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  • Reichenbach, Hans (American philosopher)

    Hans Reichenbach, philosopher and educator who was a leading representative of the Vienna Circle and founder of the Berlin school of logical positivism, a movement that viewed logical statements as revealing only the basic structure of a priori mental categories and language. He contributed

  • Reichenbach, Treaty of (Austria-Prussia-Russia [1813])

    Klemens von Metternich: Ministry during the Napoleonic Wars: Even so, in the subsequent Treaty of Reichenbach, June 24, 1813, between Austria, Prussia, and Russia, Metternich undertook to bring Austria into the war against France if Napoleon rejected the peace terms that he was offering.

  • Reichenbachf?lle (waterfalls, Switzerland)

    Reichenbach Falls, falls on the Reichenbach (creek) in Bern canton, central Switzerland, one of the highest falls in the Alps. There are five cascades with an overall height of 650 feet (200 m); best known are Upper and Lower Reichenbach Falls, with a drop of about 300 feet (90 m). Much of

  • Reichenberg (Czech Republic)

    Liberec, city, northwestern Czech Republic. It lies in the valley of the Lu?ická Nisa (German: Lausitzer Neisse) River amid the Giant (Krkono?e) Mountains. Founded in the 13th century and chartered in 1577, Liberec was inhabited mainly by Germans until their expulsion after World War II. Called the

  • Reichenthal, Laura (American poet and critic)

    Laura Riding, American poet, critic, and prose writer who was influential among the literary avant-garde during the 1920s and ’30s. From 1918 to 1921 Riding attended Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., and soon her poetry began to gain attention. Early on she came to be associated with the Fugitives,

  • Reicher, Steve (British psychologist)

    deindividuation: Group norms: The British psychologists Steve Reicher, Russell Spears, and Tom Postmes argued that the notion of a loss of selfhood relies, inaccurately, on an individualistic conception of the self; rational action is equated with the individual self, and group membership is equated with the loss of identity and of…

  • Reichle, Hans (German sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Central Europe: …some quarters, Hans Krumper and Hans Reichle produced bronze figures less indebted to the Classical tradition but with stronger individuality. J?rg Zürn, whose finest wood carvings are to be seen at überlingen, and Ludwig Münsterman, in Oldenburg, continued in the Mannerist style, whereas Georg Petel, who came under the influence…

  • Reichs, Kathy (American author and forensic anthropologist)

    Kathy Reichs, American forensic anthropologist and author of a popular series of mystery books centring on the protagonist Temperance (“Bones”) Brennan. Reichs studied anthropology at American University, earning a B.A. in 1971. She then received an M.A. (1972) and a Ph.D. (1975) in physical

  • Reichsabschied (German Diet resolution)

    Diet: …“recess of the empire” (Reichsabschied). The emperor could ratify part of the recess or the whole of it, but he could not modify the words of the recess. Until the 17th century the Diet possessed effective legal power, including the decision of war or peace, but the Peace of…

  • Reichsadlerhumpen (glass)

    glassware: Germany: …the imperial double-headed eagle (Reichsadlerhumpen); representations of the emperor with his seven electors, either seated or mounted on horseback (Kurfürstenhumpen); subjects from the Old and New Testaments; and allegorical themes such as the Eight Virtues and the Ages of Man. These were painted between borders of multicoloured or white…

  • Reichsautobahnen (German highway)

    Autobahn, (German: “automobile road”) high-speed, limited-access highway, the basis of the first modern national expressway system. Planned in Germany in the early 1930s, the Autobahnen were extended to a national highway network (Reichsautobahnen) of 2,108 km (1,310 miles) by 1942. West Germany

  • Reichsbank (German bank)

    Walther Funk: …1938 and president of the Reichsbank from 1939.

