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  • Richards, Ellen Swallow (American chemist)

    Ellen Swallow Richards, American chemist and founder of the home economics movement in the United States. Ellen Swallow was educated mainly at home. She briefly attended Westford Academy and also taught school for a time. Swallow was trained as a chemist, earning an A.B. from Vassar College in 1870

  • Richards, Gordon Waugh (British jockey and racehorse trainer)

    Sir Gordon Richards, English jockey, the first to ride 4,000 winners and the leading rider in British flat (Thoroughbred) racing for 26 of his 34 seasons (1921–54). His career total of 4,870 victories was a world record, broken by Johnny Longden of the United States on Sept. 3, 1956. He was the

  • Richards, I. A. (British critic and poet)

    I.A. Richards, English critic, poet, and teacher who was highly influential in developing a new way of reading poetry that led to the New Criticism and that also influenced some forms of reader-response criticism. Richards was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and was a lecturer in English

  • Richards, Ivor Armstrong (British critic and poet)

    I.A. Richards, English critic, poet, and teacher who was highly influential in developing a new way of reading poetry that led to the New Criticism and that also influenced some forms of reader-response criticism. Richards was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and was a lecturer in English

  • Richards, Kathleen (American reformer)

    Kate Richards O’Hare Cunningham, American socialist and reformer whose vocal political activism led to a brief prison stint and a longer subsequent career as a prison-reform advocate. After brief attendance at a normal (teachers) school in Nebraska, Kathleen Richards taught for a short time in a

  • Richards, Keith (British musician)

    Johnny Depp: Pirates of the Caribbean and Academy Award nominations: …performance, which was modeled on Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, earned Depp his first Academy Award nomination. He was nominated again the following year for his portrayal of Peter Pan creator James M. Barrie in Finding Neverland (2004). Depp reprised the role of Sparrow in later installments of the…

  • Richards, Laura E. (American author)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): …the topflight nonsense verses of Laura E. Richards, whose collected rhymes in Tirra Lirra (1932) will almost bear comparison with those of Edward Lear. Less memorable are the works of Lucy Fitch Perkins, Joseph Altsheler, Ralph Henry Barbour, Kate Douglas Wiggin, Eliza Orne White, and the two Burgesses—Thornton and Gelett.…

  • Richards, Lloyd (American theatrical director)

    Lloyd Richards, Canadian-born American theatre director (born June 29, 1919, Toronto, Ont.—died June 29, 2006, New York, N.Y.), exerted a powerful influence on American theatre for four decades as director of groundbreaking plays that probed the modern African American experience and as a mentor t

  • Richards, Mark (Australian surfer)

    Mark Richards, Australian surfer who was a four-time world champion (1979–82) and the first professional surfer to win multiple world titles. Richards was taken to the beach by his sun-loving parents at an early age and was riding a scaled-down surfboard at age six. By the 1970s he had emerged as

  • Richards, Martin (American producer)
  • Richards, Michael (American actor)

    Seinfeld: …get-rich-quick and self-improvement schemes (whom Michael Richards invested with oddball freneticism grounded in physical comedy).

  • Richards, Norah (Irish-Indian actress)

    South Asian arts: Modern theatre: Norah Richards, an Irish-born actress who came to the Punjab in 1911, produced in 1914 the first Punjabi play, Dulhan (“The Bride”), written by her pupil I.C. Nanda. For 50 years she promoted rural drama and inspired actors and producers, including Prithvi Raj Kapoor.

  • Richards, Robert Eugene (American athlete)

    Bob Richards, American athlete, the first pole-vaulter to win two Olympic gold medals. Sportswriters called him “the Vaulting Vicar” because he was an ordained minister. Richards was interested in athletics from boyhood, participating in diving and tumbling before taking up the pole vault in junior

  • Richards, Sir Gordon (British jockey and racehorse trainer)

    Sir Gordon Richards, English jockey, the first to ride 4,000 winners and the leading rider in British flat (Thoroughbred) racing for 26 of his 34 seasons (1921–54). His career total of 4,870 victories was a world record, broken by Johnny Longden of the United States on Sept. 3, 1956. He was the

  • Richards, Sir Isaac Vivian Alexander (Antiguan cricket player)

