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  • Ranong (Thailand)

    Ranong, town, southern Thailand, on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Ranong town is a fishing port in the Pakchan River estuary. Burma lies to the northwest, and there are highlands to the east. Ranong is also in a tin-mining region. Pop. (2000)

  • Ransier, Alonzo J. (American politician)

    Alonzo J. Ransier, black member of the U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina during Reconstruction. Ransier was born a free black and received a rudimentary education. His career in public life began immediately after the American Civil War when, in 1865, he served as registrar of

  • Ransier, Alonzo Jacob (American politician)

    Alonzo J. Ransier, black member of the U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina during Reconstruction. Ransier was born a free black and received a rudimentary education. His career in public life began immediately after the American Civil War when, in 1865, he served as registrar of

  • Ransmayr, Christoph (Austrian writer)

    German literature: The turn of the 21st century: The Austrian writer Christoph Ransmayr’s powerful Morbus Kitahara (1995; The Dog King) is set in a dystopian landscape that resembles Mauthausen concentration camp and in an imagined alternative history in which Germany has not been permitted to redevelop its industrial capabilities following World War II. W.G. Sebald’s haunting…

  • Ransom (film by Howard [1996])

    Mel Gibson: …a string of successful films—including Ransom (1996) and Signs (2002)—Gibson returned to directing with The Passion of the Christ (2004), an account of the last 12 hours of Jesus Christ’s life that was based primarily on the biblical Gospels, with dialogue in Aramaic and Latin (with English subtitles). Although The

  • Ransom of Red Chief, The (short story by Henry)

    The Ransom of Red Chief, short story by O. Henry, published in the collection Whirligigs in 1910. In the story, two kidnappers make off with the young son of a prominent man only to find that the child is more trouble than he is worth; in the end, they agree to pay the boy’s father to take him

  • Ransom, Basil (fictional character)

    Basil Ransom, fictional character, an educated, autocratic, and elegant Confederate army veteran in Henry James’s novel The Bostonians

  • Ransom, John Crowe (American poet and critic)

    John Crowe Ransom, American poet and critic, leading theorist of the Southern literary renaissance that began after World War I. Ransom’s The New Criticism (1941) provided the name of the influential mid-20th-century school of criticism (see New Criticism). Ransom, whose father was a minister,

  • Ransome, Arthur (English author)

    Arthur Ransome, English writer best known for the Swallows and Amazons series of children’s novels (1930–47), which set the pattern for “holiday adventure” stories. After studying science for only two terms at Yorkshire College, Leeds, Ransome pursued a literary career. His ambition was to be an

  • Ransome, Arthur Michell (English author)

    Arthur Ransome, English writer best known for the Swallows and Amazons series of children’s novels (1930–47), which set the pattern for “holiday adventure” stories. After studying science for only two terms at Yorkshire College, Leeds, Ransome pursued a literary career. His ambition was to be an

  • Ransome, Ernest (American engineer)

    construction: The invention of reinforced concrete: In the United States Ernest Ransome paralleled Hennebique’s work, constructing factory buildings in concrete. High-rise structures in concrete followed the paradigm of the steel frame. Examples include the 16-story Ingalls Building (1903) in Cincinnati, which was 54 metres (180 feet) tall, and the 11-story Royal Liver Building (1909), built…

  • Ransome, Robert (English inventor)
  • Ransome-Kuti, Funmilayo (Nigerian feminist and political leader)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian feminist and political leader who was the leading advocate of women’s rights in her country during the first half of the 20th century. Her parents were Christians of Yoruba descent. She was the first female student at the Abeokuta Grammar School (a secondary

  • Ransome-Kuti, Olufela Olusegun Oludotun (Nigerian musician and activist)

    Fela Kuti, Nigerian musician and activist who launched a modern style of music called Afro-beat, which fused American blues, jazz, and funk with traditional Yoruba music. Kuti was the son of feminist and labour activist Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti. As a youth he took lessons in piano and percussion

