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  • Reston, James Barrett (American writer and editor)

    James Reston, Scottish-born American columnist and editor for The New York Times who was one of the most influential American journalists. Reston moved to the United States with his parents at the age of 10 and soon acquired the nickname Scotty. He attended public schools in Dayton, Ohio, and

  • Reston, Sally (American publisher, journalist and photographer)

    Sally Reston, (Sarah Jane Fulton Reston), American publisher, journalist, and photographer (born 1911/12, Sycamore, Ill.—died Sept. 22, 2001, Washington, D.C.), not only had a notable career in her own right but also for some 60 years was an influential partner in journalism to her husband, New Y

  • Reston, Scotty (American writer and editor)

    James Reston, Scottish-born American columnist and editor for The New York Times who was one of the most influential American journalists. Reston moved to the United States with his parents at the age of 10 and soon acquired the nickname Scotty. He attended public schools in Dayton, Ohio, and

  • Restoration (English history [1660])

    Restoration, Restoration of the monarchy in England in 1660. It marked the return of Charles II as king (1660–85) following the period of Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth. The bishops were restored to Parliament, which established a strict Anglican orthodoxy. The period, which also included the reign

  • Restoration (French history [1814–1830])

    Bourbon Restoration, (1814–30) in France, the period that began when Napoleon I abdicated and the Bourbon monarchs were restored to the throne. The First Restoration occurred when Napoleon fell from power and Louis XVIII became king. Louis’ reign was interrupted by Napoleon’s return to France (see

  • Restoration (film by Hoffman [1995])
  • Restoration (novel by Tremain)

    Rose Tremain: Her novel Restoration (1989; filmed 1995) offers a many-layered historical narrative about the interconnected lives of a group of characters during the reign of Charles II. Sacred Country (1992) relates the picaresque adventures of Mary Ward, who is convinced from the age of six that she is…

  • restoration (conservation)

    Ecological restoration, the process of repairing sites in nature whose biological communities (that is, interacting groups of various species in a common location) and ecosystems have been degraded or destroyed. In many ecosystems, humans have altered local native populations of plants and animals,

  • Restoration literature (English literary period)

    Restoration literature, English literature written after the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following the period of the Commonwealth. Some literary historians speak of the period as bounded by the reign of Charles II (1660–85), while others prefer to include within its scope the writings

  • Restoration of the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, The

    In the 1980s and ’90s, the Sistine Chapel underwent a long and elaborate restoration scheme sponsored by a Japanese television corporation and carried out by top Italian and international experts. The cleaning removed centuries of grime, dust, and candle smoke from the frescoes and revealed

  • Restoration playhouse (public theatre)

    theatre: The Restoration playhouse: The other kind of public theatre, peculiar to England, was the Restoration playhouse. The Baroque horseshoe-shaped auditorium, with its deep stage and orchestra pit, was generally in favour all over western Europe, fixing the design and style of opera houses in particular. In…

  • Restoration Shintō (Japanese religion)

    Fukko Shintō, school of Japanese religion prominent in the 18th century that attempted to uncover the pure meaning of ancient Shintō thought through philological study of the Japanese classics. The school had a lasting influence on the development of modern Shintō thought. Kada Azumamaro

  • Restoration Square (square, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: The Age of Discovery: Restoration Square, just north of Rossio Square, is named for them.

  • Restoration style (art)

    Stuart style: movements, such as Jacobean, Carolean, Restoration, William and Mary, and Queen Anne, there are certain common characteristics that can be said to describe Stuart style. The English artists of the period were influenced by the heavy German and Flemish Baroque but gradually gave way to the academic compromise inspired by…

  • Restoration wits (English literature)

    John Wilmot, 2nd earl of Rochester: …as a leader of the court wits, Rochester became known as one of the wildest debauchees at the Restoration court, the hero of numerous escapades, and the lover of various mistresses. Among them was the actress Elizabeth Barry, whom he is said to have trained for the stage, and an…

