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  • Recto, Claro Mayo (Filipino statesman)

    Claro Mayo Recto, statesman and leader of the “Filipino-first” movement that attacked U.S. “neo-colonialism” in the Philippines. Recto graduated with a law degree from the University of Santo Tomás in 1913. He was elected in 1919 to the Philippine House of Representatives and served for three terms

  • rectocele (medical disorder)

    Rectocele, disorder in which the rectum bulges into the back wall of the vagina. It is caused when the muscles and connective tissues supporting the rectum and back wall of the vagina are weakened, usually due to repeated childbirth or to aging, and the rectum sags until it abuts the vagina. A

  • Rector of Justin, The (novel by Auchincloss)

    Louis Auchincloss: Others, notably The Rector of Justin (1964) and Diary of a Yuppie (1987), are studies of a single character, often from many points of view. Auchincloss frequently linked the stories in his collections by theme or geography, as in, for example, Tales of Manhattan (1967) and Skinny…

  • Rector’s Palace (palace, Dubrovnik, Croatia)

    Dubrovnik: The contemporary city: The Rector’s Palace, dating from the 15th century and built in the late Gothic style, was the seat of government of the Dubrovnik Republic and is a masterpiece of Dalmatian architecture. Other notable structures include numerous fortresses (such as Lovrijenac, which sits atop a cliff); a…

  • rectorite (mineral)

    clay mineral: Interstratified clay minerals: , rectorite (dioctahedral mica/montmorillonite), tosudite (dioctahedral chlorite/smectite), corrensite (trioctahedral vermiculite/chlorite), hydrobiotite (trioctahedral mica/vermiculite), aliettite (talc/saponite), and kulkeite (talc/chlorite). Other than the ABAB

  • Rectory Umbrella, The (work by Carroll)

    Lewis Carroll: Early life: 1850, mostly unpublished), The Rectory Umbrella (1850–53), and Mischmasch (1853–62; published with The Rectory Umbrella in 1932).

  • rectrices (ornithology)

    bird: Feathers: …wing (remiges) and tail (rectrices) and their coverts function in flight. Contour feathers grow in tracts (pterylae) separated by bare areas (apteria) and develop from follicles in the skin.

  • rectrix (ornithology)

    bird: Feathers: …wing (remiges) and tail (rectrices) and their coverts function in flight. Contour feathers grow in tracts (pterylae) separated by bare areas (apteria) and develop from follicles in the skin.

  • rectum (anatomy)

    Rectum, terminal segment of the digestive system in which feces accumulate just prior to discharge. The rectum is continuous with the sigmoid colon and extends 13 to 15 cm (5 to 6 inches) to the anus. A muscular sheet called the pelvic diaphragm runs perpendicular to the juncture of the rectum and

  • rectum cancer (pathology)

    Colorectal cancer, disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells within the large intestine (colon) or rectum (terminal portion of the large intestine). Colon cancer (or bowel cancer) and rectal cancer are sometimes referred to separately. Colorectal cancer develops slowly but can spread to

  • rectus abdominis muscle (anatomy)

    abdominal muscle: …midline, where they surround the rectus abdominis in a sheath before they meet the fibres from the opposite side at the linea alba. Strength is developed in these rather thin walls by the crisscrossing of fibres. Thus, the fibres of the external oblique are directed downward and forward, those of…

  • rectus muscle (anatomy)

    space perception: Cues from the eye muscles: …the ciliary muscles and the rectus muscles. The ciliary effect is called accommodation (focusing the lens for near or far vision), and the rectus effect is called convergence (moving the entire eyeball). Each of these muscle systems contracts as a perceived object approaches. The effect of accommodation in this case…

  • Recuay (ancient South American culture)

    Recuay, pre-Columbian culture and site near present-day Recuay in the Callejón de Huaylas Valley of the northern highlands of Peru. Recuay culture dates to the Early Intermediate Period (c. 200 bc–ad 600) and was contemporaneous with the Moche culture of the neighbouring northern coast. Recuay is

  • Recueil de décorations intérieures (work by Fontaine and Percier)

    furniture: 19th century: …were incorporated and propagated in Recueil de décorations intérieures (1801 and 1812; “Collection of Interior Decoration”).

