Bob Cousy, Tom Heinsohn, dominating centre Bill Russell (five times the league’s Most Valuable Player), and later Sam Jones,

  • Ramsey, Frank Plumpton (British philosopher and mathematician)

    Ludwig Wittgenstein: Braithwaite and Frank Ramsey and the other based in Vienna and including Moritz Schlick, Friedrich Waismann, and other logical positivists later collectively known as the Vienna Circle. Both groups tried to make contact with Wittgenstein. Frank Ramsey made two trips to Puchberg—the small Austrian village in which…

  • Ramsey, Michael, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, archbishop of Canterbury (1961–74), theologian, educator, and advocate of Christian unity. His meeting with Pope Paul VI (March 1966) was the first encounter between the leaders of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches since their separation in 1534.

  • Ramsey, Norman Foster (American physicist)

    Norman Foster Ramsey, American physicist who received one-half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1989 for his development of a technique to induce atoms to shift from one specific energy level to another. (The other half of the prize was awarded to Wolfgang Paul and Hans Georg Dehmelt.) Ramsey’s

  • Ramsey, Sir Alfred Ernest (British soccer player and manager)

    Sir Alfred Ernest Ramsey, (“Alf”), British association football (soccer) player and manager who played for Southampton (1944–49), Tottenham Hotspur (1949–55), and 32 times for England (1948–53); as the cool, ever-confident manager (1963–74) of the England national side, he overcame widespread

  • Ramsgate (England, United Kingdom)

    Ramsgate, town, Thanet district, administrative and historic county of county of Kent, England. It lies on the east coast and is the reputed landing place of the invading Anglo-Saxon warriors Hengist and Horsa (449 ce) and of the Christian missionary St. Augustine (597). The fishing hamlet of

  • ramshorn (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: (Ancylidae), ramshorns (Planorbidae), and pond snails (Physidae); all restricted to freshwater habitats. Superorder Stylommatophora Mantle cavity a pulmonary sac; gonopores with common opening on right side or at most narrowly separated; shell conical to vestigial, heavily to weakly calcified; eyes at tips of upper (usually) tentacles;

  • RAMSI (multinational security force)

    Solomon Islands: The Tensions (1998–2003): ethnic violence, 2000 coup, arrival of RAMSI, and 2001 election: …response, they formed a multinational Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), led by Australia. RAMSI deployed troops in July to help maintain order.

  • ramsification (philosophy)

    philosophy of mind: Functionalism: …invoked a technique, called “ramsification” (named for the British philosopher Frank Ramsey [1903–30]), whereby a set of new terms could be defined by reference to their relations to each other and to other old terms already understood. Ramsification was based on an idea that had already been noted by…

  • Ramtha (spiritual being)

    Ramtha's School of Enlightenment: …study of the teachings of Ramtha, a spiritual being who is purportedly “channeled” by—i.e., speaks through the mediumship of—the school’s leader, JZ Knight. Ramtha’s school draws more than 3,000 students from more than 20 countries.

  • Ramtha’s School of Enlightenment (centre, Washington, U.S.)

    Ramtha’s School of Enlightenment, centre in rural Washington state for the study of the teachings of Ramtha, a spiritual being who is purportedly “channeled” by—i.e., speaks through the mediumship of—the school’s leader, JZ Knight. Ramtha’s school draws more than 3,000 students from more than 20

  • Ramu River (river, Papua New Guinea)

    Ramu River, river on the island of New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. One of the longest rivers in the country, it rises in the east on the Kratke Range and flows northwest through the great Central Depression, where it receives numerous streams draining the Bismarck (south)

  • ramus (anatomy)

    jaw: Two vertical portions (rami) form movable hinge joints on either side of the head, articulating with the glenoid cavity of the temporal bone of the skull. The rami also provide attachment for muscles important in chewing. The centre front of the arch is thickened and buttressed to form…

  • Ramus, Petrus (French philosopher)

    Petrus Ramus, French philosopher, logician, and rhetorician. Educated at Cuts and later at the Collège de Navarre, in Paris, Ramus became master of arts in 1536. He taught a reformed version of Aristotelian logic at the Collège du Mans, in Paris, and at the Collège de l’Ave Maria, where he worked

  • Ramusio, Giovanni Battista (Italian geographer and author)

    Giovanni Battista Ramusio, Italian geographer who compiled an important collection of travel writings, Delle navigationi et viaggi (1550–59; “Some Voyages and Travels”), containing his version of Marco Polo’s journey and the Descrittione de l’Africa (“Description of Africa”) by the Moor Leo

  • Ramuz, Charles-Ferdinand (Swiss author)

    Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz, Swiss novelist whose realistic, poetic, and somewhat allegorical stories of man against nature made him one of the most prominent French-Swiss writers of the 20th century. A city boy, heir to a refined, middle-class culture, Ramuz nonetheless chose to write about rustic

  • Ran (film by Kurosawa [1985])

    Kurosawa Akira: Later works: Kurosawa’s next film, Ran (1985; “Chaos”), was an even more successful samurai epic. An adaptation of Shakespeare’s King Lear set in 16th-century Japan, the film uses sons instead of daughters as the aging monarch’s ungrateful children. Ran was acclaimed as one of Kurosawa’s greatest films in the grandeur…

  • Ran, Shulamit (Israeli composer, pianist, and educator)

    Philadelphia Orchestra: …works by contemporary composers, including Shulamit Ran, and appointed the orchestra’s first composer-in-residence, Bernard Rands. Muti also led concert performances of operas.

  • Rana (region, Norway)

    Rana, geographic region, northern Norway, surrounding the Rana Fjord. It is centred on the industrial town of Mo i Rana at the mouth of the Rana River, along which run the only road and rail line from southern to northern Norway. In 1990 the National Library in Oslo established a branch at Mo i

  • Rana (amphibian genus)

    circulatory system: Amphibians: In the frog, Rana, venous blood is driven into the right atrium of the heart by contraction of the sinus venosus, and it flows into the left atrium from the lungs. A wave of contraction then spreads over the whole atrium and drives blood into the ventricle, where…

  • Rana clamitans (amphibian, Rana species)

    Green frog, (subspecies Rana clamitans melanota), common aquatic frog (family Ranidae) found in ponds, streams, and other bodies of fresh water in the northeastern United States. The green frog is 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) long and green to brownish in colour. The back and legs are

  • Rana clamitans clamitans (amphibian)

    green frog: …race of this species, the bronze frog (R. c. clamitans), is found in such places as swamps and streamsides of the southeastern United States. It is brown above and grows to about 8.5 cm (3.3 inches). Its call, like that of the green frog, is a sharp, twanging note. The…

  • Rana dynasty (Nepalese history)

    Rana era, (1846–1951) in Nepal, the period during which control of the government lay in the hands of the Rana family. Jung Bahadur (1817–77) seized power in 1846 and made himself permanent prime minister. He was given the hereditary title of Rana. Under the Ranas, Nepal maintained relations with

  • Rana era (Nepalese history)

    Rana era, (1846–1951) in Nepal, the period during which control of the government lay in the hands of the Rana family. Jung Bahadur (1817–77) seized power in 1846 and made himself permanent prime minister. He was given the hereditary title of Rana. Under the Ranas, Nepal maintained relations with

  • Rana family (Nepali dynasty)

    Rana era: …in the hands of the Rana family. Jung Bahadur (1817–77) seized power in 1846 and made himself permanent prime minister. He was given the hereditary title of Rana. Under the Ranas, Nepal maintained relations with the British, who provided it with support. When the British withdrew from India in 1947,…

  • Rana Kao (volcano, Easter Island)

    Easter Island: Relief: …the extremely deep crater of Rano Kao, which is about 3,000 feet wide, is piped to Hanga Roa. The coast is formed by soft, eroded, ashy cliffs, with a vertical drop of about 500 to 1,000 feet; the cliffs are intercepted by long stretches of low, hard, and rugged lava…

  • Rana palustris (amphibian)

    Pickerel frog, (Rana palustris), dark-spotted frog (family Ranidae), found in eastern North America, usually in such areas as meadows, cool streams, and sphagnum bogs. The pickerel frog is about 5 to 7.5 centimetres (2 to 3 inches) long and has lengthwise rows of squarish spots on its golden or

  • Rana pipiens (amphibian)

    leopard frog: …the 1960s several populations of R. pipiens from Vermont to Minnesota experienced major population crashes. The reason for these declines is not completely known; however, pollution, habitat loss, increases in ultraviolet radiation resulting from the thinning of the ozone layer, disease, and overharvesting by laboratories and collectors are often cited.

  • Rānā Pratāp (Indian military official)

    India: Subjugation of Rajasthan: Later, his son Rana Pratap Singh, following his defeat by the Mughals at Haldighat (1576), continued to raid until his death in 1597, when his son Amar Singh assumed the mantle. The fall of Chitor and then of Ranthambor (1569) brought almost all of Rajasthan under Akbar’s suzerainty.