  • Reichsbürgergesetz (German history)

    Nürnberg Laws: One, the Reichsbürgergesetz (German: “Law of the Reich Citizen”), deprived Jews of German citizenship, designating them “subjects of the state.” The other, the Gesetz zum Schutze des Deutschen Blutes und der Deutschen Ehre (“Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour”), usually called simply the…

  • Reichsfeinde (German history)

    Germany: Domestic concerns: …SPD along with the Progressives Reichsfeinde (“enemies of the empire”) because he believed that each sought in its own way to change the fundamental conservative political character of the empire.

  • Reichsführer (Nazi official)

    Führer: …and law, as well as Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, head of the unified police system. Also directly responsible to (and selected by) the Führer were many territorial leaders (43 in greater Germany) known as Gauleiter (“district leaders”).

  • Reichsfürstenstand (German nobility)

    prince: Germany: …Princes of the Realm (Reichsfürstenstand) came into being from the 1180s and comprised dukes, counts palatine, margraves, landgraves, archbishops, bishops, certain abbots, and the masters of the military-religious orders. New admissions to this estate required not only the sovereigns’ bestowal of the title Fürst (lower than that of duke…

  • Reichshoffen, Battle of (1870, Franco-German War)

    Franco-German War: The French collapse and the siege of Paris: …suffering a check at the Battle of W?rth on August 6, 1870, the commander of the French right (south) wing, Marshal Patrice Mac-Mahon, retreated westward. That same day, about 40 miles (65 km) to the northeast, the commander of the French left wing, Marshal Achille Bazaine, was dislodged from near…

  • Reichskammergericht (court, Holy Roman Empire)

    Reichskammergericht, (German: “Imperial Chamber of Justice”) supreme court of the Holy Roman Empire. The court was established by Maximilian I in 1495 and survived as the empire’s highest court until the empire’s dissolution in 1806. From the early Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Empire’s supreme court

  • Reichskommissariat Ukraine (German-Ukrainian history)

    Ukraine: The Nazi occupation of Soviet Ukraine: …remainder was organized as the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.

  • Reichslandbund (German political organization)

    Agrarian League, extraparliamentary organization active under the German empire from 1893. Formed to combat the free-trade policies (initiated in 1892) of Chancellor Leo, Graf (count) von Caprivi, the league worked for farmers’ subsidies, import tariffs, and minimum prices. Caprivi’s successor

  • Reichsleiter (Nazi official)

    Führer: Directly below him were several Reichsleiter (“Reich leaders”) with various portfolios, such as finance, propaganda, foreign policy, and law, as well as Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, head of the unified police system. Also directly responsible to (and selected by) the Führer were many territorial leaders (43 in greater Germany) known as…

  • Reichsrat (Austrian imperial council)

    Austria: Constitutional experimentation, 1860–67: …Francis Joseph ordered that the Reichsrat, an empirewide, purely advisory council of state, be enlarged by the addition of 38 members proposed by the provincial diets and selected by the crown. Its main task was to advise the emperor on the composition of a new constitution. The body divided into…

  • Reichsregiment (Roman history)

    Maximilian I: Consolidation of power: …and invested it in the Reichsregiment, a supreme council of 21 electors, princes, and others. They even considered deposing him, but the plan miscarried because of their own apathy and Maximilian’s effective countermeasures. He strengthened his European position by an agreement with France, and he regained prestige within the empire…

  • Reichsritter (German knight)

    Germany: The nobility: The imperial knights (Reichsritter) held their estates as tenants in chief of the crown. The provincial nobility (Landesadel) had lost direct contact with the crown and were being compelled by degrees to acknowledge the suzerainty of the local prince. The imperial knights had been extensively employed by the…

  • Reichssicherheitshauptamt (division of SS, Nazi Germany)

    SS: …most important division was the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA; Reich Security Central Office), which oversaw the Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo; Security Police), which, in turn, was divided into the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo; Criminal Police) and the dreaded Gestapo under Heinrich Müller. The RSHA also included the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service), a security department in charge…

  • Reichsstadt (Holy Roman Empire)