  • ransomware (malicious software)

    cybercrime: Sabotage: …such attacks has been dubbed ransomware. The ransom usually demanded is payment in a form of virtual currency, such as Bitcoin. When data are of vital importance to an organization, sometimes the ransom is paid. In 2016 several American hospitals were hit with ransomware attacks, and one hospital paid over…

  • Ransomware

    Ransomware—a family of Computer malware spread by attackers with the goal of demanding a payoff from its victims, most often financial payment in the form of virtual currency such as Bitcoin—was drawing increased attention from cybersecurity companies and government agencies in 2016. The FBI

  • Ranson, Paul (French painter)

    Western painting: Symbolism: They included Paul Ranson, who gave the style a decorative and linear inflection, Pierre Bonnard, and édouard Vuillard.

  • Rantekombola, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    Celebes: Geography: The highest peak is Mount Rantekombola, or Mario, at 11,335 feet (3,455 metres). Major deep lakes (danau) are Towuti, Poso, and Matana, the latter having been sounded to 1,936 feet (590 metres). The rivers are short and unimportant.

  • Rantepao (Indonesia)

    Celebes: Geography: …160 inches (4,060 mm) in Rantepao (southwest-central section) to 21 inches (530 mm) in Palu (a rift valley near the western coast).

  • Ranters (religious sect)

    Laurence Claxton: …religious sect known as the Ranters.

  • Ranthambore National Park (national park, India)

    Sawai Madhopur: Ranthambore National Park, a short distance east of the city, is a tiger reserve and also contains Ranthambore Fort, one of several Rajput forts in the state collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2013. Pop. (2001) 97,493; (2011) 121,106.

  • Rantoul (Illinois, United States)

    Rantoul, village, Champaign county, east-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 15 miles (25 km) north of Urbana. Settled with the arrival of the Illinois Central Railroad in 1854, it was named for Robert Rantoul, a director of the railroad. For much of the 20th century the economy was largely

  • Rantzau, Johan (military leader)

    Johan Rantzau, hero of the Count’s War (1533–36), the Danish civil war that brought King Christian III to the throne. In 1523, as the youthful prefect of Gottorp and adviser to Duke Frederick of Holstein, Rantzau persuaded Frederick to accept the offer of the Danish throne from the nobles who had

  • Ranulf de Blundeville, 6th Earl of Chester (English noble)

    Ranulf de Blundeville, 6th earl of Chester, most celebrated of the early earls of Chester, with whom the family fortunes reached their peak. Ranulf succeeded his father Hugh de Kevelioc (1147–81), son of Ranulf, the 4th earl, in 1181 and was created Earl of Lincoln in 1217. He married Constance,

  • Ranulf de Glanvil (English politician and legal scholar)

    Ranulf de Glanville, justiciar or chief minister of England (1180–89) under King Henry II who was the reputed author of the first authoritative text on the common law, Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Angliae (c. 1188; “Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England”). This

  • Ranulf de Glanvill (English politician and legal scholar)

    Ranulf de Glanville, justiciar or chief minister of England (1180–89) under King Henry II who was the reputed author of the first authoritative text on the common law, Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Angliae (c. 1188; “Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England”). This

  • Ranulf Higdon (British historian)

    Ranulf Higden, English monk and chronicler remembered for his Polychronicon, a compilation of much of the knowledge of his age. After taking monastic vows in 1299, Higden entered the Abbey of St. Werburgh, a Benedictine community in Chester. His Polychronicon was a universal history from the

  • Ranunculaceae (plant family)

    Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family (order Ranunculales), comprising about 2,252 species in 62 genera of flowering plants, mostly herbs, which are widely distributed in all temperate and subtropical regions. In the tropics they occur mostly at high elevations. The leaves are usually alternate and

  • Ranunculales (plant order)

    Ranunculales, the buttercup order of flowering plants, containing 7 families, nearly 164 genera, and around 2,830 species. Members of the order range from annual and perennial herbs to herbaceous or woody vines, shrubs, and, in a few cases, trees. They include many ornamentals which are grown in

  • Ranunculus (plant)

    Buttercup, (genus Ranunculus), any of about 250 species of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae. Buttercups are distributed throughout the world and are especially common in woods and fields of the north temperate zone. Most buttercups have tuberous or fibrous roots and solitary

  • Ranunculus acris (plant)

    wildflower: …best-known buttercups of northern Europe, Ranunculus acris, probably became more abundant and widespread as the forests were burned away. In the lowlands of northern Europe, this species probably became modified during the Stone Age into some new forms better adapted to habitats created by human actions. Two forms occurring in…

  • Ranunculus aquatilis (plant)

    buttercup: peltatus) and common water crowfoot (R. aquatilis) have broad-leaved floating leaves and finely dissected submerged leaves.