    Viv Richards, West Indian cricketer, arguably the finest batsman of his generation. The son of Malcolm Richards, Antigua’s leading fast bowler, Viv Richards followed in a family tradition that included two brothers who also played cricket for Antigua. Richards began his Test (international) match

  • Richards, Sir William Buell (Canadian jurist)

    Sir William Buell Richards, politician and jurist who was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1875–79). He was educated at Johnstown District Grammar School in his native Brockville and at the St. Lawrence Academy in Potsdam, N.Y., and then studied law in an uncle’s law offices,

  • Richards, Theodore William (American chemist)

    Theodore William Richards, American chemist whose accurate determination of the atomic weights of approximately 25 elements indicated the existence of isotopes and earned him the 1914 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Richards graduated from Haverford College, Pa., in 1885 and took advanced degrees at

  • Richards, Viv (Antiguan cricket player)

    Viv Richards, West Indian cricketer, arguably the finest batsman of his generation. The son of Malcolm Richards, Antigua’s leading fast bowler, Viv Richards followed in a family tradition that included two brothers who also played cricket for Antigua. Richards began his Test (international) match

  • Richards, William (American missionary)

    William Richards, American missionary who helped to promote a liberal constitutional monarchy in the Hawaiian Islands. He graduated from Williams College (Massachusetts) in 1819 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1822. In the fall of 1822 he married and, with his bride, sailed for the

  • Richardson (Texas, United States)

    Richardson, city, northern suburb of Dallas, Dallas and Collin counties, northern Texas, U.S. The original founders settled Breckenridge township (c. 1853) south of the present city limits in what is now Restland. In 1872 Ryley and Jack Wheeler gave land for a town site and right-of-way to the

  • Richardson Mountains (mountains, Canada)

    Richardson Mountains, range of the Canadian Rocky Mountains that parallels the northernmost part of the boundary of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, northwestern Canada. Trending northwest-southeast, the Richardson Mountains are the northern extremity of the Rockies. They rise to an elevation

  • Richardson number (meteorology)

    Richardson number, parameter that can be used to predict the occurrence of fluid turbulence and, hence, the destruction of density currents in water or air. It was defined by the British meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson, a pioneer in mathematical weather forecasting. Essentially the ratio of the

  • Richardson’s ground squirrel (rodent)

    Canada: Grasslands: …the common grassland mammals are Richardson’s ground squirrel and the pocket gopher, both of which damage young grain crops. They continue to proliferate despite predation by badgers, hawks, and owls and farmers’ attempts at control. The first settlers to cross the Canadian prairies encountered enormous herds of bison (often called…

  • Richardson’s law (physics)

    electricity: Thermionic emission: A formula known as Richardson’s law (first proposed by the English physicist Owen W. Richardson) is roughly valid for all metals. It is usually expressed in terms of the emission current density (J) as

  • Richardson, Anna M. (American philanthropist)

    Anna M. Richardson Harkness, American philanthropist, perhaps best remembered for establishing the Commonwealth Fund, which continues as a major foundation focusing largely on health services and medical education and research. Anna Richardson married Stephen V. Harkness, a businessman, in 1854. In

  • Richardson, Benjamin (British glassmaker)

    Benjamin Richardson, founder of one of the great English glass-manufacturing houses, who was instrumental in the introduction of modern glass-working methods to England. Richardson’s Stourbridge factory was the first in the country to have a threading machine for making filigree glass and the first

  • Richardson, Bill (American politician)

    Bill Richardson, American politician, who served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1983–97), a member of Pres. Bill Clinton’s cabinet (1997–2001), and governor of New Mexico (2003–11) and who sought the Democratic nomination for president in 2008. Richardson’s father, an American

  • Richardson, Cecil Antonio (British director and producer)

    Tony Richardson, English theatrical and motion-picture director whose experimental productions stimulated a renewal of creative vitality on the British stage during the 1950s. He was also known for his film adaptations of literary and dramatic works. In 1953, after graduating from the University of

  • Richardson, Charles (British lexicographer)

    dictionary: Since 1828: Charles Richardson was also an industrious collector, presenting his dictionary, from 1818 on, distributed alphabetically throughout the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana (vol. 14 to 25) and then reissued as a separate work in 1835–37. Richardson was a disciple of the benighted John Horne Tooke, whose 18th-century theories…

