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  • Retton, Mary Lou (American gymnast)

    Mary Lou Retton, gymnast who was the first American woman to win an individual Olympic gold medal in gymnastics. At the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, Retton achieved perfect scores in her final two events (the floor exercise and vault) to win a dramatic victory in the all-around

  • return (air circulation)

    coal mining: Ventilation: …workings, this air (now termed return air) is conducted back to the surface through another set of entries (called returns). The intake and return airstreams are kept separate. Miners generally work in the intake airstream, although occasionally work must be done in the return airways.

  • return (lightning)

    lightning: …ground, and a very bright return stroke propagates back to the cloud at a speed about one-third the speed of light, following the leader channel. A typical lightning flash to the ground contains three or four leader-return stroke sequences in rapid succession. Occasionally, when there is a strike to a…

  • return crease (sports)

    cricket: Field of play, equipment, and dress: …of the centre stump; the return crease is a line at each end of and at right angles to the bowling crease, extending behind the wicket; and the popping crease is a line parallel with the bowling crease and 4 feet in front of it. The bowling and return creases…

  • Return from the Freudian Isles, The (poem by Hope)

    A.D. Hope: …being “Conquistador” (1947) and “The Return from the Freudian Isles” (1944). Both poems are typical in their satirical approach and striking clarity of diction. Hope also wrote religious and metaphysical poems, as well as erotic verse, which often attracted controversy, as did his attacks on the cultural establishment, which…

  • Return from the U.S.S.R. (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: (1936; Return from the U.S.S.R.) and Retouches à mon retour de l’U.R.S.S. (1937; Afterthoughts on the U.S.S.R.).

  • Return of a Man Called Horse, The (film by Kershner [1976])

    Irvin Kershner: From B-24s to Laura Mars: The Return of a Man Called Horse (1976) was Kershner’s bloody sequel to Elliot Silverstein’s equally violent A Man Called Horse (1970); both featured Richard Harris as an Englishman who has been inducted by the Sioux. In 1977 Kershner returned to the small screen with…

  • Return of Frank James, The (film by Lang [1940])

    Fritz Lang: Films of the 1940s: …a pair of Technicolor westerns—The Return of Frank James (1940), a fine sequel to Henry King’s Jesse James (1939), with Fonda repeating his role as Frank James, now attempting to avenge Jesse’s death; and Western Union (1941), a handsome, meticulously researched staging of the company’s bold expansion west.

  • Return of Marcus Sextus (painting by Guérin)

    Pierre-Narcisse, Baron Guérin: …early success with his topical Return of Marcus Sextus (1799).

  • Return of Martin Guerre, The (film by Vigne [1982])

    Martin Guerre: …Retour de Martin Guerre (1982; The Return of Martin Guerre) featured Gérard Depardieu as the impostor; the historian Natalie Zemon Davis, who advised the filmmakers, told the story and explored why the impostor succeeded in The Return of Martin Guerre, first published in French in 1982 and in English in…

  • Return of Martin Guerre, The (work by Davis)

    Martin Guerre: …why the impostor succeeded in The Return of Martin Guerre, first published in French in 1982 and in English in 1983. Claude-Michel Sch?nberg and Alain Boublil’s musical Martin Guerre opened in 1996.

  • Return of Normalcy, The (speech by Harding)
  • Return of Quetzalcoatl, The (mural by Orozco)

    José Clemente Orozco: Mature work and later years: …The Coming of Quetzalcoatl and The Return of Quetzalcoatl. This dichotomy contrasted the stages of human progression from a primeval, non-Christian paradise to a Christian, capitalist hell. Byzantine mosaics also clearly influenced the pictorial style of Modern Migration of the Spirit, but such scenes as Gods of the Modern World…

  • Return of the Dove to the Ark, The (work by Millais)

    Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet: The Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851) was admired by both the English essayist and critic John Ruskin and the French author Théophile Gautier; and The Order of Release (1853), which included a portrait of his future wife Effie Gray (then unhappily married…

  • Return of the Jedi (film by Marquand [1983])

    George Lucas: The growth of Lucasfilm Ltd.: …Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983). He also created the popular character of the adventurous archeologist Indiana Jones, who was played by Ford in a series of films, beginning with Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), directed by Steven Spielberg and with Lucas as executive producer.…

  • Return of the King, The (work by Tolkien)

    J.R.R. Tolkien: …Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. It was divided originally because of its bulk and to reduce the risk to its publisher should it fail to sell. In fact it proved immensely popular. On its publication in paperback in the United States in 1965, it attained…

  • Return of the Living Dead, The (film by O’Bannon [1985])

    zombie: History: …spin-offs of their seminal work, The Return of the Living Dead, which was released in 1985 and in turn spawned a number of sequels. In addition to being a popular zombie comedy, Return contributed the hunger for human brains to zombie lore.

