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  • rifting (geology)

    plate tectonics: Continental rifting: Upwelling of magma causes the overlying lithosphere to uplift and stretch. (Whether magmatism [the formation of igneous rock from magma] initiates the rifting or whether rifting decompresses the mantle and initiates magmatism is a matter of significant debate.) If the diverging plates are capped…

  • Rif?at, Tall (ancient city, Syria)

    Arpad, ancient city in northwestern Syria. Arpad is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament and in Assyrian texts. Coming under Assyrian influence in the 9th century bc, Arpad regained its independence in 754, and it successfully sided with Sardur II of Urartu until the Assyrian king

  • Rīga (national capital, Latvia)

    Riga, city and capital of Latvia. It occupies both banks of the Daugava (Western Dvina) River, 9 miles (15 km) above its mouth on the Gulf of Riga. Pop. (2011) 658,640; (2015 est.) 641,007. An ancient settlement of the Livs and Kurs, Riga emerged as a trading post in the late 12th century. Seagoing

  • Riga (national capital, Latvia)

    Riga, city and capital of Latvia. It occupies both banks of the Daugava (Western Dvina) River, 9 miles (15 km) above its mouth on the Gulf of Riga. Pop. (2011) 658,640; (2015 est.) 641,007. An ancient settlement of the Livs and Kurs, Riga emerged as a trading post in the late 12th century. Seagoing

  • Riga, Gulf of (Baltic Sea)

    Gulf of Riga, large gulf of the Baltic Sea, bounded by the northern coast of Latvia and the western coast of Estonia, about 7,000 sq mi (18,000 sq km) in area. The gulf is separated from the Baltic Sea proper by Estonia’s Muhu archipelago, but navigation is possible through several straits. The

  • Riga, Treaty of (Europe [1921])

    Treaty of Riga, (1921) treaty between Poland and Russia signed in Riga, Latvia, that ended the Russo-Polish War of 1919–20 and set their mutual border. The treaty, which gave Poland parts of Belorussia (now Belarus) and Ukraine, lasted until World War II, after which a new treaty established a new

  • rigadoon (dance and musical form)

    Rigaudon, sprightly 17th-century French folk dance for couples. Its hopping steps were adopted by the skillful dancers of the French and English courts, where it remained fashionable through the 18th century. Conjecture assigns its origins to Proven?al sailors and its name to a Marseille dance m

  • Rigas Feraios (Greek revolutionary)

    Greece: Rigas Velestinlis: Toward the end of the 18th century, Rigas Velestinlis (also known as Rigas Pheraios), a Hellenized Vlach from Thessaly, began to dream of and actively plan for an armed revolt against the Turks. Rigas, who had served a number of Phanariote hospodars in…

  • Rīgas Jūras Līcis (Baltic Sea)

    Gulf of Riga, large gulf of the Baltic Sea, bounded by the northern coast of Latvia and the western coast of Estonia, about 7,000 sq mi (18,000 sq km) in area. The gulf is separated from the Baltic Sea proper by Estonia’s Muhu archipelago, but navigation is possible through several straits. The

  • Rigas Velestinlis (Greek revolutionary)

    Greece: Rigas Velestinlis: Toward the end of the 18th century, Rigas Velestinlis (also known as Rigas Pheraios), a Hellenized Vlach from Thessaly, began to dream of and actively plan for an armed revolt against the Turks. Rigas, who had served a number of Phanariote hospodars in…

  • rigatoni (food)

    pasta: …large, fluted, elbow-shaped pieces called rigatoni. Ribbon types include the wide lasagna and the narrow linguini. Farfels are ground, granulated, or shredded. The wide variety of special shapes includes farfalloni (“large butterflies”), lancette (“little spears”), fusilli (“spindles”), and riccioline (“little curls”).

  • rigattieri (art dealing)

    art market: Venice and Florence: …of secondhand dealers, known as rigattieri or strazzaruoli. These vendors originally traded in old clothing and leather but also came to deal in objects pertaining to the bedchamber: cassoni (marriage chests), tables, chairs, tapestries, statuary, and painted images. By the early 15th century, Florence had become a tough mercantile republic…

  • Rigau y Ros, Hyacinthe Fran?ois Honoré Mathias Pierre André Jean (French painter)

    Hyacinthe Rigaud, one of the most prolific and successful French portrait painters of the Baroque period. He was trained at Montpellier before moving to Lyon and finally to Paris in 1681, where he devoted himself to portraiture. By 1688, when he received his first royal commission, he already had a

  • Rigaud, André (Haitian leader)

    Alexandre Sabès Pétion: …those of the mulatto general André Rigaud. Fleeing to France after Toussaint defeated Rigaud, who had set up a mulatto state in the southern provinces, Pétion returned in 1802 with the French army sent to reconquer the colony but then became one of the first Haitian officers to revolt against…