  • Richardson, Clifford (American engineer)

    roads and highways: New paving materials: …of asphalts and cements by Clifford Richardson, who set about the task of codifying the specifications for asphalt mixes. Richardson basically developed two forms of asphalt: asphaltic concrete, which was strong and stiff and thus provided structural strength; and hot-rolled asphalt, which contained more bitumen and thus produced a far…

  • Richardson, Dorothy Gay (American softball player)

    Dot Richardson, American softball player who was a member of Olympic gold-medal-winning teams in 1996 and 2000. Because Richardson’s father was an air force mechanic, she spent her early years on various military bases in the United States and abroad. She began playing softball competitively at age

  • Richardson, Dorothy M. (British novelist)

    Dorothy M. Richardson, English novelist, an often neglected pioneer in stream-of-consciousness fiction. Richardson passed her childhood and youth in secluded surroundings in late Victorian England. After her schooling, which ended when, in her 17th year, her parents separated, she engaged in

  • Richardson, Dorothy Miller (British novelist)

    Dorothy M. Richardson, English novelist, an often neglected pioneer in stream-of-consciousness fiction. Richardson passed her childhood and youth in secluded surroundings in late Victorian England. After her schooling, which ended when, in her 17th year, her parents separated, she engaged in

  • Richardson, Dot (American softball player)

    Dot Richardson, American softball player who was a member of Olympic gold-medal-winning teams in 1996 and 2000. Because Richardson’s father was an air force mechanic, she spent her early years on various military bases in the United States and abroad. She began playing softball competitively at age

  • Richardson, Ebenezer (British loyalist)

    Boston Massacre: The killing of Christopher Seider and the end of the rope: On February 22, when Ebenezer Richardson, who was known to the radicals as an informer, tried to take down one of those signs from the shop of his neighbour Theophilus Lillie, he was set upon by a group of boys. The boys drove Richardson back into his own nearby…

  • Richardson, Elaine Potter (Caribbean American author)

    Jamaica Kincaid, Caribbean American writer whose essays, stories, and novels are evocative portrayals of family relationships and her native Antigua. Kincaid settled in New York City when she left Antigua at age 16. She first worked as an au pair in Manhattan. She later won a photography

  • Richardson, Elliot Lee (attorney general of United States)

    Elliot Lee Richardson, American government official (born July 20, 1920, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Dec. 31, 1999, Boston), on Oct. 20, 1973, resigned from his newly appointed post (April 30, 1973) as U.S. attorney general during what later became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre” rather than

  • Richardson, Eveline Mabel (American economist and educator)

    Eveline M. Burns, British-born American economist and educator, best remembered for her role in creating U.S. social security policy and for her work to further public understanding of it. Eveline Richardson worked as an administrative assistant in Great Britain’s Ministry of Labour while attending

  • Richardson, H. H. (American architect)

    H.H. Richardson, American architect, the initiator of the Romanesque revival in the United States and a pioneer figure in the development of an indigenous, modern American style of architecture. Richardson was the great-grandson of the discoverer of oxygen, Joseph Priestley. His distinguished

  • Richardson, H. H. (American architect)

    H.H. Richardson, American architect, the initiator of the Romanesque revival in the United States and a pioneer figure in the development of an indigenous, modern American style of architecture. Richardson was the great-grandson of the discoverer of oxygen, Joseph Priestley. His distinguished

  • Richardson, Henry Handel (Australian novelist)

    Henry Handel Richardson, Australian novelist whose trilogy The Fortunes of Richard Mahony, combining description of an Australian immigrant’s life and work in the goldfields with a powerful character study, is considered the crowning achievement of modern Australian fiction to that time. From 1883

  • Richardson, Ian (British actor)

    Ian William Richardson, British actor (born April 7, 1934 , Edinburgh, Scot.—died Feb. 9, 2007 , London, Eng.), was an accomplished actor and a founding member (1960–75) of the Royal Shakespeare Company, but he gained international recognition for his BAFTA-winning performance as the charismatic

  • Richardson, J. P. (American deejay, songwriter, and recording artist)

    George Jones: …recording artist known as the Big Bopper. Other chart-toppers were “Tender Years” (1961) and “She Thinks I Still Care” (1962).