  • Return of the Musketeers, The (film by Lester [1989])

    Richard Lester: After The Return of the Musketeers (1989), Lester virtually retired from filmmaking, reportedly disheartened by the on-set accidental death of his longtime colleague, comic actor Roy Kinnear. He was briefly coaxed back to work by former Beatle Paul McCartney, who engaged the director’s services for the…

  • Return of the Native, The (novel by Hardy)

    The Return of the Native, novel by Thomas Hardy, published in 1878. The novel is set on Egdon Heath, a fictional barren moor in Wessex in southwestern England. The native of the title is Clym Yeobright, who has returned to the area to become a schoolmaster after a successful but, in his opinion,

  • Return of the Pink Panther, The (film by Edwards [1975])

    Blake Edwards: Films of the 1970s: …the commercially successful, if unremarkable, Return of the Pink Panther (1975), The Pink Panther Strikes Again (1976), and Revenge of the Pink Panther (1978), all shot in England. Once more bankable, Edwards returned to the United States to make 10 (1979), a romantic comedy that became an enormous hit. Dudley…

  • Return of the Prodigal Son (work by Lipchitz)

    Western sculpture: Other sculpture (1920–45): In the “Return of the Prodigal Son” (1931), for example, strong, facetted curvilinear volumes weave a pattern of emotional and aesthetic accord between parent and child.

  • Return of the Secaucus 7 (film by Sayles)

    John Sayles: …made his directorial debut with Return of the Secaucus 7 (1980), which chronicled the reunion of former college friends who had been activists in the 1960s. The cast, made up primarily of actors with whom Sayles had worked in summer-stock theatre, included his Williams College classmates David Strathairn and Maggie…

  • Return of the Soldier, The (novel by West)

    Rebecca West: …novelist with an outstanding—and Jamesian—novel, The Return of the Soldier (1918). Describing the return of a shell-shocked soldier from World War I, the novel subtly explores questions of gender and class, identity and memory. Her other novels include The Judge (1922), Harriet Hume (1929), The Thinking Reed (1936), The Fountain…

  • Return of the Texas Chainsaw Massacre, The (film by Henkel [1994])

    Renée Zellweger: …Chainsaw Massacre (1994; rereleased as Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation). Zellweger’s surprise casting as the love interest of Tom Cruise in Jerry Maguire catapulted her to stardom.

  • Return of Ulysses to His Country, The (opera by Monteverdi)

    Claudio Monteverdi: Three decades in Venice: …them have survived in score—The Return of Ulysses to His Country and The Coronation of Poppea—and both are masterpieces. Although they still retain some elements of the Renaissance intermezzo and pastoral, they can be fairly described as the first modern operas. Their interest lies in revealing the development of…

  • return stroke (meteorology)

    thunderstorm: Return stroke: As the stepped leader nears the ground, approximately five coulombs of charge have been deposited along the channel, inducing an opposite charge on the ground and increasing the electric field between the leader and the point to be struck. An upward discharge starts…

  • Return to Canada: Selected Poems (poetry by Anderson)

    Patrick Anderson: Anderson’s last published work was Return to Canada: Selected Poems (1977).

  • Return to Cookie Mountain (album by TV on the Radio)

    TV on the Radio: …label Interscope Records, which released Return to Cookie Mountain (2006), a densely layered recording whose stylistic reference points ranged from 1980s industrial music to the psychedelic soul of Parliament Funkadelic to 1950s doo-wop. Like the lyrics on the group’s debut album, those on Return included meditations on war and societal…

  • Return to Lonesome Dove (American television miniseries)

    Chris Cooper: …miniseries Lonesome Dove (1989) and Return to Lonesome Dove (1993). He appeared in the film Guilty by Suspicion (1991), about the Hollywood blacklists, and performed in Sayles’s City of Hope (also 1991).