  • Rigaud, Hyacinthe (French painter)

    Hyacinthe Rigaud, one of the most prolific and successful French portrait painters of the Baroque period. He was trained at Montpellier before moving to Lyon and finally to Paris in 1681, where he devoted himself to portraiture. By 1688, when he received his first royal commission, he already had a

  • rigaudon (dance and musical form)

    Rigaudon, sprightly 17th-century French folk dance for couples. Its hopping steps were adopted by the skillful dancers of the French and English courts, where it remained fashionable through the 18th century. Conjecture assigns its origins to Proven?al sailors and its name to a Marseille dance m

  • Rigault de Genouilly, Charles (French admiral)

    Charles Rigault de Genouilly, admiral who initiated the French invasion of Vietnam in 1858 and the subsequent conquest of Cochinchina, now southern Vietnam. Rigault de Genouilly entered the navy in 1827 and attained the rank of ensign three years later. In 1841 he was promoted to captain and was

  • Rigdol, Lobsang (American anthropologist)

    Colin Macmillan Turnbull, British-born anthropologist (born Nov. 23, 1924, Harrow, England—died July 28, 1994, Kilmarnock, Va.), conducted extensive field studies in Africa among the Mbuti Pygmies in the Belgian Congo (now Zaire) and the Ik hunters of northern Uganda and recorded his experiences i

  • Rigdon, Sidney (American religious leader)

    Sidney Rigdon, American churchman, an early convert to Mormonism (1830) and first counselor to its founder, Joseph Smith. After the Mormons moved to Missouri (1838) and then to Nauvoo, Ill. (1839), Rigdon became estranged from Smith. When Smith was murdered (1844), however, Rigdon attempted to

  • Rigel (star)

    Rigel, one of the brightest stars in the sky, intrinsically as well as in appearance. A blue-white supergiant in the constellation Orion, Rigel is about 870 light-years from the Sun and is about 47,000 times as luminous. A companion double star, also bluish white, is of the sixth magnitude. The

  • Rīgestān (desert, Afghanistan)

    Rīgestān, (Persian: “country of sand”), arid plateau region in southwestern Afghanistan. Rīgestān is, for the greater part, a sandy desert with ridges and small, isolated hills of red sand. The sand ridges and dunes, reaching heights of between 50 and 100 feet (15 and 30 m), alternate with

  • Rīgestān Square (square, Samarkand, Uzbekistan)

    Samarkand: Rīgestān Square, an impressive public square in the old city, is fronted by several madrasas (Islamic schools): that of Timur’s grandson, the astronomer Ulūgh Beg (1417–20), and those of Shirdar (1619–1635/36) and Tilakari (mid-17th century), which together border the square on three sides. Samarkand has…

  • Riget (Danish television miniseries)

    Lars von Trier: …television miniseries called Riget (The Kingdom), which was set in a hospital and focused on the supernatural and macabre. It proved so popular that it was followed by a sequel, Riget II (1997), and later inspired an American version, adapted by American horror novelist Stephen King, for which von…

  • Rigg, Dame Enid Diana Elizabeth (British actress)

    Diana Rigg, English actress who gained worldwide fame during the 1960s for her portrayal of Emma Peel on the television series The Avengers. The daughter of a government railway supervisor, Rigg spent her early childhood in India, returning to her native Yorkshire at age eight. While attending

  • Rigg, Diana (British actress)

    Diana Rigg, English actress who gained worldwide fame during the 1960s for her portrayal of Emma Peel on the television series The Avengers. The daughter of a government railway supervisor, Rigg spent her early childhood in India, returning to her native Yorkshire at age eight. While attending

  • Riggin, Aileen (American athlete)

    Aileen Riggin, American swimmer and diver who won three Olympic medals and was the first competitor to win a medal in both a swimming and a diving event at the same Olympics. When Riggin began diving in 1919, she quickly learned that her gender and age would often be obstacles to her desire to

  • rigging (ship equipment)

    Rigging, the sails, masts, booms, yards, stays, and lines of a sailing vessel, or its cordage only. The basis of all rigging is the mast, which may be composed of one or many pieces of wood or metal. The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are

  • Riggins, Helen (American actress and singer)

    Helen Morgan, American actress and singer whose talent was shown to greatest effect in the 1920s and ’30s as a nightclub performer of songs of heartbreak and hard living. Helen Riggins took the name Morgan in her childhood when her divorced mother remarried. Various conflicting accounts of her

  • Riggins, Jay, Jr. (American musician)

    Floyd Dixon, American rhythm and blues (R&B) musician who was one of the principal exponents of the up-tempo blues style known as West Coast jump blues. Dixon moved with his family to Los Angeles as a child. He taught himself to play the piano and entered amateur music contests, at one of which he

  • Riggins, John (American football player)