  • Ranunculus asiaticus (plant)

    buttercup: The turban, or Persian buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus), is the florist’s ranunculus; usually the double-flowered form R. asiaticus, cultivar Superbissimus, is grown for the winter trade. Among the many wild species are the tall meadow buttercup (R. acris), native to Eurasia but widely introduced elsewhere; the swamp…

  • ranunculus family (plant family)

    Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family (order Ranunculales), comprising about 2,252 species in 62 genera of flowering plants, mostly herbs, which are widely distributed in all temperate and subtropical regions. In the tropics they occur mostly at high elevations. The leaves are usually alternate and

  • Ranunculus ficaria (plant)

    celandine: The lesser celandine, or pilewort (Ranunculus ficaria), is a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It has heart-shaped leaves and typical buttercup flowers. Native to Europe, it has become naturalized in North America.

  • Ranunculus peltatus (plant)

    buttercup: Both the pond crowfoot (R. peltatus) and common water crowfoot (R. aquatilis) have broad-leaved floating leaves and finely dissected submerged leaves.

  • Ranunculus repens (plant)

    buttercup: …North American wetlands; and the Eurasian creeping buttercup, or butter daisy (R. repens), widely naturalized in America. Both the pond crowfoot (R. peltatus) and common water crowfoot (R. aquatilis) have broad-leaved floating leaves and finely dissected submerged leaves.

  • Ranunculus septentrionalis (plant)

    buttercup: …but widely introduced elsewhere; the swamp buttercup (R. septentrionalis) of eastern North American wetlands; and the Eurasian creeping buttercup, or butter daisy (R. repens), widely naturalized in America. Both the pond crowfoot (R. peltatus) and common water crowfoot (R. aquatilis) have broad-leaved floating leaves and finely dissected submerged leaves.

  • Ranvier’s tactile disk (anatomy)

    Louis-Antoine Ranvier: …that are now known as Ranvier’s tactile disks. With the French bacteriologist André-Victor Cornil he wrote Manual of Pathological Histology (1869), considered a landmark of 19th-century medicine.

  • Ranvier, Louis-Antoine (French histologist and pathologist)

    Louis-Antoine Ranvier, French histologist and pathologist whose dynamic approach to the study of minute anatomy made his laboratories a world centre for students of histology and contributed especially to knowledge of nervous structure and function. Assistant to the eminent French physiologist

  • Ranvier, node of (anatomy)

    Node of Ranvier, periodic gap in the insulating sheath (myelin) on the axon of certain neurons that serves to facilitate the rapid conduction of nerve impulses. These interruptions in the myelin covering were first discovered in 1878 by French histologist and pathologist Louis-Antoine Ranvier, who

  • ranz des vaches (songs)

    Swiss literature: …was achieved by the various ranz des vaches (melodies sung, or played on the alphorn, by herdsmen).

  • Ranzania laevis (fish)

    mola: However, the slender mola (Ranzania laevis) is smaller, measuring no more than 1 metre (39.3 inches) long.

  • Rao, K. Chandrasekhar (Indian politician)

    Telangana: History: K. Chandrasekhar Rao, leader of the TRS, was named the state’s first chief minister.