  • Return to Mayberry (made-for-television movie [1986])

    Andy Griffith: …he reprised the role in Return to Mayberry, which was the highest-rated program of 1986. Griffith later starred as a genial but wily defense attorney in the popular series Matlock. Although much of his later acting was for television, he periodically appeared in films, including Daddy and Them (2001), Waitress…

  • Return to Montauk (film by Schl?ndorff [2017])

    Volker Schl?ndorff: …union, and the romantic drama Return to Montauk (2017).

  • Return to normalcy (American campaign slogan)

    Return to normalcy, central campaign slogan of Republican nominee Warren G. Harding’s successful campaign for the presidency of the United States in 1920. Harding’s slogan and platform, calling for disengagement from foreign intervention and for a return to business as usual, were offered as an

  • Return to Paradise (film by Robson [1953])

    Mark Robson: Films of the 1950s: In 1953 Robson directed Return to Paradise, an adaptation of a James Michener novel, with Gary Cooper as a drifter. The following year the director made a rare foray into comedy with Phffft; it starred Jack Lemmon and Judy Holliday as a couple that rue their recent divorce. The…

  • Return to Reason (film by Man Ray)

    Man Ray: …Retour à la raison (1923; Return to Reason), he applied the rayograph technique to motion-picture film, making patterns with salt, pepper, tacks, and pins. His other films include Anémic cinéma (1926; in collaboration with Duchamp) and L’étoile de mer (1928–29; “Star of the Sea”), which is considered a Surrealist classic.

  • Return to Región (novel by Benet Goitia)

    Juan Benet Goitia: …first novel—Volverás a Región (1967; Return to Región)—Benet recounts the attitudes of different characters living in an area he calls Región, somewhat resembling León. The novel caused considerable interest in Spain because of its tantalizing effects. There are frequent changes in viewpoint, and many of the passages are open to…

  • Return to Sender (song by Scott and Blackwell)

    Norman Taurog: Elvis movies: …Girls! (1962), which featured “Return to Sender”; and It Happened at the World’s Fair (1963), with Presley performing at the Seattle World’s Fair. Although they were box-office successes, critics derided the films as formulaic and musically uninspired.

  • Return to the Future (work by Undset)

    Sigrid Undset: …published originally in English as Return to the Future (1942; Norwegian Tillbake til fremtiden).

  • Return to The Islands (work by Grimble)

    Oceanic literature: The role of the author: In Return to the Islands (1957), Sir Arthur Grimble vividly relates how oral poems were composed in Kiribati. He describes the first stirring of poetry as a “divine spark of inspiration,” which gives the poet his mana. This mana, in turn, causes the poet to remove…

  • Return, Law of (Israel [1950])

    Jew: Under Israel’s Law of Return (1950) as amended in 1970, all non-Israeli Jews and Gentile converts to Judaism are entitled to settle in Israel and receive full Israeli citizenship. However, converts who wish to marry in Israel must demonstrate that they were converted under the supervision of…

  • Return, The (novel by Laferrière)

    Dany Laferrière: …The Return; also translated as The Enigma of the Return), which was awarded the Prix Médicis in France. Laferrière referred to himself as a Québécois, rather than a “francophone,” writer; he advocated for artistic vision without preconceived boundaries and proclaimed it the writer’s responsibility to “invent his own language.”

  • return-air plenum (device)

    construction: Environmental control: …make what is called a return-air plenum. The negative pressure is created by an opening into the plenum from the return side of the rooftop unit, and perforated openings or grills in the ceiling plane admit the return air from the occupied space. Return air can also be made to…

  • Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia (political party, Australia)

    Australia: The postwar years: …social change, but instead the Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia (later called the Returned Services League of Australia) became a bastion of conservative order, some of its supporters ready to use physical force against local people they considered “bolsheviks.” The Labor Party faltered, its members adopting a…

  • Returned Services League of Australia (political party, Australia)

    Australia: The postwar years: …social change, but instead the Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia (later called the Returned Services League of Australia) became a bastion of conservative order, some of its supporters ready to use physical force against local people they considered “bolsheviks.” The Labor Party faltered, its members adopting a…

  • returning boomerang (weaponry)

    boomerang: The returning boomerang (the name derives from the word used by the Turuwal tribe in New South Wales) is light, thin and well balanced, 12–30 inches (30–75 cm) in length, and up to 12 ounces (about 340 grams) in weight. It varies in shape from a…

  • Returning to Nature (essay by Li Ao)