    Imperial city, any of the cities and towns of the Holy Roman Empire that were subject only to the authority of the emperor, or German king, on whose demesne (personal estate) the earliest of them originated. The term freie Reichsstadt, or Free Imperial City, was sometimes used interchangeably with

  • Reichstadt, Napoléon-Fran?ois-Charles-Joseph Bonaparte, Herzog von (Austrian-Italian noble)

    Napoléon-Fran?ois-Charles-Joseph Bonaparte, duke von Reichstadt, only son of Emperor Napoleon I and Empress Marie-Louise; at birth he was styled king of Rome. Three years after his birth, the French empire to which he was heir collapsed, and he was taken by the empress to Blois (April 1814). Upon

  • Reichstag (German government [1871-1945])

    German Empire: Establishment of the North German Confederation: …adopted by the North German Reichstag on April 17, 1867. Four years later it became, almost without change, the constitution of the German Empire. Two principles were balanced against each other—the sovereignty of the German states and the national unity of the German people. In constitutional theory the first carried…

  • Reichstag (building, Berlin, Germany)

    Reichstag, building in Berlin that is the meeting place of the Bundestag (“Federal Assembly”), the lower house of Germany’s national legislature. One of Berlin’s most famous landmarks, it is situated at the northern end of the Ebertstrasse and near the south bank of the Spree River. Tiergarten Park

  • Reichstag (German government)

    Diet, legislature of the German empire, or Holy Roman Empire, from the 12th century to 1806. In the Carolingian empire, meetings of the nobility and higher clergy were held during the royal progresses, or court journeys, as occasion arose, to make decisions affecting the good of the state. After

  • Reichstag fire (German history)

    Reichstag fire, burning of the Reichstag (parliament) building in Berlin, on the night of February 27, 1933, a key event in the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship and widely believed to have been contrived by the newly formed Nazi government itself to turn public opinion against its opponents

  • Reichstein, Tadeus (Swiss chemist)

    Tadeus Reichstein, Swiss chemist who, with Philip S. Hench and Edward C. Kendall, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for his discoveries concerning hormones of the adrenal cortex. Reichstein was educated in Zürich and held posts in the department of organic chemistry at the

  • Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland

    Leo Baeck: Role as Jewish leader: …der Juden in Deutschland (National Agency of Jews in Germany) under Leo Baeck and Otto Hirsch (1885–1941), the jurist and community leader who was killed in the Mauthausen concentration camp. Under constant attack, this group took charge of Jewish life in Germany. Millions of dollars were spent annually in…

  • Reid’s Yellow Dent (corn)

    origins of agriculture: Maize, or corn: …Belt for many years was Reid’s Yellow Dent, which originated from a fortuitous mixture of a dent and a flint variety.

  • Reid, Alastair (Scottish writer and translator)

    Alastair Reid, Scottish writer and translator (born March 22, 1926, Whithorn, Scot.—died Sept. 21, 2014, New York, N.Y.), contributed poetry, literary reviews, travelogues, memoirs of his native Scotland, accounts of his encounters with literati, and other personal essays to The New Yorker magazine

  • Reid, Alec (Irish Roman Catholic cleric)

    Alec Reid, Irish Roman Catholic cleric (born Aug. 5, 1931, Dublin, Ire.—died Nov. 22, 2013, Dublin), brokered secret peace negotiations between Roman Catholic and Protestant factions in Northern Ireland, talks that ultimately led to the Good Friday peace agreement (April 10, 1998) and the end to

  • Reid, Andy (American football coach)

    Philadelphia Eagles: …the team hired head coach Andy Reid, who with his first draft choice selected quarterback Donovan McNabb. Reid and McNabb guided the Eagles to eight playoff berths in 10 years from their second season in Philadelphia, which included five trips to the NFC championship game and a Super Bowl appearance…

  • Reid, Antonio (American musician and producer)

    New jack swing: The key producers were L.A., Babyface, and Teddy Riley, who crafted romantic songs for the dance floor. L.A. (Antonio Reid, whose nickname was derived from his allegiance to the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team) and Babyface (youthful-looking Kenneth Edmonds) had been members of the Deele, a group based in…

  • Reid, Beryl Elizabeth (British actress)

    Beryl Elizabeth Reid, British character actress known for her versatility and best remembered for her roles as the lesbian radio soap opera actress in the stage and motion picture versions of The Killing of Sister George and the seductive landlady in the stage and film versions of Entertaining Mr.

