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  • real property

    Real and personal property, a basic division of property in English common law, roughly corresponding to the division between immovables and movables in civil law. At common law most interests in land and fixtures (such as permanent buildings) were classified as real-property interests. Leasehold

  • Real Quiet (racehorse)

    Real Quiet, (foaled 1995), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 1998 won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes but lost at the Belmont Stakes, ending his bid for the coveted Triple Crown of American horse racing. Real Quiet was called a “bargain-basement colt,” as he was bought for only

  • Real Rights of Man, The (work by Spence)

    Thomas Spence: …Newcastle Philosophical Society his paper The Real Rights of Man, advocating that land be owned by democratically organized local corporations that would rent it out at moderate rates and distribute the net proceeds to the inhabitants. There would be no need for taxes. Spence maintained that men in their natural…

  • Real Steel (film by Levy [2011])

    Hugh Jackman: In the sports-action film Real Steel (2011), Jackman portrayed a promoter in the futuristic milieu of robot boxing. He continued to entertain live audiences with a hugely popular one-man concert show, Hugh Jackman, Back on Broadway (2011). He took a supporting role in the film Butter (2011), a political…

  • real tennis (sport)

    Real tennis, racket sport that is descended from and almost identical to the medieval tennis game jeu de paume (“game of the palm”). Real tennis has been played since the Middle Ages, but the game has become almost completely obscured by its own descendant, lawn tennis. Although real tennis

  • Real Thing, The (play by Stoppard)

    Tom Stoppard: The Tony-winning The Real Thing (1982), Stoppard’s first romantic comedy, deals with art and reality and features a playwright as a protagonist. Arcadia, which juxtaposes 19th-century Romanticism and 20th-century chaos theory and is set in a Derbyshire country house, premiered in 1993, and The Invention of Love,…

  • Real Time with Bill Maher (American television program)

    Bill Maher: …he returned to television with Real Time with Bill Maher, which began airing on HBO in February 2003. In 2006 Maher hosted the Internet talk show Amazon Fishbowl with Bill Maher on the Web site Amazon.com. His writings include When You Ride Alone You Ride with Bin Laden (2002), New…

  • Real Valladolid (Spanish football club)

    Ronaldo: …owner of the Spanish club Real Valladolid.

  • Real Villa de San Felipe de Austria (Bolivia)

    Oruro, city, west-central Bolivia. It lies at 12,150 feet (3,702 metres) above sea level in the Altiplano region, 30 miles (48 km) north of Lake Poopó. Founded in 1606 as Real Villa de San Felipe de Austria (“Royal Town of St. Philip of Austria”), Oruro rose to prominence during the Spanish

  • Real World, The (American television program)

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: …spite of its title, MTV’s The Real World (begun 1992) was much more contrived than An American Family, and it set the style for future series of its kind. The Louds, after all, were a real family, as were the officers that were portrayed in Cops. For each new season…

  • Real World?, The (play by Tremblay)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: In Le Vrai Monde? (1987; The Real World?), perhaps his best play, Michel Tremblay explored the ambiguous relationship between life and its representation in art. His libretto for the opera Nelligan (1990) was a departure from his previous work: it studies Quebec through its most tragic voice, that of poet…

  • real yellowwood (tree)

    yellowwood: macrophyllus), of China and Japan; real yellowwood (P. latifolius), South African yellowwood (P. elongatus), and common yellowwood (P. falcatus) of southern Africa; plum-fir, or plum-fruited, yew (P. andinus) and willowleaf podocarpus, or ma?ío (P. salignus), of the Chilean Andes; and the yacca (P. coriaceus)

  • Real, Cordillera (mountains, Bolivia)

    Cordillera Real, major mountain system, the easternmost of the two in Bolivia. It extends generally north-south for about 750 miles (1,200 km) through the length of the country. The Cordillera Real separates the lowlands of the Amazon River basin to the east from the high plateaus of the Altiplano

  • Real, Cordillera (mountains, Colombia)