    Confucianism: Confucian ethics in the Daoist and Buddhist context: 844) essay “Returning to Nature” that foreshadowed features of Song (960–1279) Confucian thought. The most-influential precursor of a Confucian revival, however, was Han Yu (768–824). He attacked Buddhism from the perspectives of social ethics and cultural identity and provoked interest in the question of what actually constitutes…

  • returns to scale (economics)

    Returns to scale, in economics, the quantitative change in output of a firm or industry resulting from a proportionate increase in all inputs. If the quantity of output rises by a greater proportion—e.g., if output increases by 2.5 times in response to a doubling of all inputs—the production

  • Retz, Gilles de (French noble)

    Gilles de Rais, Breton baron, marshal of France, and man of wealth whose distinguished career ended in a celebrated trial for Satanism, abduction, and child murder. His name was later connected with the story of Bluebeard. At an early age Rais distinguished himself militarily, fighting first in the

  • Retz, Jean-Fran?ois-Paul de Gondi, cardinal de (French priest)

    Jean-Fran?ois-Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz, one of the leaders of the aristocratic rebellion known as the Fronde (1648–53), whose memoirs remain a classic of 17th-century French literature. Of Florentine origin, the family into which Gondi was born had risen to prominence in the French court in

  • Retzius, Anders Adolf (Swedish anatomist and anthropologist)

    Anders Adolf Retzius, anatomist and anthropologist who is best known for his pioneer studies in craniometry (measurement of the skull as a means of establishing the characteristics of human fossil remains). A professor of anatomy and physiology at the Karolinska Medic-Kirurgiska Institutet,

  • Retzius, Magnus Gustaf (Swedish anatomist and anthropologist)

    Magnus Gustaf Retzius, Swedish anatomist and anthropologist best-known for his studies of the histology of the nervous system. Retzius’ Das Menschenhirn, 2 vol. (1896; “The Human Brain”) was perhaps the most important work written on the gross anatomy of the brain during the 19th century. He served

  • Retzské, Jan (Polish singer)

    Jean de Reszke, Polish operatic tenor, celebrated for his beautiful voice, phrasing, and enunciation as well as his charm and striking presence. Of a musical family, de Reszke was first taught by his mother, then by vocal coaches in Warsaw and Paris. After an undistinguished early career as a

  • Reuben (Hebrew tribe)

    Reuben, one of the 12 tribes of Israel that in biblical times comprised the people of Israel who later became the Jewish people. The tribe was named after the oldest of Jacob’s sons born of Leah, his first wife. After the Exodus out of Egypt, Joshua led the Israelites into the Promised Land and

  • Reuben sandwich (food)

    sandwich: …lettuce, and tomato, and the Reuben sandwich of corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Russian dressing served grilled on black bread. Hot sandwiches, notably the ubiquitous hamburger on a bun, are a staple of the American diet, and the peanut butter and jelly sandwich is the mainstay of the American…

  • Reuben, Clementine (American artist)

    Clementine Hunter, prolific American folk artist who late in life began to produce vibrant representational and abstract oil paintings drawn from her memories of Southern plantation life. Clementine Reuben was the daughter of Mary Antoinette Adams, who was of Virginian slave ancestry, and Janvier

  • Reubeni, David (Jewish adventurer)

    David Reubeni, Jewish adventurer whose grandiose plans inspired the messianic visions of the martyr Solomon Molcho (q.v.; d. 1532). Reubeni claimed to be a prince descended from the tribe of Reuben (hence his name) of a Jewish state in Arabia. He gained the favour and protection of Pope Clement VII

  • Reubens, Paul (American actor)

    Tim Burton: …on a man-child (played by Paul Reubens) looking for his stolen bicycle. With the dark comedy Beetlejuice (1988), Burton established himself as an unconventional filmmaker. He turned to more mainstream fare with the big-budget Batman (1989) and its sequel Batman Returns (1992). Both films were major hits. Burton was also…

  • Reuchlin, Johannes (German humanist)

    Johannes Reuchlin, German humanist, political counselor, and classics scholar whose defense of Hebrew literature helped awaken liberal intellectual forces in the years immediately preceding the Reformation. Reuchlin studied at various universities, specializing in Greek and publishing a Latin

  • Reuel (biblical figure)

    Jethro, in the Old Testament, priest of Midian of the Kenite clan, with whom Moses took refuge after he killed an Egyptian and whose daughter Moses married (Exodus 3:1). After the Exodus, Jethro visited the Hebrews encamped at the “mountain of God” and brought with him Moses’ wife and sons. There

  • Reuenthal, Neidhart von (German squire)

    minnesinger: By the time of Neidhart von Reuenthal, a Bavarian squire (d. c. 1250), the knight had turned his attention from the ladies of the castle to the wenches of the villages; Neidhart’s melodies likewise have a certain affinity with folk song.