  • restoration, art

    Art conservation and restoration, any attempt to conserve and repair architecture, paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, and objects of the decorative arts (furniture, glassware, metalware, textiles, ceramics, and so on) that have been adversely affected by negligence, willful damage, or, more

  • restorative justice (law)

    Restorative justice, response to criminal behaviour that focuses on lawbreaker restitution and the resolution of the issues arising from a crime in which victims, offenders, and the community are brought together to restore the harmony between the parties. Restorative justice includes direct

  • Restore Hope, Operation (United States history)

    20th-century international relations: Three tests: …in office Bush had approved Operation Restore Hope for the dispatch to Somalia of some 28,000 American troops. He styled it a humanitarian exercise, and in December 1992 Marines landed safely in Mogadishu, with the aim of turning control of the operation over to the UN as soon as possible.…

  • Restorer of Society to its Natural State, The (work by Spence)

    Thomas Spence: …in connection with his pamphlet The Restorer of Society to its Natural State. In 1792 he established himself in London, where he was active in a number of contemporary reform movements. After his death his followers organized the Society of Spencean Philanthropists in 1816.

  • restoring force (physics)

    mechanics: Simple harmonic oscillations: …A to the right, the restoring force F pushes the mass back toward its equilibrium position, causing it to accelerate to the left. When it reaches equilibrium, there is no force acting on it at that instant, but it is moving at speed ωA, and its inertia takes it past…

  • Restormel (former district, England, United Kingdom)

    Restormel, former borough (district), Cornwall unitary authority, extreme southwestern England, in the central part of the county. Restormel borough spans the peninsular county and is thus bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest and St. Austell Bay and the English Channel to the south.

  • Restormel Castle (castle, England, United Kingdom)

    Lostwithiel: The town developed near Restormel Castle, which dates from about 1100. It is the best-preserved British castle of its period. Much of it, however, is of the 13th century, when Lostwithiel was capital of the duchy of Cornwall and one of the four stannary, or coinage, towns (Helston, Lostwithiel,…

  • Restraint of Appeals, Act of (England [1533])

    United Kingdom: The break with Rome: …crucial statute was enacted; the Act of Restraint of Appeals boldly decreed that “this realm of England is an empire.” A month later an obliging archbishop heard the case and adjudged the king’s marriage to be null and void. On June 1 Anne was crowned rightful queen of England, and…

  • restraint of trade (economics and law)

    Restraint of trade, prevention of free competition in business by some action or condition such as price-fixing or the creation of a monopoly. The United States has a long-standing policy of maintaining competition between business enterprises through antitrust laws, the best-known of which, the

  • Restrepo, Carlos Lleras (president of Colombia)

    Carlos Lleras Restrepo, Colombian politician (born April 12, 1908, Bogotá, Colombia—died Sept. 27, 1994, Bogotá), served as president of Colombia 1966-70 and fostered economic union in Latin America as the driving force behind the Andean Pact, an agreement that forged trade links between V

  • restricted Burnside problem (mathematics)

    Burnside problem: …another variant, known as the restricted Burnside problem: For fixed positive integers m and n, are there are only finitely many groups generated by m elements of bounded exponent n? The Russian mathematician Efim Isaakovich Zelmanov was awarded a Fields Medal in 1994 for his affirmative answer to the restricted…

  • restricted diffusion (biology)

    nervous system: Uncharged molecules: …membrane imposes a condition of restricted diffusion in which the flux rate of the diffusing material is controlled by the permeability of the membrane, which in turn is dictated by the size of the pores and is given a unit of measure called the permeability coefficient.