  • Reid, Escott (Canadian diplomat)

    Escott Reid, Canadian diplomat who was instrumental in 1947 in helping to draft the rules for the newly created United Nations and in conceiving the idea for the formation of a security alliance among Western powers, the realization of which was NATO; Reid, who held diplomatic posts in Washington,

  • Reid, Etta Lucille (American musician)

    Etta Baker, American folk musician who influenced the folk music revival of the 1950s and ’60s with her mastery of East Coast Piedmont blues, a unique fingerpicking style of guitar-playing that is common to the Appalachian Mountains, especially areas of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia. Baker,

  • Reid, Forrest (Northern Irish novelist and critic)

    Forrest Reid, Northern Irish novelist and critic who early came under the influence of Henry James; he is best known for his romantic and mystical novels about boyhood and adolescence and for a notable autobiography, Apostate (1926). After taking his degree at the University of Cambridge, Reid

  • Reid, Frances (American actress)

    Days of Our Lives: …of the most-enduring performers was Frances Reid, who played matriarch Alice Horton; she was a regular on the show from its debut until 2007. MacDonald Carey, who appeared in many Hollywood motion pictures in the 1940s and ’50s, played Alice’s husband, Dr. Tom Horton, and was the soap’s main attraction…

  • Reid, Harry (United States senator)

    Harry Reid, American politician who was first elected in 1986 to represent Nevada in the U.S. Senate. He served as Democratic party whip (1999–2005), minority leader (2005–07; 2015–17), and majority leader (2007–15). He previously was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1983–87). Reid

  • Reid, Harry Fielding (American seismologist)

    Harry Fielding Reid, American seismologist and glaciologist who in 1911 developed the elastic rebound theory of earthquake mechanics, still accepted today. Reid was professor of applied mechanics at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, from 1896 until he became emeritus professor in 1930. His early

  • Reid, Harry Mason (United States senator)

    Harry Reid, American politician who was first elected in 1986 to represent Nevada in the U.S. Senate. He served as Democratic party whip (1999–2005), minority leader (2005–07; 2015–17), and majority leader (2007–15). He previously was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1983–87). Reid

  • Reid, John (American golfer)

    golf: The United States and Canada: Its progenitor was John Reid, a Scot from Dunfermline who became known as “the father of American golf.” Reid, on learning that fellow Scot Robert Lockhart was returning to the old country on business, asked him to bring back some golf clubs and balls. This done, Reid and…

  • Reid, Michael (British actor and comedian)

    Mike Reid, (Michael Reid), British actor and comedian (born Jan. 19, 1940, London, Eng.—died July 29, 2007, Marbella, Spain), portrayed Frank Butcher in more than 500 episodes of the BBC television soap opera EastEnders between 1987 and 2005. Reid, a petty criminal in his youth, spent some time in

  • Reid, Mike (British actor and comedian)

    Mike Reid, (Michael Reid), British actor and comedian (born Jan. 19, 1940, London, Eng.—died July 29, 2007, Marbella, Spain), portrayed Frank Butcher in more than 500 episodes of the BBC television soap opera EastEnders between 1987 and 2005. Reid, a petty criminal in his youth, spent some time in

  • Reid, Patricia Beth (American actress)

    Kim Stanley, (Patricia Beth Reid), American actress (born Feb. 11, 1925, Tularosa, N.M.—died Aug. 20, 2001, Santa Fe, N.M.), achieved renown on the Broadway stage in roles that ranged from the tomboyish Millie in Picnic (1953) to the nightclub singer Cherie in Bus Stop (1955) and to Masha in The T