    Washington Redskins: Running back John Riggins, wide receiver Art Monk, and cornerback Darrell Green—all future Hall of Famers—starred for the Redskins during their Super Bowl-winning run, which was also famous for featuring rugged offensive lines known by the nickname “the Hogs.” Gibbs retired in 1993, and the team promptly…

  • Riggs, Bobby (American tennis player)

    Bobby Riggs, American tennis player who was one of the top-ranked players in the United States in the 1930s and ’40s but who was best known for the 1973 “Battle of the Sexes,” a match in which he was defeated by Billie Jean King. Riggs, the son of a minister, began taking tennis lessons at age 12

  • Riggs, Elmer (American paleontologist)

    Brontosaurus: Taxonomic controversy: …Brontosaurus specimens by American paleontologist Elmer Riggs. He concluded that Marsh’s Apatosaurus specimen was simply a younger version of the same type of sauropod represented by his Brontosaurus specimen and that the two genera should thus be consolidated into one. Apatosaurus was first described in 1877, two years before Brontosaurus,…

  • Riggs, Robert Larimore (American tennis player)

    Bobby Riggs, American tennis player who was one of the top-ranked players in the United States in the 1930s and ’40s but who was best known for the 1973 “Battle of the Sexes,” a match in which he was defeated by Billie Jean King. Riggs, the son of a minister, began taking tennis lessons at age 12

  • Riggs, Stephen Return (American ethnologist)

    James Owen Dorsey: He edited two works by Stephen Return Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (1890) and Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography (1893), both of which have remained classics in their field.

  • Righetti, Carlo (Italian writer)

    scapigliatura: One of the founding members, Cletto Arrighi (pseudonym for Carlo Righetti), coined the name for the group in his novel Scapigliatura e il 6 febbraio (1862). The chief spokesmen were the novelists Giuseppe Rovani and Emilio Praga. Other members included the poet and musician Arrigo Boito (chiefly remembered today as…

  • right (ideology)

    Right, portion of the political spectrum associated with conservative political thought. The term derives from the seating arrangement of the French revolutionary parliament (c. 1790s) in which the conservative representatives sat to the presiding officer’s right. In the 19th century the term

  • right action (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …speech, and senseless speech, (4) correct action, refraining from physical misdeeds such as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct, (5) correct livelihood, avoiding trades that directly or indirectly harm others, such as selling slaves, weapons, animals for slaughter, intoxicants, or poisons, (6) correct effort, abandoning negative states of mind that have…

  • right against self-incrimination (law)

    Self-incrimination, in law, the giving of evidence that might tend to expose the witness to punishment for crime. The term is generally used in relation to the privilege of refusing to give such evidence. In some continental European countries (Germany, for example, but not France), a person

  • right and wrong (ethics)

    ethics: …human actions can be judged right or wrong.

  • Right and Wrong in Massachusetts (work by Chapman)

    Maria Weston Chapman: In 1839 she published Right and Wrong in Massachusetts, a pamphlet that argued that the deep divisions among abolitionists stemmed from their disagreements over women’s rights. From 1839 to 1842 she also edited the Non-Resistant, the publication of Garrison’s New England Non-Resistance Society. Chapman raised funds for the abolition…

  • right angle (mathematics)

    geometry: Finding the right angle: Ancient builders and surveyors needed to be able to construct right angles in the field on demand. The method employed by the Egyptians earned them the name “rope pullers” in Greece, apparently because they employed a rope for laying out their construction guidelines.…

  • right ascension (astronomy)

    Right ascension, in astronomy, the east–west coordinate by which the position of a celestial body is ordinarily measured; more precisely, it is the angular distance of a body’s hour circle east of the vernal equinox, measured along the celestial equator. It is often expressed in units of time

  • Right Bank (historical region, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: The Ruin: … the west, known as the Right Bank, reverted to Poland, while Russia was confirmed in its possession of the east, known as the Left Bank, together with Kyiv (which actually was located west of the river); the arrangement was confirmed in 1686 by the Treaty of Eternal Peace between Poland…

  • Right Bank (district, Paris, France)

    Paris: City site: …the simple, unchanging designation of Right Bank and Left Bank (when facing downstream). Specific places, however, are usually indicated by arrondissement or by quarter (quartier).

  • Right Chamber (Japanese government)

    Dajōkan: … (Sa-in), the legislative body; a Right Chamber (U-in), which directed the various ministries; and a Central Chamber (Sei-in), which subsumed the powers of the other two chambers.

  • right concentration (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …the existing world), and (8) correct concentration, single-mindedness.