  • Recueil des traités et conventions conclus par la Russie (work by Martens)

    Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens: …most ambitious work of editing, Recueil des traités et conventions conclus par la Russie . . . (15 vol., 1874–1909), contains not only the texts of treaties between Russia and other countries but also histories (based on unpublished Russian documents) of the diplomatic conditions necessitating the treaties. It was printed…

  • Recuerda, José Martín (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: Theatre: …exponents of social-protest theater include José Martín Recuerda, whose subject matter is hypocrisy, cruelty, and repression in Andalusian towns and villages, and José María Rodríguez Méndez, a novelist, story writer, essayist, and critic whose dramas expose the plight of common people, especially the youth, portrayed as victims (soldiers recruited to…

  • Reculet, Le (mountain, France)

    Jura Mountains: … (5,636 feet [1,718 m]) and Le Reculet (5,633 feet [1,717 m]), both in France, and Mount Tendre and La D?le, both more than 5,500 feet (1,680 m), in Switzerland. Toward the northeast and along the outer ridges of the arc, the elevations of the crests are lower.

  • recumbent bicycle (vehicle)

    bicycle: Basic types: Recumbents are often recommended for riders who are uncomfortable on traditional bicycles. There is no standard design, but the wheelbase is usually extended and the front wheel reduced in size. The design reduces wind resistance. Other variations include the tricycle, which has two rear wheels…

  • recumbent fold (geology)

    fold: A recumbent fold has an essentially horizontal axial plane. When the two limbs of a fold are essentially parallel to each other and thus approximately parallel to the axial plane, the fold is called isoclinal.

  • recumbent frame (device)

    bicycle: Basic types: Recumbent frames allow the rider to sit low to the ground in a slightly reclined position, with the legs driving cranks attached to a horizontal tube. Recumbents are often recommended for riders who are uncomfortable on traditional bicycles. There is no standard design, but the…

  • recuperative furnace (technology)

    industrial glass: The melting chamber: …type of furnace is the recuperative furnace, in which the flue gases continuously exchange heat with the incoming combustible mixture through metal or ceramic partitions. Yet another means of improving combustion efficiency is to use oxygen-rich air or even pure oxygen. The use of oxygen is a particularly important technology,…

  • recurrence interval (weather)

    hydrologic sciences: Precipitation: …of this frequency, or the recurrence interval of the rainfall from the sample of available data, is a statistical problem generally involving the assumption of a particular probability distribution to represent the characteristics of rainfalls. Such analyses must assume that this distribution is not changing over time, even though it…

  • recurrence relation (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Recurrence relations and generating functions: If fn is a function defined on the positive integers, then a relation that expresses fn + k as a linear combination of function values of integer index less than n + k, in which a fixed constant in the…

  • recurrent abortion (medicine)

    pregnancy: Abortion: …are said to suffer from recurrent abortion. An infected abortion is an abortion associated with infection of the genital organs.

  • recurrent geomagnetic storm (astronomy)

    coronal mass ejection: Properties: Recurrent storms are caused by features on the Sun called coronal holes that live for several months and generate corotating interaction regions (disturbances in the solar wind where the fast solar wind from the coronal holes catches up with the slow solar wind) that repeat…

  • recurring digital invariant (mathematics)

    number game: Number patterns and curiosities: On the other hand, a recurring digital invariant is illustrated by:

  • recursion theory (logic)

    history of logic: Theory of recursive functions and computability: In addition to proof theory and model theory, a third main area of contemporary logic is the theory of recursive functions and computability. Much of the specialized work belongs as much to computer science as to logic. The origins…

  • recursive function (mathematics)

    Recursive function, in logic and mathematics, a type of function or expression predicating some concept or property of one or more variables, which is specified by a procedure that yields values or instances of that function by repeatedly applying a given relation or routine operation to known

  • recursive function theory (logic)

    history of logic: Theory of recursive functions and computability: In addition to proof theory and model theory, a third main area of contemporary logic is the theory of recursive functions and computability. Much of the specialized work belongs as much to computer science as to logic. The origins…

  • recurso del método, El (work by Carpentier)