    Andes Mountains: …and western ranges—respectively named the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental—are characteristic of most of the system. The directional trend of both the cordilleras generally is north-south, but in several places the Cordillera Oriental bulges eastward to form either isolated peninsula-like ranges or such high intermontane plateau regions as the…

  • real, the

    nonfictional prose: Reality and imagination: Prose that is nonfictional is generally supposed to cling to reality more closely than that which invents stories, or frames imaginary plots. Calling it “realistic,” however, would be a gross distortion. Since nonfictional prose does not stress inventiveness of themes and of…

  • Real-Encyclop?die der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (work by Pauly)

    encyclopaedia: Other topics: …Classical philologist, began issuing his Real-Encyclop?die der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (“Encyclopaedia of Classical Antiquities”) in 1837. The new edition was begun by another German Classical philologist, Georg Wissowa, in 1893. This enormous work on Classical studies has no equal in any part of the world, though it can be supplemented in…

  • Real-Encyklop?die für protestantische Theologie und Kirche (work by Herzog)

    encyclopaedia: Other topics: …first great encyclopaedia with his Real-Encyklop?die für protestantische Theologie und Kirche (1854–68; “Encyclopaedia of the Protestant Theology and Church”). Philip Schaff, a Swiss-born American church historian, prepared the abridged English edition (1882–84) from which The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge stems. James Hastings, a Scottish clergyman, was responsible for…

  • real-time echocardiography (medicine)

    human cardiovascular system: Noninvasive techniques: Real-time (cross-sectional or two-dimensional) echocardiography depicts cardiac shape and lateral movement not available in M-mode echocardiography by moving the ultrasonic beam very rapidly, and such recording may be displayed on film or videotape. New techniques allow measurement by ultrasonography of rates of flow and pressures,…

  • real-time operation (computing)

    computer science: Platform-based development: The term real-time systems refers to computers embedded into cars, aircraft, manufacturing assembly lines, and other devices to control processes in real time. Frequently, real-time tasks repeat at fixed-time intervals. For example, sensor data are gathered every second, and a control signal is generated. In such cases,…

  • real-time strategy game (electronic game genre)

    electronic strategy game: Real-time games: As personal computers became more powerful, real-time games became viable, with the first commercial success being Dune II (1992), based on American director David Lynch’s 1984 film version of Frank Herbert’s science fiction novel Dune (1965). Dune II allowed players to select and…

  • RealAudio (compressed audio format)

    RealAudio, a compressed audio format created in 1995 by Progressive Networks, which became RealNetworks, Inc., in 1997. The RealAudio format allows users to listen to music as it is being downloaded, a process known as streaming. RealAudio’s small file sizes and streaming capability make it a

  • Reale (Italy)

    Acireale, town and episcopal see, eastern Sicily, Italy, on terraces above the Ionian Sea at the foot of Mount Etna, 7 miles (11 km) northeast of Catania. Known as Aquilia by the Romans, the town was called Reale by Philip IV of Spain in 1642. The first part of its name is derived from the ancient

  • Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon (work by Sinold von Schütz)

    encyclopaedia: Encyclopaedic dictionaries: …Philipp Balthasar Sinold von Schütz’s Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon (“Lexicon of Government and News”) concentrated on geography, theology, politics, and contemporary history and had to be supplemented by the German economist Paul Jacob Marperger’s Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerk-, und Handlungslexikon (1712; “Curious Natural, Artistic, Mining, Craft, and Commercial Encyclopaedia”),…

  • realgar (mineral)

    Realgar, an important ore of arsenic, a red or orange mineral containing both arsenic and sulfur. Typically it is a minor constituent of ore veins in association with orpiment (into which it disintegrates on long exposure to light). Realgar has been used by the Chinese for carvings, but these also

  • reali di Francia, I (work by Andrea da Barberino)

    Andrea da Barberino: …prose compilation of Charlemagne legends, I reali di Francia (1491; “The Royalty of France,” modern edition by G. Vandelli, 1892–1900), was drawn for the most part from earlier Italian versions, though the author added much pseudohistorical material and invented many exciting amplifications. His epic tale Guerrin meschino (1473; “Wretched Guerrino”),…

  • realia (education)

    library: School libraries: …librarians use the term “realia” to describe these resources.