  • restricted stopping power (physics)

    radiation: Electrons: …the stopping power, called the restricted stopping power, is numerically equal to the linear energy transfer and changes smoothly to a constant value, called the Fermi plateau, as the ratio β approaches unity. The other half, called the unrestricted stopping power, increases without limit, but its effect at extreme relativistic…

  • restriction endonuclease (biology)

    Restriction enzyme, a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule. In the bacterial cell, restriction enzymes cleave foreign DNA, thus eliminating infecting organisms. Restriction enzymes can be isolated from bacterial cells and used in the laboratory to

  • restriction enzyme (biology)

    Restriction enzyme, a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule. In the bacterial cell, restriction enzymes cleave foreign DNA, thus eliminating infecting organisms. Restriction enzymes can be isolated from bacterial cells and used in the laboratory to

  • restriction, axiom of (set theory)

    history of logic: Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF): …ZF by adding a “foundation axiom,” which explicitly prohibited sets that contain themselves as members. In the 1920s and ’30s, von Neumann, the Swiss mathematician Paul Isaak Bernays, and the Austrian-born logician Kurt G?del (1906–78) provided additional technical modifications, resulting in what is now known as von Neumann-Bernays-G?del set

  • restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (genetics)

    DNA fingerprinting: …approach, which was based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology, the DNA was then cut at specific points along the strand with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to…

  • restrictive cardiomyopathy (disease)

    cardiomyopathy: Restrictive cardiomyopathy also is characterized by a stiff heart and impaired ventricular filling. In this case the abnormality is caused by the presence of fibrous (scar) tissue introduced by a disease such as amyloidosis. Patients display many of the symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  • restrictive covenant (law)

    Restrictive covenant, in Anglo-American property law, an agreement limiting the use of property. Known to Roman law but little used in England or the United States until the 19th century, restrictive covenants are now widely used. To protect property values and provide neighbourhood stability,

  • restrictive practice (business)

    competition policy: Restrictive practices—for instance, collusion by competitor firms to fix prices—are generally prohibited under competition policy, though this is not the case with all collaboration. It is increasingly common for even the largest multinational firms to collaborate with competitors in areas such as research and development.…

  • reststrahlen (physics)

    Reststrahlen, (German: “residual radiation”), light that is selectively reflected from the surface of a transparent solid when the frequency of the light is nearly equal to the frequency of vibration of the electrically charged atoms, or ions, constituting the crystalline solid. For many materials

  • RESTV (infectious agent)

    Ebola: Species of ebolaviruses: Ta? Forest ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus, named for their outbreak locations—have been described. The viruses are known commonly as Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Ta? Forest virus (TAFV), Reston virus (RESTV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV).

  • resultant (mechanics)

    mechanics: Statics: …single (imaginary) force called the resultant, which acts at a single point on the body, producing the same net force and the same net torque. The body can be brought into equilibrium by applying to it a real force at the same point, equal and opposite to the resultant. This…

  • resultant (evolution)

    emergence: …philosopher of science, distinguished between resultants and emergents—phenomena that are predictable from their constituent parts and those that are not (e.g., a physical mixture of sand and talcum powder as contrasted with a chemical compound such as salt, which looks nothing like sodium or chlorine). The evolutionary account of life…

  • resultant tone (acoustics)

    Combination tone, in musical acoustics, faint tone produced in the inner ear by two simultaneously sounded musical tones. Because such tones are caused by the ear rather than by the external source of the sound, they are sometimes called subjective, or resultant, tones. There are two varieties:

  • resulting trust (law)

    trust: …is frequently called a “resulting trust.”) Finally, courts will sometimes impose a trust relationship upon parties where there is no evidence that such a relationship was intended. For example, where one party obtains property from another by making fraudulent representations, the defrauding party is frequently required to hold the…

  • Results and Prospects (work by Trotsky)

    Leon Trotsky: Early life, education, and revolutionary career: …of his major works, “Results and Prospects,” setting forth his theory of permanent revolution.

  • Résumé de l’histoire des traditions morales et religieuses (work by Senancour)

    étienne Pivert de Senancour: In 1827 his Résumé de l’histoire des traditions morales et religieuses (1825; “Summary of the History of Moral and Religious Traditions”) was judged blasphemous, and he was sentenced to a fine and imprisonment, though the sentence was reversed on appeal.