  • Richardson, Jerome (American musician)

    Jerome Richardson, American musician (born Nov. 15, 1920, Sealy, Texas—died June 23, 2000, Englewood, N.J.), was a versatile saxophonist and flutist who played on more than 4,000 jazz, rhythm-and-blues, and rock-and-roll recordings. Richardson began his professional career at the age of 14, p

  • Richardson, John (Canadian writer)

    John Richardson, Canadian writer of historical and autobiographical romantic novels. Little is known of Richardson’s early years. As a British volunteer in the War of 1812, he was taken prisoner and held in Kentucky. After his release some nine months later, he served as a British officer in

  • Richardson, Jonathan (English critic)

    art criticism: Art criticism in the 18th century: Enlightenment theory: …the 18th century, the Englishman Jonathan Richardson became the first person to develop a system of art criticism. In An Essay on the Whole Art of Criticism as It Relates to Painting and An Argument in Behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur (both 1719), he develops a practical system…

  • Richardson, Lewis Fry (British physicist)

    Lewis Fry Richardson, British physicist and psychologist who was the first to apply mathematical techniques to predict the weather accurately. Richardson made major contributions to methods of solving certain types of problems in physics, and from 1913 to 1922 he applied his ideas to meteorology.

  • Richardson, Mike (American publisher)

    Dark Horse Comics: …in 1986 by comics retailer Mike Richardson. In an industry dominated by the so-called “Big Two” (Marvel Comics and DC Comics), Dark Horse ranks as one of the largest independent comic companies. Its headquarters are in Milwaukie, Oregon.

  • Richardson, Natasha (British actress)

    Natasha Jane Richardson, British-born actress (born May 11, 1963, London, Eng.—died March 18, 2009, New York, N.Y.), arose within a renowned British acting dynasty to make her own mark in motion pictures and, especially, onstage in London’s West End and on Broadway. She was the elder daughter of

  • Richardson, Natasha Jane (British actress)

    Natasha Jane Richardson, British-born actress (born May 11, 1963, London, Eng.—died March 18, 2009, New York, N.Y.), arose within a renowned British acting dynasty to make her own mark in motion pictures and, especially, onstage in London’s West End and on Broadway. She was the elder daughter of

  • Richardson, Ralph (British actor)

    Ralph Richardson, British stage and motion-picture actor who, with John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, was one of the greatest British actors of his generation. Richardson began his acting career at age 18, performing in Shakespearean plays with a touring company. In 1926 he became a member of the

  • Richardson, Robert (American cinematographer)
  • Richardson, Robert C. (American physicist)

    Robert C. Richardson, American physicist who was the corecipient, along with Douglas Osheroff and David Lee, of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of superfluidity in the isotope helium-3 (3He). Richardson received a Ph.D. in physics from Duke University (Durham, North Carolina)

  • Richardson, Robert Coleman (American physicist)

    Robert C. Richardson, American physicist who was the corecipient, along with Douglas Osheroff and David Lee, of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of superfluidity in the isotope helium-3 (3He). Richardson received a Ph.D. in physics from Duke University (Durham, North Carolina)

  • Richardson, Sallie Jayne (American poet)

    Jayne Cortez, American poet especially noted for performing her own poetry, often accompanied by jazz. She recorded several CDs with her band, the Firespitters. Cortez was artistic director of the Watts Repertory Theatre Company from 1964 to 1970. Unfulfilled love, unromantic sex, and jazz greats

  • Richardson, Samuel (English novelist)

    Samuel Richardson, English novelist who expanded the dramatic possibilities of the novel by his invention and use of the letter form (“epistolary novel”). His major novels were Pamela (1740) and Clarissa (1747–48). Richardson was 50 years old when he wrote Pamela, but of his first 50 years little

  • Richardson, Sir John (Scottish surgeon and explorer)

    Sir John Richardson, Scottish naval surgeon and naturalist who made accurate surveys of more of the Canadian Arctic coast than any other explorer. After receiving his medical qualification at the University of Edinburgh and passing the examination of the Royal College of Surgeons of London (1807),

  • Richardson, Sir Owen Willans (British physicist)

    Sir Owen Willans Richardson, English physicist and recipient of the 1928 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on electron emission by hot metals, the basic principle used in vacuum tubes. Richardson, a graduate (1900) of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a student of J.J. Thomson at the Cavendish