  • realism (literature)

    Belgian literature: Realism and other post-Romantic trends: Led by a Realist, Domien Sleeckx, a reaction against Romanticism set in about 1860. Writing became characterized by acute observation, description of local scenery, humour, and, not infrequently, a pervasive pessimism, as could be seen in novels such as Anton…

  • realism (international relations)

    Realism, set of related theories of international relations that emphasizes the role of the state, national interest, and military power in world politics. Realism has dominated the academic study of international relations since the end of World War II. Realists claim to offer both the most

  • realism (philosophy)

    Realism, in philosophy, the viewpoint which accords to things which are known or perceived an existence or nature which is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them. The history of Western philosophy is checkered with disputes between those who have defended forms of

  • realism (art)

    Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances. As such, realism in its broad sense has comprised many artistic currents in different

  • realism, moral

    ethics: Moral realism: After the publication of Moore’s Principia Ethica, naturalism in Britain was given up for dead. The first attempts to revive it were made in the late 1950s by Philippa Foot and Elizabeth Anscombe (1919–2001). In response to Hare’s intimation that anything could be a…

  • Réalisme, Le (work by Champfleury)

    realism: The novel: …latter’s theories to literature in Le Réalisme (1857). In this influential critical manifesto Champfleury asserted that the hero of a novel should be an ordinary man rather than an exceptional figure. In 1857 Gustave Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary was published. This unrelentingly objective portrait of the bourgeois mentality, with its…

  • Realist Manifesto (Soviet art publication)

    Constructivism: …publication of their jointly written Realist Manifesto in 1920 they became the spokesmen of the movement. It is from the manifesto that the name Constructivism was derived; one of the directives that it contained was “to construct” art. Because of their admiration for machines and technology, functionalism, and modern industrial…

  • Realist, The (novel by Broch)

    The Sleepwalkers: …oder die Sachlichkeit 1918 (1932; The Realist).

  • realistic anti-Platonism (mathematics)

    philosophy of mathematics: Realistic anti-Platonism: There are two different versions of realistic anti-Platonism, namely, psychologism and physicalism. Psychologism is the view that mathematical theorems are about concrete mental objects of some sort. In this view, numbers and circles and so on do exist, but they do not exist…

  • realistic art (art)

    Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances. As such, realism in its broad sense has comprised many artistic currents in different

  • Realistic Manifesto (work by Pevsner and Gabo)

    Antoine Pevsner: …the brothers issued the “Realistic Manifesto” (written by Gabo, and co-signed by Pevsner), in which they rejected Cubism and Futurism and argued that artists should embrace elements of space and time by employing constructed (as opposed to sculpted) mass and kinetic rhythms. Gabo outlined a style similar to the…

  • realistic style (art)

    Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances. As such, realism in its broad sense has comprised many artistic currents in different

  • Realistic Theatre (theatre, Moscow, Russia)

    Western theatre: Russia: …put in charge of the Realistic Theatre (formerly one of the Moscow Art Theatre studios) in 1932. There, he tried to find new ways of presenting plays by using multiple stages and generally breaking away from the constrictions of the proscenium-arch format. In 1938, however, the Realistic Theatre was closed…

  • realistic thinking

    thought: …for reasoning, it is called directed thinking. Reasoning is a process of piecing together the results of two or more distinct previous learning experiences to produce a new pattern of behaviour. Directed thinking contrasts with other symbolic sequences that have different functions, such as the simple recall (mnemonic thinking) of…

  • Reality (album by Bowie)

    David Bowie: …the release of the backward-looking Reality (2003) led to speculation that he had retired. He unexpectedly resurfaced a decade later with The Next Day (2013), a collection of assured, mostly straightforward, rock songs. The searching, jazz-infused Blackstar (2016) was released two days before his death from cancer. In Bowie’s final…

  • reality

    nonfictional prose: Reality and imagination: Prose that is nonfictional is generally supposed to cling to reality more closely than that which invents stories, or frames imaginary plots. Calling it “realistic,” however, would be a gross distortion. Since nonfictional prose does not stress inventiveness of themes and of…

  • Reality Bites (film by Stiller [1994])

    Ben Stiller: …and acted in the dramedy Reality Bites (1994), a portrait of disaffected, media-saturated young adults that was considered a defining representation of Generation X. He stepped behind the camera again for The Cable Guy (1996), a dark comedy starring Jim Carrey, but the film was poorly received.