  • Reullia (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: …such as Jacobinia and Beloperone), Reullia (355), Stobilanthes (350), Barleria (300), Aphelandra (170), Staurogyne (140), Dicliptera (150), Blepharis (130), Lepidagathis (100), Hygrophila (100),

  • Reumert, Poul Hagen (Danish actor)

    Poul Reumert, Danish stage and film star, regarded for more than 50 years as one of the most important character actors in Denmark. After studying at the Royal Theatre, Reumert began his professional career at the Copenhagen Folk Theater in 1902. In 1911 he moved to the Royal Theater, where he

  • Réunion (island and department, France)

    Réunion, island of the Mascarene Islands and a French overseas département and overseas region in the western Indian Ocean. It is located about 420 miles (680 km) east of Madagascar and 110 miles (180 km) southwest of Mauritius. Réunion is almost elliptical in shape, about 40 miles (65 km) long and

  • Reunion All Round (work by Knox)

    Ronald Knox: …Loose Stones (1913) and in Reunion All Round (1914). He chronicled his struggle and its resolution in A Spiritual Aeneid (1918). The final expression of his position appeared in The Belief of Catholics (1927). Six volumes of Knox’s sermons were published, including Heaven and Charing Cross (1935) and Captive Flames…

  • Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (work by Woodward)

    C. Vann Woodward: …the contested Hayes-Tilden presidential election, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (1951), emphasized the economic motives that influenced that historic compromise. Woodward’s most widely read book was The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1955), in which he showed that the legal segregation of whites…

  • Reunion in Vienna (film by Franklin [1933])

    Sidney Franklin: Reunion in Vienna (1933) was enlivened by John Barrymore’s sprightly performance as an Austrian archduke reduced to being a taxi driver. The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934) was a lavishly mounted account of the love affair between poets Elizabeth Barrett (Shearer, Academy Award-nominated) and Robert…

  • Réunion, Département d’Outre-Mer de la (island and department, France)

    Réunion, island of the Mascarene Islands and a French overseas département and overseas region in the western Indian Ocean. It is located about 420 miles (680 km) east of Madagascar and 110 miles (180 km) southwest of Mauritius. Réunion is almost elliptical in shape, about 40 miles (65 km) long and

  • Réunion, Department of (island and department, France)

    Réunion, island of the Mascarene Islands and a French overseas département and overseas region in the western Indian Ocean. It is located about 420 miles (680 km) east of Madagascar and 110 miles (180 km) southwest of Mauritius. Réunion is almost elliptical in shape, about 40 miles (65 km) long and

  • Reus (Spain)

    Reus, city, Tarragona provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. It lies on a coastal plain just west-northwest of Tarragona city. Reus was first mentioned in the 13th century, but its commercial life dates from 1750 when an English

  • reused wool (textile)

    wool: …has had use is called reused wool. Recovered wools, employed mainly in woolens and blends, are often of inferior quality because of damage suffered during the recovery process.

  • Reuss (historical principalities, Germany)

    Reuss, two former German principalities, merged into Thuringia in 1920. In their final years they comprised two blocks, separated by part of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. The southern and larger block, or Oberland, with Schleiz and Greiz as chief towns, was bounded east by the kingdom of Saxony, south by

  • Reuss River (river, Europe)

    Lucerne: …central Switzerland, lying on the Reuss River where it issues from the northwestern branch of Lake Lucerne (German: Vierwaldst?tter See; French: Lac des Quatre Cantons), southwest of Zürich. The city’s name was derived from the Benedictine monastery of St. Leodegar (Luciaria), founded in the 8th century. From the nearby fishing…

  • Reuter, Ernst (German politician)

    Ernst Reuter, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. While mayor of post-World War II West Berlin, his leadership helped that city survive the Soviet blockade. Reuter joined the Social Democratic Party in 1912. Drafted during World War I, he became a Russian prisoner of war in 1916. He