  • Resumption Act of 1875 (United States history)

    Resumption Act of 1875, in U.S. history, culmination of the struggle between “soft money” forces, who advocated continued use of Civil War greenbacks, and their “hard money” opponents, who wished to redeem the paper money and resume a specie currency. By the end of the Civil War, more than $430

  • resurfacing (astronomy)

    Jupiter: Europa: …is so young that significant resurfacing is still taking place on the satellite. This resurfacing evidently consists of the outflow of water from the interior to form an instant frozen ocean.

  • resurgent boiling (geology)

    igneous rock: Effects of water and other volatiles: …has been referred to as resurgent boiling, a somewhat misleading term because the exsolved fluid is not necessarily expelled from the system.

  • Résurrection (Belgian magazine)

    Clément Pansaers: …the Modernist, internationalist, antimilitarist magazine Résurrection. There he expressed his conciliatory views on Walloon-Flemish relations and his vision of a consociational Belgian state, views that were unusually farsighted at a time of growing separatism. The German occupiers censored Résurrection for its alliance with the Bolshevik revolution, and Pansaers was later…

  • Resurrection (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Fiction after 1880: …third long novel, Voskreseniye (Resurrection); he used the royalties to pay for the transportation of a persecuted religious sect, the Dukhobors, to Canada. The novel’s hero, the idle aristocrat Dmitry Nekhlyudov, finds himself on a jury where he recognizes the defendant, the prostitute Katyusha Maslova, as a woman whom…

  • resurrection (religion)

    Resurrection, the rising from the dead of a divine or human being who still retains his own personhood, or individuality, though the body may or may not be changed. The belief in the resurrection of the body is usually associated with Christianity, because of the doctrine of the Resurrection of

  • Resurrection (work by Grünewald)

    Matthias Grünewald: …on Christ’s shroud in the Resurrection, which is at first lifeless in the cold tomb but which then smolders and bursts into white-hot flame as Christ ascends, displaying his tiny purified red wounds. Such transformations of light and colour are perhaps the most spectacular found in German art until the…

  • Resurrection (film by Petrie [1980])

    Ellen Burstyn: …received an Oscar nomination for Resurrection (1980), in which she played a woman who develops healing powers after a car accident. During the remainder of the 1980s, however, her screen appearances were limited mostly to minor features and television movies. She nonetheless worked steadily into the next decade, appearing in…

  • Resurrection (work by El Greco)

    El Greco: Middle years: …lateral altar painting of the Resurrection, the poses of the standing soldiers and the contrapposto (a position in which the upper and lower parts of the body are contrasted in direction) of those asleep are also clearly Michelangelesque in inspiration.

  • resurrection biology (biology)

    De-extinction, the process of resurrecting species that have died out, or gone extinct. Although once considered a fanciful notion, the possibility of bringing extinct species back to life has been raised by advances in selective breeding, genetics, and reproductive cloning technologies. Key among

  • resurrection fern (Selaginella lepidophylla)
  • Resurrection of Lazarus (work by Froment)

    Nicolas Froment: …can be seen in his Resurrection of Lazarus (1461). The Burning Bush (1475–76), which illustrates his application of the Flemish style to the legends and landscape of Provence, is perhaps Froment’s most illustrious work. The painting was done for King René of Anjou and depicts the king and his wife…

  • Resurrection of Lazarus, The (painting by Caravaggio)

    Caravaggio: Naples, Malta, Sicily, Naples, Porto Ercole: 1606–10: …a starkly simplified, almost neo-Byzantine Resurrection of Lazarus.

  • resurrection plant (Selaginella lepidophylla)
  • resurrection plant (plant)

    Rose of Jericho, either of two species of unrelated plants known for their ability to survive dessication. The true rose of Jericho (Anastatica hierochuntica) is native to western Asia and is the only species of the genus Anastatica of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The small gray plant curls

  • Resurrection Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (musical composition by Mahler)

    Resurrection Symphony No. 2 in C Minor, symphony by Gustav Mahler, known as “Resurrection.” The first three movements were heard in Berlin on March 4, 1895; the premiere of the complete work would not occur until December, again in Berlin. The premiere of Mahler’s Symphony No. 1 in D Major, from

  • Resurrection, Festival of the (holiday)