    Alejo Carpentier: …El recurso del método (1974; Reasons of State), and El arpa y la sombra (1979; The Harp and the Shadow). In the latter, the protagonist is Christopher Columbus, involved in a love affair with the Catholic Queen Isabella of Castile. Carpentier’s last novel, La consagración de la primavera (1979; “The…

  • Recurvirostra (bird)

    Avocet, any of several large shorebirds belonging to the genus Recurvirostra, family Recurvirostridae. Avocets have boldly contrasting plumage, long bluish legs, and a long black bill upturned at the tip. They inhabit fresh and salt marshes that have areas of open shallow water and mud flats, and

  • Recurvirostra americana (bird)

    avocet: The slightly larger American avocet (R. americana), which is about 45 cm (18 inches) long (including the bill), differs chiefly in having the head and neck pinkish brown in breeding season, white in winter. It nests in western North America and winters from California and Texas to Guatemala.…

  • Recurvirostra andina (bird)

    avocet: The Andean avocet (R. andina), with a primarily white body, black back and wings, is confined to alkali lakes of the high Andes. The red-necked, or Australian, avocet (R. novaehollandiae) is black and white with red-brown head and neck.

  • Recurvirostra avosetta (bird)

    avocet: The Old World avocet (R. avosetta) has the crown and hindneck black, the wings black and white. It breeds in central Asia and in scattered localities in Europe. Many winter in Africa’s Rift Valley. The slightly larger American avocet (R. americana), which is about 45 cm…

  • Recurvirostridae (bird family)

    Recurvirostridae, bird family (order Charadriiformes) composed of seven species of moderately large (29–48 cm [11–19 inches] ) wading birds characterized by extremely long legs, a relatively small head, and a long, slender bill. Better-known members of the family include the avocet, ibisbill, and

  • recusancy law (English history)

    Gunpowder Plot: Aftermath and cultural legacy: …the rigorous enforcement of the recusancy law, which fined those who refused to attend Anglican services. In January 1606 Parliament established November 5 as a day of public thanksgiving. The day, known as Guy Fawkes Day, is still celebrated with bonfires, fireworks, and the carrying of “guys” through the streets.

  • recusant (religious dissenter)

    Recusant, English Roman Catholic from the period about 1570 to 1791 who refused to attend services of the Church of England and thereby committed a statutory

  • Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, The (translation by Caxton)

    Troy: Medieval legends: …be printed in English as The Recuyell of the Histories of Troye (c. 1474).

  • Recycled Records (work by Marclay)

    Christian Marclay: …extremity of Marclay’s manipulations—for his Recycled Records (1980–86) series, he sliced apart vinyl and reassembled the shards to form new sequences of sound—was considered innovative. As an avant-garde deejay (or “turntablist”) in New York City in the 1980s, he collaborated with such musicians as John Zorn and the band Sonic…

  • Recycler (device)

    particle accelerator: Proton storage rings: …ring and then to the Recycler ring (see below), where they were stored until there were a sufficient number for injection into the Main Injector. This provided acceleration to 150 GeV before transfer to the Tevatron. Protons and antiprotons were accelerated simultaneously in the Tevatron to about 1 TeV, in…

  • recycling

    Recycling, recovery and reprocessing of waste materials for use in new products. The basic phases in recycling are the collection of waste materials, their processing or manufacture into new products, and the purchase of those products, which may then themselves be recycled. Typical materials that

  • Red (album by Swift)

    Taylor Swift: Kanye West incident at the VMAs, Red, and 1989: …her next collection of songs, Red (2012). While she remained focused on the vagaries of young love, her songwriting reflected a deepened perspective on the subject, and much of the album embraced a bold pop-rock sound. In its first week on sale in the United States, Red sold 1.2 million…

  • RED (film by Schwentke [2010])

    Helen Mirren: Later films: … assassin in the action comedy Red (2010) and, in a bit of cross-gender casting, starred in Julie Taymor’s 2010 film adaptation of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest as the sorceress Prospera (originally Prospero). Mirren appeared as a brassy busybody in Brighton Rock (2010), an adaptation of the Graham Greene crime novel,…

  • red (subatomic property)

    quark: Quark colours: The colours red, green, and blue are ascribed to quarks, and their opposites, antired, antigreen, and antiblue, are ascribed to antiquarks. According to QCD, all combinations of quarks must contain mixtures of these imaginary colours that cancel out one another, with the resulting particle having no net…