  • Reid, R. E. H. (Irish paleontologist)

    dinosaur: Growth and life span: …de Ricqlès in Paris and R.E.H. Reid in Ireland showed that dinosaur skeletons grew quite rapidly. The time required for full growth has not been quantified for most dinosaurs, but de Ricqlès and his colleagues have shown that duckbills (hadrosaurs) such as Hypacrosaurus and Maiasaura reached adult size in seven…

  • Reid, Richard (British militant)

    Richard Reid, British Islamist militant who gained notoriety as the so-called Shoe Bomber in 2001 after he attempted—by igniting explosives hidden in the soles of his high-top basketball shoes—to blow up an airplane on which he and some 200 other passengers were traveling. Reid was the only son of

  • Reid, Richard Colvin (British militant)

    Richard Reid, British Islamist militant who gained notoriety as the so-called Shoe Bomber in 2001 after he attempted—by igniting explosives hidden in the soles of his high-top basketball shoes—to blow up an airplane on which he and some 200 other passengers were traveling. Reid was the only son of

  • Reid, Robert (American artist)

    the Ten: Willard Leroy Metcalf, Edmund Tarbell, Robert Reid, and E.E. Simmons. When Twachtman died in 1902, William Merritt Chase replaced him.

  • Reid, Sir George Houston (prime minister of Australia)

    Sir George Houston Reid, statesman and prime minister of Australia (1904–05) who as premier of New South Wales (1894–99) directed an economic recovery program, maintained free trade, and introduced a tax to break up land monopolies. Reid, whose family had emigrated to Melbourne in 1852, served in

  • Reid, Sir William (British meteorologist)

    Earth sciences: Observation and study of storms: In 1849 Sir William Reid, a British meteorologist and military engineer, studied the revolving storms that occur south of the Equator in the Indian Ocean and confirmed that they have reversed rotations and curvatures of path compared with those of the Northern Hemisphere. Capt. Henry Piddington subsequently…

  • Reid, Stephen (Canadian author and criminal)

    Susan Musgrave: Marriage to Stephen Reid: In 1983 Musgrave read the manuscript for the novel that would eventually be published as Jackrabbit Parole (1986), by Stephen Reid, a convicted bank robber and member of the Stopwatch Gang serving an 18-year sentence in Millhaven Institution in Bath, Ontario. Musgrave and…

  • Reid, Thomas (Scottish philosopher)

    Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher who rejected the skeptical Empiricism of David Hume in favour of a “philosophy of common sense,” later espoused by the Scottish School. Reid studied philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen, before serving as Presbyterian pastor at New Machar (1737–51). A lifelong

  • Reid, Wallace (American actor)

    James Cruze: …which starred the popular star Wallace Reid, with whom he made 13 more films prior to Reid’s death in 1923. He also made five Roscoe (“Fatty”) Arbuckle comedies, two of which, The Fast Freight (1922) and Leap Year (1924), were shelved and only released abroad years after the scandal that…

  • Reid, Whitelaw (American journalist and politician)

    Whitelaw Reid, U.S. journalist, diplomat, and politician, successor to Horace Greeley in 1872 as editor in chief (until 1905) and publisher (until his death) of the New York Tribune, which, during much of that period, was perhaps the most influential newspaper in the United States. He was minister

  • Reid, William Ronald (Canadian artist)

    William Ronald Reid, Canadian sculptor, carver, and goldsmith (born Jan. 12, 1920, Victoria, B.C.—died March 13, 1998, Vancouver, B.C.), helped spark a revival of interest in the traditions of the Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia, with works that featured the influences of t

  • Reidy, Affonso Eduardo (Brazilian architect)

    Affonso Reidy, Brazilian architect, a pioneer of the modern architectural movement in Brazil. Reidy graduated from the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, in 1930. He was one of the team of architects, which included Le Corbusier, that designed the Ministry of Education and Health in