  • Richardson, Sir Ralph David (British actor)

    Ralph Richardson, British stage and motion-picture actor who, with John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, was one of the greatest British actors of his generation. Richardson began his acting career at age 18, performing in Shakespearean plays with a touring company. In 1926 he became a member of the

  • Richardson, Tony (British director and producer)

    Tony Richardson, English theatrical and motion-picture director whose experimental productions stimulated a renewal of creative vitality on the British stage during the 1950s. He was also known for his film adaptations of literary and dramatic works. In 1953, after graduating from the University of

  • Richardson, William (British pioneer settler)

    San Francisco: Exploration and early settlement: …settler was an Englishman, Captain William Anthony Richardson, who in 1835 cleared a plot of land and erected San Francisco’s first dwelling—a tent made of four pieces of redwood and a ship’s foresail. In the same year, the United States tried unsuccessfully to buy San Francisco Bay from the Mexican…

  • Richardson, William Anthony (British pioneer settler)

    San Francisco: Exploration and early settlement: …settler was an Englishman, Captain William Anthony Richardson, who in 1835 cleared a plot of land and erected San Francisco’s first dwelling—a tent made of four pieces of redwood and a ship’s foresail. In the same year, the United States tried unsuccessfully to buy San Francisco Bay from the Mexican…

  • Richardson, William Blaine III (American politician)

    Bill Richardson, American politician, who served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1983–97), a member of Pres. Bill Clinton’s cabinet (1997–2001), and governor of New Mexico (2003–11) and who sought the Democratic nomination for president in 2008. Richardson’s father, an American

  • Richardson, William Lyle (American actor)

    Darren McGavin, (William Lyle Richardson), American actor (born May 7, 1922, Spokane, Wash.—died Feb. 25, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.), had a nearly 70-year career during which he showcased his versatility in hundreds of character roles. He was best known for his starring role in the television s

  • Richardson, Willis (American playwright)

    African American literature: Playwrights and editors: …also inspired dramatists such as Willis Richardson, whose The Chip Woman’s Fortune (produced 1923) was the first nonmusical play by an African American to be produced on Broadway. African American editors such as Charles S. Johnson, whose monthly Opportunity was launched in 1923 under the auspices of the National Urban…

  • Richardson-Dushman equation (physics)

    electricity: Thermionic emission: A formula known as Richardson’s law (first proposed by the English physicist Owen W. Richardson) is roughly valid for all metals. It is usually expressed in terms of the emission current density (J) as

  • Richborough (historical site, England, United Kingdom)

    Richborough, site of a Roman port (Rutupiae) in Dover district, administrative and historic county of Kent, England, located just north of Sandwich. After the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 ce, Rutupiae was established to guard the Wantsum Channel, which then separated the Isle of Thanet from the

  • Richbourg, John (American disc jockey)

    WLAC: Nashville's Late Night R & B Beacon: Three white disc jockeys—John Richbourg, Gene Nobles, and Bill (“Hoss”) Allen—brought fame to themselves and WLAC by playing rhythm and blues, at least partly in response to the requests of returning World War II veterans who had been exposed to the new music in other parts of the…

  • Riche, Barnabe (English author and soldier)

    Barnabe Rich, English author and soldier whose Farewell to Militarie Profession (1581) was the source for Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night. He entered military service in 1562 and fought in the Low Countries and in Ireland; he eventually became a captain. Later he was an informer for the crown in

  • Richecourt, Emmanuel, comte de (Habsburg official)

    Italy: Tuscany: Emmanuel, comte de Richecourt, who served in Tuscany for 20 years as the chief representative of the regent, Francis I, followed the main lines of Habsburg policy in Milan. Local aristocratic divisions, the privileged position of Florence (the Tuscan capital), and the corruption and private…

  • Richelet, César-Pierre (French author)

    French literature: Refinement of the French language: …appeared in the dictionaries of César-Pierre Richelet (1680) and Antoine Furetière (1690). A similar desire for systematic analysis inspired Claude Favre, sieur de Vaugelas, also an Academician, whose Remarques sur la langue fran?oise (1647) records polite usage of the time. In the field of literary theory the same rational approach…

  • Richelieu River (river, Canada)