  • Reuter, Fritz (German author)

    Fritz Reuter, German novelist who helped to initiate the development of regional dialect literature in Germany. His best works, which mirrored the provincial life of Mecklenburg, are written in Plattdeutsch, a north German dialect. As a youthful member of a student political club, Reuter was

  • Reuter, Paul Julius, Freiherr von (German journalist)

    Paul Julius, baron von Reuter, German-born founder of one of the first news agencies, which still bears his name. Of Jewish parentage, he became a Christian in 1844 and adopted the name of Reuter. As a clerk in his uncle’s bank in G?ttingen, Ger., Reuter made the acquaintance of the eminent

  • Reuters (Canadian company)

    Thomson Reuters, Canadian information services company. Founded as the Reuters news agency in Great Britain in 1851, it became one of the leading newswire services in the world. Its headquarters are in Toronto. The agency was established by Paul Julius Reuter, a former bank clerk who in 1847 became

  • Reutersvard, Oscar (Swedish artist)

    number game: Impossible figures: …these drawings—also called undecidable figures—was Oscar Reutersvard of Sweden, who made them the central features of a set of Swedish postage stamps.

  • Reuther board (gymnastics equipment)

    vaulting: A Reuther board (also called a beatboard), a special type of springboard developed in Germany, is placed in front of the near end of the apparatus. The gymnast takes a run, gathers momentum as he or she nears the apparatus, rebounds off the springboard, and, with…

  • Reuther, Walter (American labour leader)

    Walter Reuther, American labour leader who was president of the United Automobile Workers (UAW) and of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and was active in national and international affairs. Reuther’s negotiating skills helped win numerous bargaining gains for the UAW. These included

  • Reuther, Walter Philip (American labour leader)

    Walter Reuther, American labour leader who was president of the United Automobile Workers (UAW) and of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and was active in national and international affairs. Reuther’s negotiating skills helped win numerous bargaining gains for the UAW. These included

  • Reutlingen (Germany)

    Reutlingen, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the Echaz River below the Achalm mountain in the Swabian Alps (Schw?bische Alb), south of Stuttgart. Founded by Frederick II, it was chartered in the early 13th century and later became a free imperial city (until

  • Reuveran Stage (geology)

    Reuveran Stage, major division of geologic time and deposits in the Netherlands. The Reuveran Stage, named for a clay deposit of the same name, is Pliocene in age (formed between 5.3 million and 2.6 million years ago). The Reuveran underlies undoubted Pleistocene deposits and has been correlated

  • Reval (national capital, Estonia)

    Tallinn, city, capital of Estonia, on Tallinn Bay of the Gulf of Finland. A fortified settlement existed there from the late 1st millennium bc until the 10th–11th century ad, and there was a town on the site in the 12th century. In 1219 it was captured by the Danes, who built a new fortress on

  • revaluation (finance)

    devaluation: In contrast to devaluation, revaluation involves an increase in the exchange value of a country’s monetary unit in terms of gold, silver, or foreign monetary units. It may be undertaken when a country’s currency has been undervalued in comparison with others, causing persistent balance-of-payments surpluses. (See also exchange control.)

  • revascularization (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Therapy: …of damage caused by rapid revascularization immediately following myocardial infarction. The process of revascularization plays an important role in stimulating ventricular remodeling that leads to ventricular dysfunction. Improved emergency response and prevention of complications that may arise during myocardial infarction, such as arrhythmias, have resulted in a significant reduction of…

  • RevCon (Australian organization)

    Revelation Film Festival: …discussion panels under the name RevCon, introduced in 2005. Subjects have ranged from the history of Australian film since the 1970s to the state of independent cinema. RevCon has also hosted workshops on marketing and distributing independent films as well as chats with directors.