  • Red (Polish political faction)

    Poland: The January 1863 uprising and its aftermath: Subsequently called the Reds, these radicals acted as a pressure group on the Agricultural Society and staged demonstrations commemorating Polish patriots or historic events. In 1861, the year of the peasant emancipation decree in the Russian Empire, demonstrators in Warsaw clashed with Russian troops, and several were killed…

  • Red (play by Logan)

    Michael Grandage: He later directed Red, a drama that centres on painter Mark Rothko and his fictional assistant. It premiered at the Donmar in 2009 and made its Broadway debut the following year. Grandage won the Tony Award for best direction of a play for it in 2010. That same…

  • Red (film by Kie?lowski [1994])

    Krzysztof Kie?lowski: … (1994; White), and Rouge (1994; Red); respectively, they explored the themes of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The films were released several months apart and, although each can stand on its own, they were designed to be seen as a single entity. One theme, the frailty of human relations, emerged from…

  • red (colour)

    Red, in physics, the longest wavelength of light discernible to the human eye. It falls in the range of 620–750 nanometres in the visible spectrum. In art, red is a colour on the conventional wheel, located between violet and orange and opposite green, its complement. Red was the first basic colour

  • Red 2 (film by Parisot [2013])

    Anthony Hopkins: Later movie and television roles: In the ensemble action comedy Red 2 (2013) Hopkins stole scenes as an eccentric nuclear scientist, and in the biblical drama Noah (2014) he dispensed wisdom to the title character as Methuselah. In 2015 he starred in the crime drama Solace, playing a doctor who is assisting in the hunt…

  • red abalone (snail)

    abalone: …largest abalone is the 30-cm red abalone (H. rufescens) of the western coast of the United States. H. rufescens and several other species are raised commercially in abalone farms, particularly in Australia, China, Japan, and along the western coast of the United States. Commercial fisheries for abalones exist in California,…

  • red acouchy (rodent)

    acouchy: The coarse fur of the red acouchy (Myoprocta acouchy) is dark chestnut red or orange on the sides of the body and legs and black or dark red on the rump; underparts range from dark red to orange. Upperparts of the green acouchy (M. pratti) are covered by grizzled fur,…

  • red admiral (butterfly)

    admiral: The migratory red admiral (Vanessa atalanta), placed in the subfamily Nymphalinae, is widespread in Europe, Scandinavia, North America, and North Africa and feeds on stinging nettles. The western, or Weidemeyer’s, admiral (Limenitis weidemeyerii) is found in the western United States. The white admiral (L. arthemis), a species…

  • red alder (tree)

    alder: …North American alders are the red alder (A. rubra, or A. oregona), a tall tree whose leaves have rusty hairs on their lower surfaces; the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia), an early-flowering tree with orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish,…

  • Red Alert (novel by George)

    Stanley Kubrick: Breakthrough to success: …Peter George (on whose novel Red Alert it was based). In the planning stages, Kubrick sought to treat the material seriously, but he kept finding himself gravitating toward farce and eventually gave in to that impulse while still managing to powerfully convey the horrible prospect of nuclear annihilation. He made…

  • red algae (protist)

    Red algae, (division Rhodophyta), any of about 6,000 species of predominantly marine algae, often found attached to other shore plants. Their morphological range includes filamentous, branched, feathered, and sheetlike thalli. The taxonomy of the group is contentious, and organization of the

  • red amaranth (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: …wheat, or love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), red amaranth (A. cruentus), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)—are high-protein pseudo-grain crops of interest to agricultural researchers. Quinoa in particular, touted as a health food, grew in popularity worldwide during the early 21st century.