    Richelieu River, river in Montérégie region, southern Quebec province, Canada, rising from Lake Champlain, just north of the Canada-U.S. border, and flowing northward for 75 miles (120 km) to join the St. Lawrence River at Sorel. Explored in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain and named in 1642 in honour

  • Richelieu, Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de (prime minister of France)

    Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis, duke de Richelieu, French nobleman, soldier, and statesman who, as premier of France (1815–18 and 1820–21), obtained the withdrawal of the Allied occupation army from France. Earlier, he had served Russia as governor of Odessa and was notable for his progressive

  • Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de (French cardinal and statesman)

    Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII of France from 1624 to 1642. His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe. The family du Plessis de Richelieu was of insignificant

  • Richelieu, Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de (French statesman)

    Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu, duke d’Aiguillon, French statesman, whose career illustrates the difficulties of the central government of the ancien régime in dealing with the provincial Parlements and estates, the extent to which powerful ministers were at the mercy of court intrigue, and how

  • Richelieu, Louis-Fran?ois-Armand du Plessis, duc de (French marshal)

    Louis-Fran?ois-Armand du Plessis, duke de Richelieu, marshal of France, and grand-nephew of Cardinal de Richelieu. Louis was ambassador to Vienna in 1725 to 1729, and in 1733–34 he served in the Rhine campaign during the War of the Polish Succession. He fought with distinction at Dettingen and

  • Richemont, Arthur, Comte de (French military officer)

    Arthur, constable de Richemont, constable of France (from 1425) who fought for Charles VII under the banner of Joan of Arc and later fought further battles against the English (1436–53) in the final years of the Hundred Years’ War. In childhood (1399) he had been given the English title of Earl of

  • Richemont, Arthur, Connétable de (French military officer)

    Arthur, constable de Richemont, constable of France (from 1425) who fought for Charles VII under the banner of Joan of Arc and later fought further battles against the English (1436–53) in the final years of the Hundred Years’ War. In childhood (1399) he had been given the English title of Earl of

  • Richemont, Arthur, Constable de (French military officer)

    Arthur, constable de Richemont, constable of France (from 1425) who fought for Charles VII under the banner of Joan of Arc and later fought further battles against the English (1436–53) in the final years of the Hundred Years’ War. In childhood (1399) he had been given the English title of Earl of

  • Richen zampo (Buddhist monk)

    Rin-chen-bzang-po, Tibetan Buddhist monk, called the “Great Translator,” known primarily for his extensive translations of Indian Buddhist texts into Tibetan, thus furthering the subsequent development of Buddhism in Tibet. First sent to India in the late 10th century under Tibetan royal p

  • Richepin, Jean (French author)

    Jean Richepin, French poet, dramatist, and novelist who examined the lower levels of society in sharp, bold language. As émile Zola revolutionized the novel with his naturalism, Richepin did the same for French poetry during that period. The son of a physician, Richepin began the study of medicine

  • Richer, Jean (French astronomer)

    Jean Richer, French astronomer whose observations of the planet Mars from Cayenne, French Guiana, in 1671–73 contributed to both astronomy and geodesy. The French government sent Richer to Cayenne to investigate atmospheric refraction at a site near the Equator, to observe the Sun to get a better

  • Riches (painting by Vouet)

    Simon Vouet: …influence with such works as Riches (c. 1630), which was probably part of the decorative program of the chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Engravings and surviving panels show that he had studied Italian illusionistic ceiling decoration; e.g., his work in the Chateau de Chilly is derived from Guercino’s Aurora, and that in…

  • Richet, Charles (French physiologist)

    Charles Richet, French physiologist who won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of and coining of the term anaphylaxis, the life-threatening allergic reaction he observed in a sensitized animal upon second exposure to an antigen. This research provided the first

  • Richet, Charles Robert (French physiologist)

    Charles Richet, French physiologist who won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of and coining of the term anaphylaxis, the life-threatening allergic reaction he observed in a sensitized animal upon second exposure to an antigen. This research provided the first

  • Richey, Charles Robert (United States jurist)

    Charles Robert Richey, American federal judge whose influential rulings during his 25 years on the bench advanced women’s rights and checked presidential powers; he presided over several Watergate cases and strongly supported the people’s right to know the actions of government (b. Oct. 16,

  • Richie, Lionel (American singer, songwriter, and producer)

    Lionel Richie, American popular singer, songwriter, and producer most admired for his smooth and soulful love ballads of the 1970s and ’80s. A highly versatile musician, he was able to perform—and skillfully blend—multiple musical styles, most notably funk, soul, rhythm and blues, and country.