  • reality plane (mathematics)

    projective geometry: Projective invariants: …distant points for parallels, the reality plane and the projective plane are essentially interchangeable—that is, ignoring distances and directions (angles), which are not preserved in the projection. Other properties are preserved, however. For instance, two different points have a unique connecting line, and two different lines have a unique point…

  • reality principle (psychology)

    human behaviour: Psychoanalytic theories: …as the child grows, the reality principle gradually begins to control the pleasure principle; the child learns that the environment does not always permit immediate gratification. Child development, according to Freud, is thus primarily concerned with the emergence of the functions of the ego, which is responsible for channeling the…

  • Reality Sandwiches (work by Ginsberg)

    Reality Sandwiches, fourth volume of collected poems by Allen Ginsberg, published in 1963. The poems in the collection are of interest mainly as a record of the Beat lifestyle and of Ginsberg’s own

  • reality show

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: “Reality TV” was one of the most significant new program developments of the new century, though the genre is in fact nearly as old as the medium itself. Live variety shows had taken cameras into the streets in the 1950s, and Candid Camera,…

  • reality television

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: “Reality TV” was one of the most significant new program developments of the new century, though the genre is in fact nearly as old as the medium itself. Live variety shows had taken cameras into the streets in the 1950s, and Candid Camera,…

  • reality-based programming

    Television’s habit of exploiting real-life events was more pervasive--and more immediate--in 1993 than ever before. Dramatic, sensational news stories had always been fair game for the entertainment industry, but the transition from news item to movie or TV screen generally took several years. More

  • Realizing Rights: The Ethical Globalization Initiative (nongovernmental organization)

    Mary Robinson: …Robinson founded the nongovernmental organization Realizing Rights: The Ethical Globalization Initiative (2002–10). Its central concerns included equitable international trade, access to health care, migration, women’s leadership, and corporate responsibility. She was also a founding member of the Council of Women World Leaders, served as honorary president of Oxfam International (a…

  • Really Rosie (work by Sendak)

    Maurice Sendak: …1975 he wrote and directed Really Rosie, an animated television special based on some of the children in his stories. It was expanded into a musical play in 1978. In addition to creating opera versions of some of his own stories—including Where the Wild Things Are—Sendak designed a number of…

  • really simple syndication (computer science)

    RSS, format used to provide subscribers with new content from frequently updated Web sites. An RSS feed is a set of instructions residing on the computer server of a Web site, which is given upon request to a subscriber’s RSS reader, or aggregator. The feed tells the reader when new material—such

  • realm (ecology)

    biogeographic region: Endemism: Major regions (kingdoms and realms) are still determined as those that have the most endemics or, stated another way, those that share the fewest taxa with other regions. As regions are further broken down into subdivisions, they will contain fewer unique taxa.

  • Realm of Nature, The (work by Mill)

    Hugh Robert Mill: It was through The Realm of Nature (1891) that he influenced the reform of geography teaching. As director of the British Rainfall Organization (1901–19), editor of British Rainfall and Symons’ Meteorological Magazine, and honorary secretary of the Royal Meteorological Society from 1902 until 1907 (when he became president),…

  • realm, theory of (literature)

    Wang Guowei: …he first advanced his “theory of realm,” which asserted that a successful poem integrates descriptions of scenery and emotions. When the Chinese Revolution of 1911 broke out, Wang went with Luo Zhenyu to Japan and lived there for five years. In January 1913 he finished writing Song-Yuan xiqushi (“History…

  • Realms of Being (work by Santayana)

    George Santayana: Santayana’s system of philosophy: …system developed in the four-volume Realms of Being (1928, 1930, 1937, 1940), an ontological (nature of being) treatise of great concentration and finish. In these later works Santayana enhanced his stature as a philosopher by achieving greater theoretical precision, depth, and coherence. Scepticism and Animal Faith conveys better than any…

  • RealNetworks, Inc. (American company)

    RealAudio: …by Progressive Networks, which became RealNetworks, Inc., in 1997.