  • Reif, Felicia (British actress)

    Patricia Roc, (Felicia Miriam Ursula Herold Reise; Felicia Reif), British actress (born June 7, 1915, London, Eng.—died Dec. 30, 2003, Locarno, Switz.), was one of Britain’s top box-office screen stars in the 1940s and early ’50s, particularly in such dramas as Millions Like Us (1943), The Wicked L

  • Reifezeugnis (German education)

    Germany: Preschool, elementary, and secondary: …natural science—for the Abitur or Reifezeugnis (“certificate of maturity”), the prerequisite for matriculation at a German university. The traditional structure of the German Gymnasium has mainly shifted from being built around a single branch of studies to offering a “reformed upper phase” with a choice of courses.

  • reification (concept)

    Reification, the treatment of something abstract as a material or concrete thing, as in the following lines from Matthew Arnold’s poem “Dover

  • Reigate (England, United Kingdom)

    Reigate and Banstead: …principal locales of the district, Reigate (the administrative centre) and Banstead, it extends across the North Downs, a range of low chalk hills trending east-west.

  • Reigate and Banstead (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Reigate and Banstead, borough (district), administrative and historic county of Surrey, southeastern England, immediately south of Greater London. Named for the two principal locales of the district, Reigate (the administrative centre) and Banstead, it extends across the North Downs, a range of low

  • reigen (European dance)

    Carole, medieval European dance in a ring, chain, or linked circle, performed to the singing of the dancers. An indefinite number of persons participated, linking arms and following the step of the leader. The origins of the carole are in ancient ring dances of May and midsummer festivals and,

  • Reigen (work by Schnitzler)

    Arthur Schnitzler: Schnitzler’s Reigen (1897; Merry-Go-Round), a cycle of 10 dramatic dialogues, depicts the heartlessness of men and women in the grip of lust. Though it gave rise to scandal even in 1920, when it was finally performed, the play inspired numerous stage and screen adaptations, including the French film…

  • Reigh Count (racehorse)

    Count Fleet: Breeding and early years: That colt, Reigh Count, would bring Hertz his first Kentucky Derby trophy the following year and sire an ugly duckling of a foal named Count Fleet in 1940. Count Fleet was a disappointment as a yearling and was difficult to handle. So striking were the colt’s liabilities…

  • reign name (Chinese chronology)

    Nianhao, system of dating that was adopted by the Chinese in 140 bce (retroactive to 841 bce). The nianhao system was introduced by the emperor Wudi (reigned 141–87 bce) of the Xi (Western) Han, and every emperor thereafter gave his reign a nianhao at the beginning of his accession (sometimes a new

  • Reign of Greed, The (work by Rizal)

    José Rizal: A sequel, El filibusterismo (1891; The Reign of Greed), established his reputation as the leading spokesman of the Philippine reform movement. He published an annotated edition (1890; reprinted 1958) of Antonio Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, hoping to show that the native people of the Philippines had a long…

  • Reign over Me (film by Binder [2007])

    Adam Sandler: In 2007 he appeared in Reign over Me, a dark comedy in which he evinced a man whose wife and children died in the September 11 attacks. The following year he returned to lighter fare with You Don’t Mess with the Zohan, about an Israeli military operative who moves to…

  • Reilly, Charles Nelson (American actor)

    Charles Nelson Reilly, American actor (born Jan. 13, 1931, New York, N.Y.—died May 25, 2007 , Los Angeles, Calif.), won a Tony Award in 1962 for his portrayal of Bud Frump in the Broadway production of How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961) and later garnered critical acclaim as a

  • Reilly, Mickey (American athlete)

    Michael Riley Galitzen, American diver who won four Olympic medals. Galitzen captured a springboard silver and a platform bronze at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam. At the 1932 Games in Los Angeles, he won a gold in the springboard and a silver in the platform event. Galitzen also earned numerous

  • Reilly, Sidney George (Russian spy)

    Sidney Reilly, spy who obtained Persian oil concessions and German naval secrets for Britain. Many of the romanticized stories about him may have been inventions of his own. Born the illegitimate son of a Jewish doctor in Odessa, he studied chemistry in Vienna (1890–93) before going to Brazil.