    Easter, principal festival of the Christian church, which celebrates the Resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his Crucifixion. The earliest recorded observance of an Easter celebration comes from the 2nd century, though the commemoration of Jesus’ Resurrection probably occurred

  • Resurrexio Domini Nostri Ihesu Christi (Cornish drama)

    Cornish literature: …Christ’s temptation and his Crucifixion; Resurrexio Domini (“Resurrection of the Lord”) covers the Resurrection and Ascension. The Ordinalia cannot be dated with certainty but may be from the late 14th or early 15th century. Unlike contemporary works in English, these plays are linked by the legend of the Holy Rood…

  • resuscitation (medicine)

    cardiovascular disease: Sudden death: …sudden death episode, may successfully resuscitate the majority of patients. In coronary care units, where the facilities and trained personnel are immediately available, the percentage of successful resuscitations is high. In general hospitals where resuscitation teams have been established, the percentage is less satisfactory. Sudden death usually occurs outside the…

  • Reszke, Jean de (Polish singer)

    Jean de Reszke, Polish operatic tenor, celebrated for his beautiful voice, phrasing, and enunciation as well as his charm and striking presence. Of a musical family, de Reszke was first taught by his mother, then by vocal coaches in Warsaw and Paris. After an undistinguished early career as a

  • RET (gene)

    medullary thyroid carcinoma: …have hereditary mutations in the RET (rearranged during transfection) proto-oncogene (a gene that can become a cancer-causing gene, or oncogene). Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma should be tested for mutations in RET; if a mutation is detected, other family members should also be tested. Some people carrying hereditary mutations in…

  • retable (religious art)

    Retable, ornamental panel behind an altar and, in the more limited sense, the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix, candlesticks, and other liturgical objects. The panel is usually made of wood or stone, though sometimes of metal, and is decorated with paintings, statues, or

  • retail chain store (retailing operation)

    Chain store, any of two or more retail stores having the same ownership and selling the same lines of goods. Chain stores account for an important segment of retailing operations in the Americas, western Europe, and Japan. Together with the department store and the mail-order company, chain stores

  • retail cooperative (business)

    marketing: Voluntary chains and retailer cooperatives: …as do the financially integrated retail chains. Retailer cooperatives, such as ACE hardware stores, are grouped as independent retailers who establish a central buying organization and conduct joint promotion efforts.

  • retail organization (business)

    marketing: Retail organizations: While merchants can sell their wares through a store or nonstore retailing format, retail organizations can also structure themselves in several different ways. The major types of retail organizations are corporate chains, voluntary chains and retailer cooperatives, consumer cooperatives, franchise organizations, and merchandising…

  • retail price index (economics)

    Consumer price index, measure of living costs based on changes in retail prices. Such indexes are generally based on a survey of a sample of the population in question to determine which goods and services compose the typical “market basket.” These goods and services are then priced periodically,

  • Retail Research Association (American business association)

    Fred Lazarus, Jr.: …to a merchants group, the Retail Research Association, that all its members keep their books the same way in order to share profit and sales information. The idea was accepted. The group formed the Associated Merchandising Corp.

  • retail trade (business)

    Retailing, the selling of merchandise and certain services to consumers. It ordinarily involves the selling of individual units or small lots to large numbers of customers by a business set up for that specific purpose. In the broadest sense, retailing can be said to have begun the first time one

  • retailing (business)

    Retailing, the selling of merchandise and certain services to consumers. It ordinarily involves the selling of individual units or small lots to large numbers of customers by a business set up for that specific purpose. In the broadest sense, retailing can be said to have begun the first time one

  • retained earnings (accounting)

    accounting: The balance sheet: …divided between paid-in capital and retained earnings. Paid-in capital represents the amounts paid to the corporation in exchange for shares of the company’s preferred and common stock. The major part of this, the capital paid in by the common shareholders, is usually divided into two parts, one representing the par…

  • Retainers, Board of (Japanese governing body)