  • RealPlayer (Internet media player)

    RealAudio: …was developed for use with RealPlayer, one of the Internet’s early media player successes.

  • realpolitik (political philosophy)

    Realpolitik, politics based on practical objectives rather than on ideals. The word does not mean “real” in the English sense but rather connotes “things”—hence a politics of adaptation to things as they are. Realpolitik thus suggests a pragmatic, no-nonsense view and a disregard for ethical

  • Realschule (German secondary school)

    Realschule, German secondary school with an emphasis on the practical that evolved in the mid-18th century as a six-year alternative to the nine-year gymnasium. It was distinguished by its practical curriculum (natural science and chemistry) and use of chemistry laboratories and workshops for wood

  • realtor

    agency: The variety of Anglo-American agents: …are the powers of the real estate agent, who may show the land and state the asking price to the potential buyer without ordinarily being empowered to make further representations. The store salesman is similarly restricted in his power to represent his principal and can usually do no more than…

  • ream weight (measurement)

    papermaking: Substance and quantity measurement: The term ream weight commonly signifies the weight of a lot or batch of paper. Since the printing trades use a variety of sheet sizes, there can be numerous ream weights for paper having the same basis weight.

  • Ream, Vinnie (American sculptor)

    Vinnie Ream, American sculptor, who is best remembered for her sculpture of Abraham Lincoln in the rotunda of the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Ream had a peripatetic childhood, but in 1861 her family settled in Washington, D.C. She took up sculpture in 1863 under the tutelage of Clark Mills, who was

  • reamer (tool)

    Reamer, rotary cutting tool of cylindrical or conical shape used for enlarging and finishing to accurate dimensions holes that have been drilled, bored, or cored. A reamer cannot be used to originate a hole. All reamers are provided with longitudinal flutes or grooves (eight are commonly used)

  • reaming (juicing process)

    fruit processing: Preparation: One is a reaming technique, in which the fruit is cut in half and the individual halves reamed to extract both the juice and the inner fruit solids. In the second major system, a hole is punched in the fruit and the juice squeezed out at the same…

  • reaming (tool)

    Reamer, rotary cutting tool of cylindrical or conical shape used for enlarging and finishing to accurate dimensions holes that have been drilled, bored, or cored. A reamer cannot be used to originate a hole. All reamers are provided with longitudinal flutes or grooves (eight are commonly used)

  • Reamker (Cambodian epic)

    Khmer literature: Classical literature: The best-known epic is the Reamker (“Honour of Rama”; Eng. trans. Reamker), the Cambodian version of the Ramayana, one of the great epic poems of India. Surviving texts of the Reamker date from the 16th or 17th century, but bas-reliefs at Angkor Wat show that the Rama (Cambodian Ream) story…

  • Reaney, James Crerar (Canadian writer)

    James Crerar Reaney, Canadian poet and playwright whose works transform Ontario small-town life into the realm of dream and symbol. Reaney received a Ph.D. from the University of Toronto (1959), and in 1960 he founded Alphabet, a literary magazine, and became professor of English at the University

  • reanimation rite (Egyptian religion)

    Reanimation rite, in Egyptian religion, rite to prepare the deceased for the afterlife, performed on statues of the deceased, the mummy itself, or statues of a god located in a temple. An important element of the ceremony was the ritual “Opening of the Mouth” so the mummy might breathe and eat. The

  • reaper (agriculture)

    Reaper, any farm machine that cuts grain. Early reapers simply cut the crop and dropped it unbound, but modern machines include harvesters, combines, and binders, which also perform other harvesting operations. A patent for a reaper was issued in England to Joseph Boyce in 1800. In the 1830s

  • Reaper, The (mural by Miró)