  • Rao, P. V. Narasimha (prime minister of India)

    P.V. Narasimha Rao, leader of the Congress (I) Party faction of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party) and prime minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Rao was born in a small village near Karimnagar (now in Telangana, India). He studied at Fergusson College in Pune and at the Universities of

  • Rao, Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha (prime minister of India)

    P.V. Narasimha Rao, leader of the Congress (I) Party faction of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party) and prime minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Rao was born in a small village near Karimnagar (now in Telangana, India). He studied at Fergusson College in Pune and at the Universities of

  • Rao, Patthe Bapu (Indian singer-poet)

    South Asian arts: Folk theatre: Another famous singer-poet was Patthe Bapu Rao (1868–1941), a Brahman who married a beautiful low-caste dancer, Pawala. They were the biggest tamasha stars during the first quarter of the 20th century. The tamasha actress, commonly called the nautchi (meaning “nautch girl,” or “prostitute”) is the life and soul of…

  • Rao, Raja (Indian writer)

    Raja Rao, author who was among the most-significant Indian novelists writing in English during the middle decades of the 20th century. Descended from a distinguished Brahman family in southern India, Rao studied English at Nizam College, Hyderabad, and then at the University of Madras, where he

  • Raoul (island, New Zealand)

    Kermadec Islands: Raoul enjoys a mild climate and receives 57 in. (1,450 mm) of rainfall annually, some of which forms lagoons. Lying at the western edge of the Kermadec Trench, the group is frequently shaken by earth tremors.

  • Raoul (king of France)

    Rudolf, duke of Burgundy (921–936) and later king of the West Franks, or France (923–936), who, after a stormy career typical of the general political instability that characterized the age, succeeded in consolidating his authority shortly before he died. Rudolf was the son-in-law of Robert I,

  • Raoul de Houdan (French author and trouvère)

    Raoul de Houdenc, French trouvère poet-musician of courtly romances, credited with writing one of the first French romances, told in an ornate, allegorical style. Little is known of Raoul’s life. His name could have originated from a dozen cities. Certain passages in his writings suggest that he

  • Raoul de Houdenc (French author and trouvère)

    Raoul de Houdenc, French trouvère poet-musician of courtly romances, credited with writing one of the first French romances, told in an ornate, allegorical style. Little is known of Raoul’s life. His name could have originated from a dozen cities. Certain passages in his writings suggest that he

  • Raoul de Presles (French scholar)

    France: Culture and art: …learned and vernacular cultures narrowed: Raoul de Presles translated St. Augustine; Nicolas Oresme translated Aristotle. Christine de Pisan (1364–c. 1430) challenged traditional assertions of women’s inferiority, incorporated in texts such as the Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose), the most popular literary work of the 13th century.…

  • Raoult’s law (chemistry)

    ideal solution: …statement of this condition is Raoult’s law, which is valid for many highly dilute solutions and for a limited class of concentrated solutions, namely, those in which the interactions between the molecules of solute and solvent are the same as those between the molecules of each substance by itself. Solutions…

  • Raoult, Fran?ois-Marie (French chemist)

    Fran?ois-Marie Raoult, French chemist who formulated a law on solutions (called Raoult’s law) that made it possible to determine the molecular weights of dissolved substances. Raoult taught at the University of Grenoble from 1867 and was professor there from 1870 until his death. About 1886 he

  • RAP (French agency)

    Elf Aquitaine: In 1939 the Régie Autonome des Pétroles (RAP; “Autonomous Petroleum Administration”) was set up to exploit a gas deposit found near Saint-Marcet in the foothills of the Pyrenees, and in 1941 the Société Nationale des Pétroles d’Aquitaine (SNPA; “National Society for Petroleum in Aquitaine”) was founded to explore…

  • rap (music)

    Rap, musical style in which rhythmic and/or rhyming speech is chanted (“rapped”) to musical accompaniment. This backing music, which can include digital sampling (music and sounds extracted from other recordings), is also called hip-hop, the name used to refer to a broader cultural movement that

  • rap metal (music)

    Rap metal, subgenre of heavy metal music. Heavy metal tended to be one of rock’s most porous genres, influencing (and in turn being influenced by) such disparate sounds as psychedelic, glam, punk, and alternative rock. Rap metal (and the related genre, nu metal) represented a fusion of heavy metal

  • rap music (music)

    Rap, musical style in which rhythmic and/or rhyming speech is chanted (“rapped”) to musical accompaniment. This backing music, which can include digital sampling (music and sounds extracted from other recordings), is also called hip-hop, the name used to refer to a broader cultural movement that

  • Rap on Race, A (work by Mead and Baldwin)

    Margaret Mead: …Evolution (1964; reissued 1999), and A Rap on Race (1971, with James Baldwin; reissued 1992).