  • Red and Blue Armchair (chair by Rietveld)

    Gerrit Thomas Rietveld: …time he created his famous red-and-blue armchair, which, in its emphasis on geometry and in its use of primary colours, was a realization of de Stijl principles (see photograph). In 1921 he designed a small Amsterdam jewelry shop, one of the first examples of the application of these principles to…

  • Red and the Black, The (novel by Stendhal)

    The Red and the Black, novel by Stendhal, published in French in 1830 as Le Rouge et le noir. The novel, set in France during the Second Restoration (1815–30), is a powerful character study of Julien Sorel, an ambitious young man who uses seduction as a tool for advancement. The Red and the Black

  • Red and the Green, The (novel by Murdoch)

    Iris Murdoch: …as A Severed Head (1961), The Red and the Green (1965), The Nice and the Good (1968), The Black Prince (1973), Henry and Cato (1976), The Sea, the Sea (1978, Booker Prize), The Philosopher’s Pupil (1983), The Good Apprentice (1985), The

  • Red and White Plum Blossoms (work by Ogata Korin)

    Ogata Kōrin: …this period is the screen Red and White Plum Blossoms (c. 18th century). In this work, Kōrin’s sense of flat decorative design and his feeling for nature, combined with an emphasis on an abstract colour pattern, are seen at their very best. Although he died at the age of 59,…

  • red angel’s trumpet (plant)

    angel's trumpet: insignis, red angel’s trumpet (B. sanguinea), B. versicolor, and B. vulcanicola were variously distributed in the Andes region of South America, ranging from Colombia to northern Chile. Angel’s tears (B. suaveolens) was native to the Atlantic coast of southeastern

  • Red Angus (cattle breed)

    Angus: …breed, a strain known as Red Angus has gained in popularity since the mid-20th century, particularly for purposes of outcrossing and crossbreeding. The Brangus, developed from Brahman and Angus stocks, is notable for its resistance to heat.

  • Red Army (Soviet history)

    Red Army, Soviet army created by the Communist government after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The name Red Army was abandoned in 1946. The Russian imperial army and navy, together with other imperial institutions of tsarist Russia, disintegrated after the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of

  • Red Army (Chinese army)

    People’s Liberation Army, Unified organization of China’s land, sea, and air forces. It is one of the largest military forces in the world. The People’s Liberation Army traces its roots to the 1927 Nanchang Uprising of the communists against the Nationalists. Initially called the Red Army, it grew

  • Red Army Faction (German radical leftist group)

    Red Army Faction (RAF), West German radical leftist group formed in 1968 and popularly named after two of its early leaders, Andreas Baader (1943–77) and Ulrike Meinhof (1934–76). The group had its origins among the radical elements of the German university protest movement of the 1960s, which

  • Red Army Fraction (German radical leftist group)

    Red Army Faction (RAF), West German radical leftist group formed in 1968 and popularly named after two of its early leaders, Andreas Baader (1943–77) and Ulrike Meinhof (1934–76). The group had its origins among the radical elements of the German university protest movement of the 1960s, which

  • red avadavat (bird)

    Avadavat, (species Amandava, or Estrilda, amandava), plump, 8-centimetre- (3-inch-) long bird of the waxbill (q.v.) group (order Passeriformes), a popular cage bird. The avadavat is abundant in marshes and meadows of southern Asia (introduced in Hawaii). The male, in breeding plumage, is bright

  • Red Badge of Courage, The (film by Huston [1951])

    John Huston: Films of the 1950s: Crane’s literary classic The Red Badge of Courage. Real-life World War II hero Audie Murphy starred in this story of a young Union soldier who deserts his company during the American Civil War. With the Korean War raging, MGM executives felt that the film’s antiwar message was too…

  • Red Badge of Courage, The (novel by Crane)

    The Red Badge of Courage, novel of the American Civil War by Stephen Crane, published in 1895 and considered to be his masterwork because of its perceptive depiction of warfare and of a soldier’s psychological turmoil. Crane was 25 years old and had no personal experience of war when he wrote the

  • red balata (plant genus)

    Rainforest Regeneration in Panama: …are tree species such as Manilkara, almendro, and the suicide tree, characterized by slower growth and lower light requirements, with the capacity for extended persistence under low light conditions. Such trees tend toward high wood densities, relatively delayed attainment of reproductive status, and larger, often animal-dispersed seeds. They also have…

  • Red Balloon, The (film by Lamorisse [1956])
  • red baneberry (plant)

    baneberry: The red baneberry, or red cohosh (A. rubra), native to North America, closely resembles A. spicata. Its fruits are red or ivory. The roots and berries of baneberry plants contain irritant resins that have a cathartic action and produce vomiting. The plants are useful subjects for…

  • Red Banner (flag)

    flag of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: …1917, the Bolsheviks considered the Red Banner to be sufficient as a symbol for their ideological commitment to place all authority in the hands of workers and peasants. A plain red flag had first been used as a symbol of popular rights against autocratic governments during the French Revolution. The…

  • Red Baron, the (German aviator)

    Manfred, baron von Richthofen, Germany’s top aviator and leading ace in World War I. Members of a prosperous family, Richthofen and his younger brother Lothar followed their father into military careers. In 1912 Richthofen became a lieutenant in the 1st Uhlan Cavalry Regiment of the Prussian Army.