    Joan Miró: Paris and early work: …depicted a peasant revolt in The Reaper, a mural he painted for the pavilion of the Spanish Republic at the Paris World Exhibition of 1937. He also imbued his pictures of this period, such as the nightmarish Head of a Woman (1938), with a demonic expressiveness that mirrored the fears…

  • reapportionment (government)

    Legislative apportionment, process by which representation is distributed among the constituencies of a representative assembly. This use of the term apportionment is limited almost exclusively to the United States. In most other countries, particularly the United Kingdom and the countries of the

  • rear (military)

    tactics: The growing scale of battle: …situation was created where the rear areas of armies could be brought under fire just as well as their fronts. Battles, in brief, ceased to be distinct events that could be well defined in time and place and easily identified by crossed swords on a map. During World War I,…

  • rear projection (photography)

    projection screen: …tiny beads on a canvas backing, the lenticular screen of tiny, uniformly spaced, cylindrical lenses.

  • Rear Window (film by Hitchcock [1954])

    Rear Window, American thriller film, released in 1954, that is considered one of Alfred Hitchcock’s most suspenseful movies. It starred Hitchcock favourites James Stewart and Grace Kelly. Stewart played L.B. Jeffries, a photographer who is confined to a wheelchair while recuperating from a broken

  • rearmament (international relations)

    20th-century international relations: The nature and role of Germany: …over the costly issue of rearmament before a committee managed to work out an acceptable distribution of burdens in October. The obvious solution was German rearmament, something the nervous French refused to countenance unless the German army were merged into an international force, a European Defense Community (EDC). The implications…

  • rearrangement reaction (chemistry)

    carbonium ion: Reactions.: …with internal sigma base: acid-catalyzed rearrangement of neopentyl alcohol, the electron pair coming from an internal carbon–carbon sigma bond:

  • rearrangement, molecular (chemistry)

    carbonium ion: Reactions.: …with internal sigma base: acid-catalyzed rearrangement of neopentyl alcohol, the electron pair coming from an internal carbon–carbon sigma bond:

  • reason

    Reason, in philosophy, the faculty or process of drawing logical inferences. The term “reason” is also used in several other, narrower senses. Reason is in opposition to sensation, perception, feeling, desire, as the faculty (the existence of which is denied by empiricists) by which fundamental

  • Reason and Establishment of Studies, The (work by Aquaviva)

    Claudio Aquaviva: This work, Ratio atque institutio studiorum (“The Reason and Establishment of Studies”), was first published in 1586, at which time it was distributed to Jesuit schools for criticism and revision. The definitive text (1599) unified Jesuit teaching throughout the world, yet allowed for adaptation to local needs.…

  • Reason and Existenz (work by Jaspers)

    Karl Jaspers: Conflict with the Nazi authorities: …entitled Vernunft und Existenz (Reason and Existenz, 1955), appeared; in 1936 a book on Nietzsche; in 1937 an essay on Descartes; in 1938 a further work preliminary to his logic, entitled Existenzphilosophie (Philosophy of Existence, 1971). Unlike many other famous intellectuals of that time, he was not prepared to…

  • Reason and Sensuality (work by Lydgate)

    John Lydgate: …from the French, the allegory Reason and Sensuality (c. 1408) on the theme of chastity, contains fresh and charming descriptions of nature, in well-handled couplets. The Troy Book, begun in 1412 at the command of the prince of Wales, later Henry V, and finished in 1421, is a rendering of…

  • Reason for the Fatherland (Bolivian military group)

    Bolivia: The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution: …by a secret military group, Reason for the Fatherland (Razón de Patria; RADEPA). RADEPA allied itself with the MNR and tried to create a new-style government under Colonel Gualberto Villaroel (1943–46), but little was accomplished except for the MNR’s political mobilization of the Indian peasants. Opposed as fascist-oriented by the…

  • Reason of Church-Government Urg’d Against Prelaty, The (work by Milton)

    John Milton: Antiprelatical tracts: …another tract from this period, The Reason of Church Government, Milton appears to endorse Scottish Presbyterianism as a replacement for the episcopal hierarchy of the Church of England. A few years thereafter, he came to realize that Presbyterianism could be as inflexible as the Church of England in matters of…