  • Rapa (island, French Polynesia)

    Tubuai Islands: …square miles [16 square km]), Rapa (15 square miles [39 square km]), Rimatara, (3 square miles [8 square km]), Rurutu (11 square miles [29 square km]), and Tubuai (18 square miles [47 square km])—as well as the tiny, uninhabited Marotiri Islands at the southern end of the chain, and Maria…

  • Rapa Nui (island, Chile)

    Easter Island, Chilean dependency in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost outpost of the Polynesian island world. It is famous for its giant stone statues. The island stands in isolation 1,200 miles (1,900 kilometres) east of Pitcairn Island and 2,200 miles west of Chile. Forming a

  • Rapace, Noomi (Swedish actress)

    Noomi Rapace, Swedish actress who was best known for portraying Lisbeth Salander in film adaptations of Stieg Larsson’s Millennium trilogy of crime novels. Norén was the daughter of a Swedish actress and a Spanish flamenco singer. As a young child she lived with her mother and stepfather in

  • Rapace, Ola (Swedish actor)

    Noomi Rapace: …married (divorced 2011) the actor Ola Rapace, who later costarred with her in Svinal?ngorna (2010; Beyond), in which she portrayed a woman who must come to terms with her past as the abused daughter of alcoholic parents. Notable among Rapace’s other movies was the bleak Danish picture Daisy Diamond (2007),…

  • Rapacki Plan (United Nations history)

    20th-century international relations: Soviet diplomatic offensive: NATO leaders resisted the Rapacki Plan but had immediately to deal with a March 1958 Soviet offer to suspend all nuclear testing provided the West did the same. Throughout the 1950s growing data on the harmful effects of nuclear fallout had been increasing pressure on the nuclear powers to…

  • Rapacki, Adam (Polish politician and economist)

    Adam Rapacki, Polish socialist who joined the communists after World War II and who, as minister of foreign affairs, was noted for his “Rapacki Plan” for an atom-bomb-free zone in Europe. Son of Marian Rapacki, founder of the cooperative movement in Poland, Rapacki studied in France and Italy and

  • rapakivi (igneous rock)

    Precambrian: Orogenic belts: …by tin-bearing crustal-melt granites, called rapakivi granites after their coarse, zoned feldspar megacrysts (that is, crystals that are significantly larger than the surrounding fine-grained matrix). The rocks in this zone probably formed as a result of mantle plume activity.

  • Rapallo (Italy)

    Rapallo, city, Genova provincia, Liguria regione, northwestern Italy, on the Levante Riviera at the head of Rapallo Gulf, southeast of Genoa. First mentioned in 964, Rapallo was sacked successively by the Lombards, Normans, and Swiss. It was the site of the Allied Conference of Rapallo in 1917, and

  • Rapallo, Treaty of (European history)

    Treaty of Rapallo, (April 16, 1922) treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union, signed at Rapallo, Italy. Negotiated by Germany’s Walther Rathenau and the Soviet Union’s Georgy V. Chicherin, it reestablished normal relations between the two nations. The nations agreed to cancel all financial

  • rapamycin (drug)

    Rapamycin, drug characterized primarily by its ability to suppress the immune system, which led to its use in the prevention of transplant rejection. Rapamycin is produced by the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The drug’s name comes from Rapa Nui, the indigenous name of Easter Island,

  • rape (crime)

    Rape, act of sexual intercourse with an individual without his or her consent, through force or the threat of force. In many jurisdictions, the crime of rape has been subsumed under that of sexual assault, which also encompasses acts that fall short of intercourse. Rape was long considered to be

  • rape (plant)

    Rape, (Brassica napus, variety napus), plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its seeds, which yield canola, or rapeseed, oil. Canola oil is variously used in cooking, as an ingredient in soap and margarine, and as a lamp fuel (colza oil). The esterified form of the oil is used as a