  • Red Basin (region, China)

    Sichuan Basin, basin comprising the greater part of eastern Sichuan province and the western portion of Chongqing municipality, southwestern China. It is surrounded by the highlands of the Plateau of Tibet on the west and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau on the south and the Wu Mountains on the east and

  • red bat (mammal species)

    Red bat, (Lasiurus borealis), migratory vesper bat (family Vespertilionidae) found in wooded areas of North America. It is about 10 cm (4 inches) long, including a 5-cm (2-inch) tail, weighs 10–15 grams (0.33–0.5 ounce), and has narrow wings and short, rounded ears. The fur is fairly long, chestnut

  • red bear-cat (mammal)

    Red panda, (Ailurus fulgens), reddish brown, long-tailed, raccoonlike mammal, about the size of a large domestic cat, that is found in the mountain forests of the Himalayas and adjacent areas of eastern Asia and subsists mainly on bamboo and other vegetation, fruits, and insects. Once classified as

  • Red Beard (film by Kurosawa Akira [1965])

    Kurosawa Akira: Later works: Akahige (1965; Red Beard) combines elements of entertainment with a sentimental humanism. In the 1960s, however, Japanese cinema fell into an economic depression, and Kurosawa’s plans, in most cases, were found by film companies to be too expensive. As a result, Kurosawa attempted to work with Hollywood…

  • red bed (geology)

    geologic history of Earth: Formation of the secondary atmosphere: …diagenesis to give rise to red beds (sandstones that are predominantly red in colour due to fully oxidized iron coating individual grains) and that 2.2 billion years passed before a large number of life-forms could evolve. An idea formulated by the American paleontologist Preston Cloud has been widely accepted as…

  • Red Beds (region, Oklahoma, United States)

    Oklahoma: Relief: The Red Beds Plains constitute the largest of Oklahoma’s 10 subregions, running through the middle of the state. Both Oklahoma’s greatest population density and most of its larger towns are located there; oil provides much of the income. Although cotton rules in the south and wheat…

  • red beech (plant)

    beech: The American beech (Fagus grandifolia), native to eastern North America, and the European beech (F. sylvatica), distributed throughout England and Eurasia, are the most widely known species. Both are economically important timber trees and are often planted as ornamentals in Europe and North America; they may…

  • red beech (tree, Nothofagus fusca)

    beech: …fine-textured wood; the slender, columnar red beech (N. fusca) of New Zealand, about 30 metres tall; and the silver, or southland, beech (N. menziesii), a 30-metre New Zealand tree with doubly and bluntly toothed leaves bearing small hairy pits beneath.

  • red birch (tree)

    River birch, (Betula nigra), ornamental tree of the family Betulaceae, found on river and stream banks in the eastern one-third of the United States. Because the lower trunk becomes very dark with age, the tree is sometimes called black birch, a name more properly applied to sweet birch. Commonly

  • red birch (tree)

    Sweet birch, (Betula lenta), North American ornamental and timber tree in the family Betulaceae. Usually about 18 m (60 feet) tall, the tree may reach 24 m or more in the southern Appalachians; on poor soil it may be stunted and shrublike. The smooth, shiny, nonpeeling outer bark, red brown on

  • red birch (Betula occidentalis)

    birch: Water birch (B. occidentalis; B. fontinalis of some authorities), a shrubby tree native to moist sites along the western coast of North America, has nonpeeling, dark-red bark; it grows in clusters, with all stems rising from a common root system. It is sometimes called red…

  • red bishop (bird)

    bishop: The 13-centimetre (5-inch) red bishop (E. orix), also called grenadier weaver, displays by flying about and clapping its wings. Red bishops have become established in southern Australia.