  • Richie, Lionel Brockman, Jr. (American singer, songwriter, and producer)

    Lionel Richie, American popular singer, songwriter, and producer most admired for his smooth and soulful love ballads of the 1970s and ’80s. A highly versatile musician, he was able to perform—and skillfully blend—multiple musical styles, most notably funk, soul, rhythm and blues, and country.

  • Richier, Germaine (French sculptor)

    Germaine Richier, French avant-garde sculptor of provocative biomorphic figures. Richier studied art in Montpellier, went to in Paris in 1926, and learned to work with bronze in the studio of Antoine Bourdelle until 1929. In 1934 she began exhibiting classical busts, torsos, and figures (e.g.,

  • Richini, Francesco Maria (Italian architect)

    Milan: Cultural life: Its architect, Francesco Maria Ricchino, infused the whole Milanese Baroque with his severe style. The building’s Pinacoteca di Brera, founded in 1809 by Napoleon, is one of the largest art galleries in Italy and contains a fine collection of north Italian painting. The Palazzo di Brera also…

  • Richland (California, United States)

    Orange, city, Orange county, southern California, U.S. Adjacent to Anaheim (west) and Santa Ana (south), it lies along the Santa Ana River. Part of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, the city was founded as Richland in 1869 by Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell, who received the land as payment for

  • Richland (North Dakota, United States)

    Wahpeton, city, seat (1873) of Richland county, southeastern North Dakota, U.S. It lies on the Minnesota border across from Breckenridge, Minnesota, at the point where the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers merge to become the Red River of the North. Settled in 1864 by Morgan T. Rich and initially

  • Richland (county, South Carolina, United States)

    Richland, county, central South Carolina, U.S. It is bordered to the east by the Wateree River and to the west by the Broad River, which, after its confluence with the Saluda, becomes the Congaree River. The northern portion of the county lies in Fall Line hills, whereas the southern part consists

  • Richland (Washington, United States)

    Richland, city, Benton county, south-central Washington, U.S., at the juncture of the Yakima and Columbia rivers. With Kennewick and Pasco, it forms a tri-city area. Named in 1905 for Nelson Rich, a local landowner and state legislator, it remained a farming village (population about 250) until

  • Richler, Mordecai (Canadian novelist)

    Mordecai Richler, prominent Canadian novelist whose incisive and penetrating works explore fundamental human dilemmas and values. Richler attended Sir George Williams University, Montreal (1950–51), and then lived in Paris (1951–52), where he was influenced and stimulated by Existentialist authors.

  • Richman, Harry (American entertainer)

    Maureen O'Hara: …was noticed by American singer Harry Richman, who recommended her for a screen test at a London film studio. The test was seen by English actor Charles Laughton, and he and his business partner, Erich Pommer, signed her to a seven-year contract with their production company, Mayflower Pictures. Having previously…

  • Richman, Jonathan (American musician)

    the Velvet Underground: …as Iggy and the Stooges, Jonathan Richman, Brian Eno, and Patti Smith; Cale also composed and released numerous orchestral works and movie scores. In 1989 Reed and Cale reunited to write and record Songs for Drella, an eloquent requiem for their mentor Warhol.

  • Richmond (North Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Richmond, town (parish), Richmondshire district, administrative county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It is situated on the left bank of the River Swale where its dale (upland valley) opens into the plain. Richmond grew up in the shelter of a Norman castle (c.

  • Richmond (California, United States)

    Richmond, port city, Contra Costa county, western California, U.S. It lies on the northeastern shore of San Francisco Bay and is connected to Marin county by the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge (1956), 16 miles (26 km) northeast of San Francisco. The site of ancient Ohlone Indian shell mounds, it became

  • Richmond (Indiana, United States)

    Richmond, city, seat (1873) of Wayne county, east-central Indiana, U.S. It is located on the East Fork of Whitewater River, 67 miles (108 km) east of Indianapolis at the Ohio border. Settled in 1806 by migrating North Carolina Quakers, it was first called Smithville and in 1818 amalgamated with

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