  • Rape of Deianira, The (painting by Pollaiuolo)

    Albrecht Dürer: First journey to Italy: …figure of Hercules from Pollaiuolo’s The Rape of Deianira for his painting Hercules and the Birds of Stymphalis. A purely mythological painting in the Renaissance tradition, Hercules is exceptional among Dürer’s works. The centre panel from the Dresden Altarpiece, which Dürer painted in about 1498, is stylistically similar to Hercules…

  • Rape of Europa, The (painting by Titian)

    Titian: Mythological paintings: The Rape of Europa is surely one of the gayest of Titian’s “poesies,” as he called them. Taken by surprise, Europa is carried off, arms and legs flying, on the back of Jupiter in the form of a garlanded white bull. A putto (chubby, naked…

  • Rape of Helen, The (poem by Colluthus)

    Colluthus of Lycopolis: …by only one extant poem, The Rape of Helen (which was discovered in Calabria, Italy). The short poem (394 verses) is in imitation of Homer and Nonnus and tells the story of Paris and Helen from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis down to Helen’s arrival at Troy. According to…

  • Rape of Lucrece, The (poem by Shakespeare)

    William Shakespeare: The poems: Venus and Adonis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594) are the only works that Shakespeare seems to have shepherded through the printing process. Both owe a good deal to Ovid, the Classical poet whose writings Shakespeare encountered repeatedly in school. These two poems are the only works for which…

  • Rape of Lucretia, The (opera by Britten)

    Benjamin Britten: His later operas include The Rape of Lucretia (1946); the comic Albert Herring (1947); Billy Budd (1951; after Herman Melville); Gloriana (1953; written for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II); The Turn of the Screw (1954; after Henry James); A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1960); Owen Wingrave (television, 1971); and…

  • Rape of Persephone, The (sculpture by Girardon)

    Fran?ois Girardon: …Goujon’s Fontaine des Innocents, and The Rape of Persephone (1677–79; pedestal completed 1699), in which he challenges comparison with Giambologna’s Rape of the Sabines. The effect of this group is marred by its present situation in the centre of the colonnade at Versailles, where it can be seen from all…

  • Rape of Proserpine, The (work by Claudian)

    Claudian: …minor contains the mythological epic Raptus Proserpinae (“The Rape of Proserpine”), on which Claudian’s medieval fame largely depended. The second book of the epic has an elegiac epistle addressed to Florentinus, the city prefect, and reflects Claudian’s interest in the Eleusinian mysteries.

  • Rape of Shavi, The (work by Emecheta)

    Buchi Emecheta: Perhaps her strongest work, The Rape of Shavi (1983), is also the most difficult to categorize. Set in an imaginary idyllic African kingdom, it explores the dislocations that occur when a plane carrying Europeans seeking to escape an imminent nuclear disaster crashes.

  • Rape of the Bucket, The (work by Tassoni)

    Alessandro Tassoni: …poem La secchia rapita (The Rape of the Bucket), the earliest and, according to most critics, the best of many Italian works in that genre.

  • Rape of the Lock, The (poem by Pope)

    The Rape of the Lock, mock-epic poem in heroic couplets by Alexander Pope. The first version, published in 1712, consisted of two cantos; the final version, published in 1714, was expanded to five cantos. Based on an actual incident and written to reconcile the families that had been estranged by

  • Rape of the Sabines, The (painting by David)

    Jacques-Louis David: Later years: 1794–1825: …with a new giant canvas, The Intervention of the Sabine Women. The picture, often mistakenly referred to as The Rape of the Sabines, represents the moment, a few years after the legendary abduction, when the women, now contented wives and mothers, halt a battle between their Roman husbands and the…

  • Rape of the Sabines, The (sculpture by Giambologna)

    Giambologna: Rape of a Sabine (1579–83; Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence), while uncluttered and monumental, is even more complex. The composition is subtly designed so that it can be viewed from any side with equal effect. In his fountain Mercury (c. 1580; Bargello, Florence) Giambologna uses the…