  • red blindness (colour blindness)

    colour blindness: Types of colour blindness: …to red is known as protanopia, a state in which the red cones are absent, leaving only the cones that absorb blue and green light. Blindness to green is known as deuteranopia, wherein green cones are lacking and blue and red cones are functional. Some persons experience anomalous dichromatic conditions,…

  • red blood cell (biology)

    Red blood cell, cellular component of blood, millions of which in the circulation of vertebrates give the blood its characteristic colour and carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. The mature human red blood cell is small, round, and biconcave; it appears dumbbell-shaped in profile. The cell

  • Red Bluff (California, United States)

    Red Bluff, city, seat (1857) of Tehama county, northern California, U.S. It lies along the Sacramento River, 115 miles (185 km) north-northwest of Sacramento. Settled in the 1840s, it was known as Leodocia until sometime before 1854, when it was renamed for the reddish sand and low bluffs on which

  • Red Book (liturgy by John III)

    John III: …own in 1577, the “Red Book,” which restored some of the Catholic liturgical usages that had been swept away in the triumph of Lutheranism in Sweden. By 1580 he realized that a settlement with Rome was impossible but renewed his efforts to impose the “Red Book” over an opposition…

  • Red Book of Clanranald (work by MacMhuirich)

    Celtic literature: The 17th century: …Book of Clanranald and the Red Book of Clanranald, written by members of the MacMhuirich family, who were latterly hereditary bards to the MacDonalds of Clanranald. They were probably written for the most part in the 17th century but contained poems by earlier representatives of the family. The other important…

  • Red Book of Hergest, The (medieval manuscript)

    Llywarch Hen: …part, and are preserved in The Red Book of Hergest, a manuscript dating to c. 1400. The poems were edited and translated several times in the 20th century.

  • Red Book, The (work by Jung)

    Carl Jung: Character of his psychotherapy: In 2009 the “Red Book,” a manuscript that Jung wrote during the years 1914–30, was published. It was, by Jung’s own account, a record of his “confrontation with the unconscious.” Containing both his account of his imaginings, fantasies, and induced hallucinations and his own colour illustrations, The Red…

  • red box tree (plant)

    beech: …the best known are the Australian beech (N. moorei), a 46-metre (151-foot) tree with leaves 7 cm (3 inches) long, found in New South Wales; the myrtle beech, Tasmanian myrtle, or Australian, or red, myrtle (N. cunninghamii), a 60-metre (197-foot) Tasmanian tree important for its fine-textured wood; the slender, columnar…

  • Red Brigades (Italian militant organization)

    Red Brigades, militant left-wing organization in Italy that gained notoriety in the 1970s for kidnappings, murders, and sabotage. Its self-proclaimed aim was to undermine the Italian state and pave the way for a Marxist upheaval led by a “revolutionary proletariat.” The reputed founder of the Red

  • red buckeye (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The red buckeye (A. pavia) produces red flowers and is an attractive small tree, rarely reaching more than 7.6 metres (25 feet) in height.

  • red buffalo (mammal)

    Cape buffalo: (The forest, or red, buffalo, S. caffer nanus, a much smaller and less familiar subspecies, inhabits forests and swamps of Central and West Africa.)

  • red bug (insect)

    Red bug, any insect of the family Pyrrhocoridae (order Heteroptera), which contains more than 300 species. The red bug—a fairly common, gregarious, plant-feeding insect found mostly in the tropics and subtropics—is oval in shape and brightly coloured with red. It ranges in length from 8 to 18 mm

  • Red Bull Theatre (historical theatre, Islington, London, United Kingdom)

    Red Bull Theatre, London public playhouse in Upper Street, Clerkenwell, built in about 1600–05 by Aaron Holland and noted for the vulgarity and obstreperousness of its patrons. The Red Bull was frequented by rowdy neighbourhood theatregoers, and several were called before Middlesex justices in

  • red calla lily (plant)

    calla: …more heart-shaped leaves, and the pink, or red, calla lily (Z. rehmannii) are also grown. The spotted, or black-throated, calla lily (Z. albomaculata), with white-spotted leaves, has a whitish to yellow or pink spathe that shades within to purplish brown at the base.

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