    Japan: Muromachi government structure: The Samurai-dokoro, besides handling legal judgments, was entrusted with the control of the capital. Leading officials called shoshi who held the additional post of shugo of Yamashiro province (now in Kyōto urban prefecture) were next in importance to the kanrei. New offices were established to streamline…

  • retaining wall (architecture)

    Retaining wall, freestanding wall that either resists some weight on one side or prevents the erosion of an embankment. It may also be “battered”—that is, inclined toward the load it is bearing. There are a number of methods employed to resist the lateral force against such a wall. The most basic

  • Retalhos da vida de um médico (work by Namora)

    Fernando Goncalves Namora: …vida de um médico (1949, Mountain Doctor; expanded 1963). In reaction to the oppression and poverty that he observed, he turned to writing antifascist neorealist fiction. In the early 1960s Namora worked at the Lisbon Cancer Institute, but he resigned in 1965 to write full-time. After the Revolution of the…

  • Retalhuleu (Guatemala)

    Retalhuleu, city, southwestern Guatemala. It is situated on the Pacific piedmont at an elevation of 784 feet (239 metres) above sea level. Retalhuleu is a commercial and manufacturing centre for a fertile agricultural hinterland. Coffee and sugarcane plantations are most prominent in the locality,

  • Retaliation (work by Goldsmith)

    English literature: Goldsmith: …Village (1770), and the incomplete Retaliation (1774). The last, published 15 days after his own death, is a dazzling series of character portraits in the form of mock epitaphs on a group of his closest acquaintances. The Traveller, a philosophical comparison of the differing national cultures of western Europe and…

  • retaliation (law)

    Germanic law: Tribal Germanic institutions: …century, Visigothic law still allowed retaliation in kind for all injuries except those to the head. The leges contained elaborate tariffs of compensation for different kinds of injury, the amount varying according to the social status of the victim. Private feuds were eventually restricted by the growth of royal authority…

  • Retamar, Roberto Fernández (Cuban author and critic)

    Roberto Fernández Retamar, Cuban poet, essayist, and literary critic and cultural spokesman for the regime of Fidel Castro. After first studying art and architecture, Fernández Retamar studied literature in Havana, Paris, and London. He later joined the faculty of the University of Havana and

  • retardation factor (science)

    chemical analysis: Liquid chromatography: …is performed by comparing the retardation factor (Rf) of the analyte components with the retardation factors of known substances. The retardation factor is defined as the distance from the original sample spot that the component has moved divided by the distance that the mobile phase front has moved and is…

  • retardation, mental

    Intellectual disability, any of several conditions characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour that are identified during the individual’s developmental years. Increasingly, sensitivity to the negative connotations of the label mentally retarded prompted the

  • rete (anatomy)

    Llanocetus denticrenatus: For example, evidence of rete, highly vascularized tissues that surround the brains of deep-diving mysticetes, are preserved in Llanocetus in the form of skull openings and spaces for the blood vessels. The presence of these structures indicates that Llanocetus could visit deep waters where the pressure would injure or…

  • rete (instrument)

    astrolabe: …coordinates; an open-pattern disk (the rete) with a “map” of the stars, including the aforementioned circles, that rotated on the mater around a centre pin corresponding to the north celestial pole; and a straight rule (the alidade), used for sighting objects in the sky. The alidade made it possible to…

  • rete mirabile (anatomy)

    cetacean: Circulation and thermoregulation: …for oxygenated blood called the rete mirabile, for "marvelous network." These provide bypasses that enable cetaceans to isolate skeletal muscle circulation during diving while using the oxygen stored in the remaining blood to maintain the heart and brain—the two organs that depend on a constant supply of oxygen to survive.

  • rete ovarii (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Ovaries: …blind tubules or solid cords—the rete ovarii—which are homologous (i.e., of the same embryonic origin) with the rete testis in the male. The microscopic right ovary of birds usually consists only of medullary tissue.