  • rape shield law

    Rape shield law, statute or court rule, introduced in the late 20th century, which limits the ability of the defendant’s counsel to introduce the accuser’s sexual history as evidence during a rape trial and therefore can prevent the accuser from being discredited by information that is not relevant

  • rapeseed (plant)

    Rape, (Brassica napus, variety napus), plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its seeds, which yield canola, or rapeseed, oil. Canola oil is variously used in cooking, as an ingredient in soap and margarine, and as a lamp fuel (colza oil). The esterified form of the oil is used as a

  • rapeseed oil

    rape: …seeds, which yield canola, or rapeseed, oil. Canola oil is variously used in cooking, as an ingredient in soap and margarine, and as a lamp fuel (colza oil). The esterified form of the oil is used as a lubricant for jet engines and can be made into biodiesel. The seeds…

  • Rapf, Harry (American producer)
  • Raphael (Italian painter and architect)

    Raphael, master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human

  • Raphael (archangel)

    Raphael, in the Bible, one of the archangels. In the apocryphal Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) Book of Tobit, he is the one who, in human disguise and under the name of Azarias (“Yahweh helps”), accompanied Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquered the demon Asmodeus. He is said (Tobit 12:15)

  • Raphael I Bidawid (Iraqi clergyman)

    Raphael I Bidawid, Iraqi cleric (born April 17, 1922, Mosul, Iraq—died July 7, 2003, Beirut, Lebanon), as patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, based in Baghdad, Iraq, was known for his unstinting support of Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein. Raphael, who was ordained a priest in 1944, became the yo

  • Raphael, Dana (American medical anthropologist)

    doula: In 1973 American medical anthropologist Dana Raphael used the term doula in the context of breastfeeding by new mothers, the success of which in certain populations appeared to depend on support by other women who often came from outside of the mother’s family. The term gradually came to also refer…

  • Raphael, Frederic (American screenwriter and author)
  • Raphael, House of (palace, Rome, Italy)

    Donato Bramante: Roman period: …design was that of the Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael; later destroyed) in the Borgo, which became the model for many 16th-century palaces. This palazzo was later acquired by Raphael. According to Vasari, Bramante, about 1509, had designed the architectural background for the School of Athens by Raphael (1508–11; Vatican,…

  • Raphaelson, Samson (screenwriter)

    Ernst Lubitsch: Transition to sound: …contributors to the screenplay was Samson Raphaelson, who would collaborate frequently with Lubitsch throughout the director’s career. Lubitsch’s follow-up to The Smiling Lieutenant, the sombre antiwar drama Broken Lullaby (1932; also released as The Man I Killed), with Lionel Barrymore, was praised for its brilliant camera work, but with his…

  • Raphanus (plant genus)

    Brassicales: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, and Cleomaceae: Thus, Raphanus (the radish genus) and Brassica (including broccoli and many other cruciferous vegetables) apparently have very different fruits. In the former, they split transversely into one-seeded segments, and in the latter they open in an ordinary fashion to release the individual seeds. Nonetheless, the two…

  • Raphanus raphanistrum (plant)

    Wild radish, (Raphanus raphanistrum), widespread annual plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), native to Eurasia. Wild radish has naturalized throughout much of the world and is a noxious agricultural weed in many places. The plant is believed by some authorities to be the ancestor of the

  • Raphanus sativus (plant)

    Radish, (Raphanus sativus), annual or biennial plant in the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its large succulent taproot. The common radish is likely of Asian or Mediterranean origin and is cultivated worldwide. Radish roots are low in calories and are usually eaten raw; the young leaves

  • raphe (anatomy)

    scrotum: …a middle ridge called the raphe. Internally, the raphe connects to a muscular partition, the septum, which serves to divide the scrotum into its two areas.

  • Raphia (plant genus)

    palm: Distribution: …Africa, Elaeis (oil palm) and Raphia (raffia palm, or jupati) in Africa and America, and Borassus (palmyra palm), Calamus (rattan palm), Hyphaene (doum palm), and Phoenix (date palm) in Africa and Asia. Numbers of individuals of a species may be few or many.

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