  • Revda (Russia)

    Revda, city, Sverdlovsk oblast (region), western Russia, in the mid-Urals on the Revda River, at the confluence of the Chusovaya River. Founded in 1734, when a metallurgical factory was built, it became a city in 1935. In 1940 the Sredneuralsk copper-smelting plant began operation based on ore from

  • Rêve de d’Alembert, Le (work by Diderot)

    Denis Diderot: The Encyclopédie: …“Conversation Between d’Alembert and Diderot”), Le Rêve de d’Alembert (written 1769, published 1830; “D’Alembert’s Dream”), and the Eléments de physiologie (1774–80). In these works Diderot developed his materialist philosophy and arrived at startling intuitive insights into biology and chemistry; in speculating on the origins of life without divine intervention, for…

  • Reve, Gerard (Dutch author)

    Gerard Reve, Dutch writer noted for his virtuoso style and sardonic humour. His subject matter was occasionally controversial, treating such topics as homosexuality and sadism. Although Reve invented a fanciful background for himself as the Dutch-born child of Baltic-Russian refugees, he was in

  • Reve, Gerard Kornelis van het (Dutch author)

    Gerard Reve, Dutch writer noted for his virtuoso style and sardonic humour. His subject matter was occasionally controversial, treating such topics as homosexuality and sadism. Although Reve invented a fanciful background for himself as the Dutch-born child of Baltic-Russian refugees, he was in

  • Reve, Simon van het (Dutch author)

    Gerard Reve, Dutch writer noted for his virtuoso style and sardonic humour. His subject matter was occasionally controversial, treating such topics as homosexuality and sadism. Although Reve invented a fanciful background for himself as the Dutch-born child of Baltic-Russian refugees, he was in

  • revealed preference theory (economics)

    Revealed preference theory, in economics, a theory, introduced by the American economist Paul Samuelson in 1938, that holds that consumers’ preferences can be revealed by what they purchase under different circumstances, particularly under different income and price circumstances. The theory

  • revegetation (ecology)

    land reclamation: Reclamation of mine spoils: …plant life and only slowly revegetated by natural processes. Historically, when the mineral deposits in an area were exhausted, the site was abandoned, leaving a lunarlike landscape that was unsuitable for development. This led to an increased interest in the problem of more rapidly reclaiming and revegetating the spoil-bank areas.…

  • Réveil (European religious movement)

    Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer: …of the pillars of the Réveil, a religious revival and antimodernist movement. In politics Groen provided the theoretical basis for the Dutch denominational political party system. He prepared the way for the foundation of the Anti-Revolutionary Party formed in 1878 by Abraham Kuyper, who, unlike the aristocrat Groen, was capable…

  • Reveillon (racehorse)

    Hirsch Jacobs: Two years later, Reveillon, trained by Jacobs, won at Pompano, Fla. In 1928 Jacobs began a partnership with Isidor (“Beebee”) Bieber. Their greatest single success came with Stymie, a two-year-old colt purchased in 1943, who, trained by Jacobs, won 35 races and by the end of his racing…

  • Réveillon, Jean-Baptiste (French artist)

    wallpaper: …papers and distemper-coloured papers of Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and panoramic decorations by Joseph Dufour. By this time French wallpapers used not only paysage (country landscape) designs but also simulated architectural forms, such as moldings, columns, and capitals, and narrative themes that called for special experience in hanging to match the scenes…

  • Revel (national capital, Estonia)

    Tallinn, city, capital of Estonia, on Tallinn Bay of the Gulf of Finland. A fortified settlement existed there from the late 1st millennium bc until the 10th–11th century ad, and there was a town on the site in the 12th century. In 1219 it was captured by the Danes, who built a new fortress on

  • Revel, Jean-Fran?ois (French philosopher and journalist)

    Jean-Fran?ois Revel, (Jean-Fran?ois Ricard), French philosopher and journalist (born Jan. 19, 1924, Marseille, France—died April 30, 2006, Kremlin-Bicêtre, near Paris, France), was a defender of American liberal democracy, an unusual position for a French intellectual. Ricard adopted the pen name R

  • revelation (religion)

    Revelation, in religion, the disclosure of divine or sacred reality or purpose to humanity. In the religious view, such disclosure may come through mystical insights, historical events, or spiritual experiences that transform the lives of individuals and groups. Every great religion acknowledges

  • Revelation Film Festival (Australian film festival)

    Revelation Film Festival, independent-film festival held annually during July in Perth, Austl. Revelation Film Festival, which had its origins in 16-mm film showings in pubs and clubs in Melbourne and Perth, was formally launched in 1997 and is held for 10 days each July. The festival presents more

  • Revelation Perth International Film Festival (Australian film festival)

    Revelation Film Festival, independent-film festival held annually during July in Perth, Austl. Revelation Film Festival, which had its origins in 16-mm film showings in pubs and clubs in Melbourne and Perth, was formally launched in 1997 and is held for 10 days each July. The festival presents more

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