  • rete testis (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Testes: …system of collecting tubules, the rete testis. Such an arrangement is characteristic of frogs. In certain amniotes—the rat, for example—the tubules may be open ended, running a zigzag course from the rete to the periphery and back again. The average length of such tubules is 30 centimetres (12 inches), and…

  • retention ballot (voting and elections)

    judge: Professional judges in the common-law tradition: The ballot, called a retention ballot, often simply reads “Shall Judge X be retained?” In practice, few judges are removed from office through retention ballots. These different selection systems strike different balances between the principles of democratic accountability and judicial independence.

  • retention index (chemistry)

    chromatography: Gas chromatography: …logarithmic scale this becomes the retention index (RI) introduced by the Swiss chemist Ervin sz. Kováts. The RI values of the solvent probes serve as the basis for the classification method introduced by Rohrschneider. Similar schemes have been suggested for liquid systems.

  • retention time (chromatography)

    chemical analysis: Gas chromatography: …component is known as the retention time. Because retention times vary with the identity of the component, they are utilized for qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis is performed by preparing a working curve, at a specific retention time, by plotting the peak height or peak area of a series of standards…

  • retention volume

    chromatography: Elution chromatography: …is removed by reporting the retention volumes, which are calculated as the retention times multiplied by the volumetric flow rate of the mobile phase.

  • retentivity (magnetism)

    magnet: Magnetization process: Br is the remanent flux density and is the residual, permanent magnetization left after the magnetizing field is removed; this latter is obviously a measure of quality for a permanent magnet. It is usually measured in webers per square metre. In order to demagnetize the specimen from its…

  • Retezat National Park (national park, Romania)

    Romania: Relief: …with the Bucegi, Parang, and Retezat-Godeanu massifs, form the major subdivision of the region. The latter contains Retezat National Park, Romania’s first established (1935) national park, which covers about 94,000 acres (38,000 hectares), offers spectacular mountain scenery, and provides an important refuge for the chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and other animals.…

  • reth (African religion)

    Shilluk: …by a divine king (reth) chosen from the sons of previous kings. The king’s physical and ritual well-being was held to ensure the prosperity of the whole land. The large royal clan traced descent from the first king and culture hero, Nyikang (Nyikango). In addition to several classes of…

  • Rethel, Alfred (German artist)

    Alfred Rethel, German artist who painted historical and biblical subjects on a heroic scale that was rare in the Germany of his time. Rethel is best remembered for his vitriolic series of woodcuts, “The Dance of Death.” Although a conservative, he used middle-class raillery against the Revolution

  • Rethel, Battle of (French history)

    Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne: Participation in the Fronde: …was completely defeated in the Battle of Rethel (Dec. 15, 1650) by superior forces under Marshal du Plessis-Praslin (César, later Duke de Choiseul) and narrowly escaped capture.

  • Retherford, Robert Curtis (American physicist)

    spectroscopy: Historical survey: …American physicists Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford discovered that the levels actually differ by roughly 109 hertz (see below X-ray and radio-frequency spectroscopy: Radio-frequency spectroscopy: Methods). In contrast, the transition frequency between the ground state and the first excited states was calculated as approximately 2.5 × 1015 hertz. Two American…

  • Réthimnon (Greece)

    Réthymno, town, dímos (municipality), and capital of the pereferiakí enótita (regional unit) of Réthymno, on the north coast of Crete, Greece. A town and port on Almyroú (Almiroú) Bay, it lies north of the ancient Mycenaean town of Rhithymna. Réthymno was a stronghold during the Venetian period in

  • Rethondes (France)

    World War II: Italy’s entry into the war and the French Armistice: …on June 22, 1940, at Rethondes, the scene of the signing of the Armistice of 1918, the new Franco-German Armistice was signed. The Franco-Italian Armistice was signed on June 24. Both armistices came into effect early on June 25.

  • Réthymno (Greece)

    Réthymno, town, dímos (municipality), and capital of the pereferiakí enótita (regional unit) of Réthymno, on the north coast of Crete, Greece. A town and port on Almyroú (Almiroú) Bay, it lies north of the ancient Mycenaean town of Rhithymna. Réthymno was a stronghold during the Venetian period in

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