  • Reimarus, Hermann Samuel (German philosopher)

    Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and man of letters of the Enlightenment who is remembered for his Deism, the doctrine that human reason can arrive at a religion (so-called natural religion) more certain than religions based on revelation. Appointed professor of Hebrew and Oriental

  • reimbursement (economics)

    accounting: Other purposes of accounting systems: …customers who have agreed to reimburse the company for costs incurred on the customers’ behalf.

  • Reimer-Tiemann reaction

    aldehyde: Synthesis of aldehydes: …common of these, called the Reimer-Tiemann reaction, phenols (ArOH) are converted to phenolic aldehydes by treatment with chloroform in basic solution. The ―CHO group usually goes into the position adjacent to the ―OH group.

  • Reimers, Fernando (American educator)

    education: The role of the state: …in the Americas, edited by Fernando Reimers (2000), identify measures governments have implemented with successful results. These can range from the provision of health care services and supplemental nutrition to improvements in school infrastructure that provide poorer children with basics such as school desks and chairs, electricity, and running water.…

  • Reims (France)

    Reims, city, Marne département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It lies east-northeast of Paris. On the Vesle River, a tributary of the Aisne, and the Marne–Aisne canal, the city is situated in vine-growing country in which champagne wine is produced. It is overlooked from the southwest by

  • Reims Cathedral (cathedral, Reims, France)

    Reims Cathedral, cathedral located in the city of Reims, France, on the Vesle River east-northeast of Paris. Reims was the site of 25 coronations of the kings of France, from Louis VIII in 1223 to Charles X in 1825, including the crowning of Charles VII in 1429 in the presence of Joan of Arc. The

  • Reims Racer (aircraft)

    stunt flying: Hamilton to demonstrate Curtiss’s prizewinning Reims Racer in the early months of 1910, until Hamilton crashed and destroyed the machine (Hamilton was known to dive from an altitude of some 190 feet [60 metres], leveling out only when he reached 5 feet [1.5 metres] above the ground).

  • Reims-Douai Bible (Roman Catholic Bible)

    Douai-Reims Bible, English translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible produced by Roman Catholic scholars in exile from England at the English College in Douai (then in the Spanish Netherlands but now part of France). The New Testament translation was published in 1582 at Rheims, where the English C

  • rein (riding equipment)

    bridle: The reins, lines held in the hand of the rider or driver, are connected to either side of the bit so that a tug on either side turns the animal in that direction. The headstall sometimes includes blinkers—leather flaps that inhibit side vision to keep the…

  • rein orchid (plant, genus Platanthera)

    Rein orchid, (genus Platanthera), genus of about 100 species of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae) found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. Rein orchids grow in grasslands, bogs, forests, and sand dunes in subtropical and warm temperate areas. Rein orchids are perennial plants and

  • reina di Scozia, La (work by Della Valle)

    Federico Della Valle: The intensely lyrical La reina di Scozia (written in 1591; “The Queen of Scotland”) centres on Mary Stuart’s last hours, when, despite her longing to see again her native Scotland, she resigns herself to martyrdom. Against similar backgrounds of corrupt and ferocious courts, the biblical heroines of his…

  • Reina, Carlos Roberto (president of Honduras)

    Carlos Roberto Reina, Honduran politician (born March 13, 1926, Tegucigalpa, Honduras—died Aug. 19, 2003, Tegucigalpa), served as president of Honduras from 1994 to 1998, during which time he professionalized the armed forces and made gains in achieving a balanced budget and fighting corruption. W