  • Reason, Age of (European history)

    Enlightenment, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Central

  • reason, calculus of (philosophy)

    history of logic: Leibniz: …a “calculus of reason” (calculus ratiocinator). This would naturally first require a symbolism but would then involve explicit manipulations of the symbols according to established rules by which either new truths could be discovered or proposed conclusions could be checked to see if they could indeed be derived from…

  • Reasonable Doubt (album by Jay-Z)

    JAY-Z: …to release his debut album, Reasonable Doubt (1996), which eventually sold more than a million copies in the United States.

  • reasonable person (law)

    negligence: …determine what the hypothetical “reasonable person” would have done in the situation. Such standards also demand a degree of foresight in anticipating the negligence of others—especially of special groups such as children.

  • reasonable-use doctrine (water-rights law)

    riparian right: …second doctrine, that of “reasonable use.” Unlike natural-flow doctrine, which limited or opposed any alteration to a watercourse, reasonable-use doctrine favoured developmental use of the country’s watercourses, initially for supplying power by turning waterwheels and later for hydroelectric power and other off-stream consumptive purposes. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, the…

  • Reasonableness of Christianity, The (work by Locke)

    John Locke: Other works: Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity(1695) is the most important of his many theological writings. Central to all of them is his belief that every individual has within him the abilities necessary to comprehend his duty and to achieve salvation with the aid of the Scriptures. Locke…

  • Reasoner, Harry (American broadcast journalist)

    Andy Rooney: …as a producer for presenter Harry Reasoner. The two collaborated on a number of television essays that presaged the format that would catapult Rooney to fame. Such specials as An Essay on Doors (1964) and An Essay on Women (1967) featured Reasoner narrating text written by Rooney. His 1968 script…

  • reasoning

    Reason, in philosophy, the faculty or process of drawing logical inferences. The term “reason” is also used in several other, narrower senses. Reason is in opposition to sensation, perception, feeling, desire, as the faculty (the existence of which is denied by empiricists) by which fundamental

  • Reasons and Persons (work by Parfit)

    ethics: Ethical egoism: English philosopher Derek Parfit in Reasons and Persons (1984).

  • Reasons of State (work by Carpentier)

    Alejo Carpentier: …El recurso del método (1974; Reasons of State), and El arpa y la sombra (1979; The Harp and the Shadow). In the latter, the protagonist is Christopher Columbus, involved in a love affair with the Catholic Queen Isabella of Castile. Carpentier’s last novel, La consagración de la primavera (1979; “The…

  • Reassessing Airport and Airline Security

    On March 5, 2013, U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) chief John Pistole announced a plan at a security conference in Brooklyn, N.Y., to pare back the list of items that the agency would ban at airport screening lines. On the basis of recent intelligence gathering, he said, the TSA no

  • Réaumur temperature scale

    Réaumur temperature scale, scale established in 1730 by the French naturalist René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683–1757), with its zero set at the freezing point of water and its 80° mark at the boiling point of water at normal atmospheric pressure. Use of the Réaumur scale was once widespread,

  • Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de (French entomologist)

    René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist and foremost entomologist of the early 18th century who conducted research in widely varied fields. In 1710 King Louis XIV put Réaumur in charge of compiling a description of the industry and natural resources of France. Réaumur devised the

  • Reba (American television series)

    Reba McEntire: …landing her own television sitcom, Reba, which she also coproduced, in 2001. The show, about a single mother and her family in suburban Texas, ran until 2007. McEntire later took on a similar role in another sitcom, Malibu Country (2012–13), which was set in California. She also had guest roles…

  • rebab (musical instrument)

    Kamanjā, stringed instrument of the fiddle family prominent in Arab and Persian art music. It is a spike fiddle; i.e., its small, round or cylindrical body appears skewered by the neck, which forms a “foot” that the instrument rests on when played. Measuring about 30 inches (76 cm) from neck to

  • Rebagliati, Ross (Canadian snowboarder)

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