  • Rana ridibunda (amphibian)

    Marsh frog, (Rana ridibunda), large aquatic frog of the “true frog” family Ranidae, occurring naturally from the France to the Urals and by introduction in southern England. This species seldom occurs more than 1 to 2 metres (3 to 6.5 feet) from the edge of permanent water. It is the largest of the

  • Rana Sanga (king of Mewar)

    Bābur: Victories in India: …extensive resources, while in Rajasthan Rana Sanga of Mewar (Udaipur) was head of a powerful confederacy threatening the whole Muslim position in northern India. Bābur’s first problem was that his own followers, suffering from the heat and disheartened by the hostile surroundings, wished to return home as Timur had done.…

  • Rānā Sangrām Singh Sāngā (king of Mewar)

    Bābur: Victories in India: …extensive resources, while in Rajasthan Rana Sanga of Mewar (Udaipur) was head of a powerful confederacy threatening the whole Muslim position in northern India. Bābur’s first problem was that his own followers, suffering from the heat and disheartened by the hostile surroundings, wished to return home as Timur had done.…

  • Rana sylvatica (amphibian)

    Wood frog, (Rana sylvatica), terrestrial frog (family Ranidae) of forests and woodlands. It is a cool-climate species that occurs from the northeastern quarter of the United States and throughout most of Canada to central and southern Alaska. The wood frog is tan to brown with a distinctly dark

  • Rana temporaria (amphibian)

    Common frog, (species Rana temporaria), largely terrestrial frog (family Ranidae), native to Europe, from Great Britain to central Russia. It is known in continental Europe as either grass frog or russet frog. The common frog is smooth-skinned, and adults are 7 to 10 cm (2.8 to 3.9 inches) long.

  • Ranade, Mahadev Govind (Indian politician)

    Mahadev Govind Ranade, one of India’s Citpavan Brahmans of Maharashtra who was a judge of the High Court of Bombay, a noted historian, and an active participant in social and economic reform movements. During his seven years as a judge in Bombay (now Mumbai), Ranade worked for social reform in the

  • Ranai, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    Riau Islands: Geography: …[1,163 metres]), on Lingga, and Mount Ranai (3,146 feet [959 metres]), on Great Natuna. Mangrove swamps are common along the coasts, except in the Anambas archipelago, where most of the islands have a steep, rocky, but forested shoreline. The province has no major rivers; rather, the islands are drained by…

  • Ranaivo, Flavien (Madagascan poet)

    Flavien Ranaivo, lyric poet deeply influenced by Malagasy ballad and song forms, in particular the hain-teny, a poetic dialogue usually on the subject of love. Ranaivo also held a number of important civic and government posts. Educated at the Lycae Gallieri in Tananarive (now Antananarivo),

  • Ranak (European scholar and philosopher)

    Nachman Krochmal, Jewish scholar and philosopher; his major, seminal work, Moreh nevukhe ha-zeman (1851; “Guide for the Perplexed of Our Time”), made pioneering contributions in the areas of Jewish religion, literature, and especially history. Krochmal was married at the age of 14 (according to a

  • Ranaldo, Lee (American musician)

    Sonic Youth: ), Lee Ranaldo (b. February 3, 1956, Glen Cove, New York), Thurston Moore (b. July 25, 1958, Coral Gables, Florida), and Steve Shelley (b. June 23, 1962, Midland, Michigan).

  • Ranariddh, Norodom (prime minister of Cambodia)

    Norodom Sihanouk: His son, Norodom Ranariddh, served as first prime minister until 1997, when he was overthrown in a coup by Hun Sen, who nevertheless left Sihanouk on the throne.

  • Ranavalona I (Merina queen)

    Merina: …his wife and successor, Queen Ranavalona I (reigned 1828–61), but it was revived under King Radama II (reigned 1861–63). The authority of the crown over the contentious Merina nobility was reinforced during the reigns of queens Rasoherina (reigned 1863–68) and Ranavalona II (reigned 1868–83) by the creation of a royal…

  • Ranavirus (virus genus)

    iridovirus: Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus, and Megalocytivirus. Type species of the family include invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (Iridovirus), which infects insects; lymphocystis disease virus 1 (Lymphocystivirus), which infects fish; and frog virus 3 (Ranavirus), which infects amphibians.

  • Rancagua (Chile)

    Rancagua, city, north-central Chile. It lies in the Andean foothills along the Cachapoal River, south of Santiago. Founded as Villa Santa Cruz de Triana by José Antonio Manso de Velasco in 1743, the city was later renamed Rancagua. The Battle of Rancagua (October 2, 1814), in which Bernardo

  • Rancagua, Battle of (Chilean history)

    Bernardo O'Higgins: In October 1814, at Rancagua, the Chilean patriots led by him lost decisively to the royalist forces, which, for the next three years, occupied the country.

  • Rance River (river, France)

    Rance River, river, rising in the Landes du Mené, a chain of hills in C?tes-d’Armor département, Brittany région, western France. It flows for 60 miles (97 km) past Dinan to form an estuary on the Brittany coast of the English Channel at Saint-Malo, where the world’s first large-scale tidal plant,

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