  • Reinach, Adolf (German philosopher)

    phenomenology: Phenomenology of essences: …approach particularly to aesthetics and Adolf Reinach to the philosophy of law. The most original and dynamic of Husserl’s early associates, however, was Max Scheler, who had joined the Munich group and who did his major phenomenological work on problems of value and obligation. A Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden, did…

  • Reinald of Guelders, Count (ruler of Limburg)

    Limburg: When war broke out between Count Reinald of Guelders (who had married into the rights of Limburg) and Adolph V of Berg (who had been granted those same rights by the Holy Roman emperor), Adolph was not strong enough to contest his rights militarily and sold them to John I…

  • reincarnate lama (Tibetan Buddhism)

    lama: Some lamas are considered reincarnations of their predecessors. These are termed sprul-sku lamas, as distinguished from “developed” lamas, who have won respect because of the high level of spiritual development they have achieved in the present lifetime. The highest lineage of reincarnate lamas is that of Dalai Lama, who…

  • reincarnation (religious belief)

    Reincarnation, in religion and philosophy, rebirth of the aspect of an individual that persists after bodily death—whether it be consciousness, mind, the soul, or some other entity—in one or more successive existences. Depending upon the tradition, these existences may be human, animal, spiritual,

  • Reincarnation of Rama, The (Indonesian religious play)

    Southeast Asian arts: Shadow-puppet theatre: In The Reincarnation of Rama the divine attributes of the god Wisnu (Vishnu in Sanskrit) reincarnate in Ardjuna (Arjuna), hero of the Pandawa cycle and ancestor of the Javanese race. The translucent screen can be interpreted as heaven, the banana-log stage as earth, the puppets as…

  • reindeer (mammal)

    Reindeer, (Rangifer tarandus), species of deer (family Cervidae) found in the Arctic tundra and adjacent boreal forests of Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, Alaska, and Canada. Reindeer have been domesticated in Europe. There are two varieties, or ecotypes: tundra reindeer and forest (or woodland)

  • Reindeer Age

    hand tool: Late Paleolithic toolmaking: …it has been called the Reindeer Age. This produced a hunting economy providing food and great quantities of bone, horn, skin, sinews, and, while the mammoth lasted, ivory; with it grew new technologies exploiting the unique properties of materials hitherto unworkable because of their hardness. This technological diversification was made…

  • Reindeer Chukchi (people)

    Chukchi: …divided into two chief subgroups, reindeer Chukchi and maritime Chukchi. The reindeer Chukchi inhabit the interior of the easternmost portion of the okrug, the Chukotskiy (Chukchi) Peninsula, and its Siberian hinterland; the maritime Chukchi inhabit the Arctic and Bering coasts. Both speak a Luorawetlan language of the Paleosiberian language group…

  • Reindeer Games (film by Frankenheimer [2000])

    John Frankenheimer: Later work: …hit, but less effective was Reindeer Games (2000), with Ben Affleck miscast as an ex-convict who gets involved in a plan to rob a casino. The film was Frankenheimer’s final theatrical release, but his career ended on a strong note with the HBO production Path to War (2002). The drama…

  • Reindeer Lake (lake, Canada)

    Reindeer Lake, lake in northern Canada, straddling the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border, near the northern limit of the coniferous forest. At an elevation of 1,106 feet (337 m), it is 2,568 square miles (6,650 square km) in area, 152 miles (245 km) long and up to 35 miles (56 km) wide, irregular in

  • reindeer moss (lichen)

    Reindeer moss, (Cladonia rangiferina), a fruticose (bushy, branched) lichen found in great abundance in Arctic lands. It is an erect, many-branched plant that grows up to 8 cm high, covers immense areas, and serves as pasture for reindeer, moose, caribou, and musk oxen. In Scandinavia it has been

  • reindeer sacrifice (ancient religion)

    Reindeer sacrifice, magico-religious practice observed by various Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic northern European and Asian peoples. The rite, which inaugurated their annual hunting season, consisted primarily of submerging a young doe in a lake or pond or burying it in the ground in sacrifice

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