  • Right Cross (film by Sturges [1950])

    John Sturges: Bad, Magnificent, and Great: Right Cross (1950) was a boxing picture about a fighter (Montalban) who imagines prejudice because of his Mexican heritage; June Allyson played his love interest, and Dick Powell played his best friend, a cynical sports reporter. Sturges’s other film from 1950 was The Magnificent Yankee,…

  • right effort (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …slaughter, intoxicants, or poisons, (6) correct effort, abandoning negative states of mind that have already arisen, preventing negative states that have yet to arise, and sustaining positive states that have already arisen, (7) correct mindfulness, awareness of body, feelings, thought, and phenomena (the constituents of the existing world), and (8)…

  • right fielder (baseball)

    baseball: Outfielders: …left fielder, centre fielder, and right fielder. Outfielders must be able to judge the trajectory of flies and have enough speed to run to the point where the ball will come down. Batted or thrown balls that pass beyond the infielders along the ground must be run down and picked…

  • right hemisphere (region of the brain)

    human intelligence: Hemispheric studies: …use of language, while the right hemisphere is superior in many forms of visual and spatial tasks. Overall, the right hemisphere tends to be more synthetic and holistic in its functioning than the left. Nevertheless, patterns of hemispheric specialization are complex and cannot easily be generalized.

  • right livelihood (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …stealing, and sexual misconduct, (5) correct livelihood, avoiding trades that directly or indirectly harm others, such as selling slaves, weapons, animals for slaughter, intoxicants, or poisons, (6) correct effort, abandoning negative states of mind that have already arisen, preventing negative states that have yet to arise, and sustaining positive states…

  • right mindfulness (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …that have already arisen, (7) correct mindfulness, awareness of body, feelings, thought, and phenomena (the constituents of the existing world), and (8) correct concentration, single-mindedness.

  • right of association (law)

    labour law: Historical development of labour law: The legal recognition of the right of association for trade union purposes has a distinctive history. There is no other aspect of labour law in which successive phases of progress and regression have been more decisively influenced by political changes and considerations. The legal prohibition of such association was repealed…

  • right of asylum (law)

    Asylum, in international law, the protection granted by a state to a foreign citizen against his own state. The person for whom asylum is established has no legal right to demand it, and the sheltering state has no obligation to grant it. The right of asylum falls into three basic categories:

  • right of commons (property law)

    commons: For centuries this right of commons conflicted with the lord’s right to “approve” (i.e., appropriate for his own use) any of his waste, provided he left enough land to support the commoners’ livestock. In the 19th century the right of approvement was in effect assumed by the government.…

  • right of passage (law)

    property law: Private land-use control: servitudes: The classic case is the right-of-way, whereby an owner agrees to allow a neighbour to cross his land in order to allow the neighbour to reach his own land. What distinguishes the right-of-way and similar interests from the myriad types of enforceable agreements not to sue is that the right-of-way…

  • right of publicity (law)

    intellectual-property law: The emergence of intellectual-property law: …such protection is the “right of publicity,” which was invented by courts in the United States to enable celebrities to prevent others from making commercial use of their images and identities. Similarly, the European Union has extended extensive protections to the creators of electronic databases. Computer chips, the shapes…

  • Right Opposition (Soviet history)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov: …attack on Rykov and his right-wing associates, Nikolay Bukharin and Mikhail Tomsky. By 1930 the “Right Opposition,” as Rykov and his colleagues came to be known, had been discredited. Rykov was obliged to recant his views publicly (November 1929) and was also dismissed from his most important posts. In 1936…

  • right resolve (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …the Four Noble Truths, (2) correct intention, avoiding thoughts of attachment, hatred, and harmful intent, (3) correct speech, refraining from verbal misdeeds such as lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, and senseless speech, (4) correct action, refraining from physical misdeeds such as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct, (5) correct livelihood, avoiding…

  • right speech (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …hatred, and harmful intent, (3) correct speech, refraining from verbal misdeeds such as lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, and senseless speech, (4) correct action, refraining from physical misdeeds such as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct, (5) correct livelihood, avoiding trades that directly or indirectly harm others, such as selling slaves,…

  • Right Stuff, The (work by Wolfe)

    Tom Wolfe: The Right Stuff (1979; film 1983), which examines aspects of the first U.S. astronaut program, earned critical praise and was a best seller.

  • Right Stuff, The (film by Kaufman [1983])

    Philip Kaufman: Adaptations: astronaut program, The Right Stuff. As its screenwriter, Kaufman faced the daunting task of compressing Wolfe’s discursive epic into a cohesive narrative. Although not fully successful in that regard, the film is often brilliantly imagined and full of harrowing heroism, comic interludes, and sometimes haunting imagery. Sam…

  • Right Thing, The (poetry by Stead)

    C.K. Stead: …Poems New and Selected (1997), The Right Thing (2000), and The Red Tram (2004). Stead composed the poems in The Black River (2007) after suffering a stroke. The Yellow Buoy: Poems 2007–2012 (2013) deals largely with his European travels.

  • right to assembly (law and legal right)

    First Amendment: Freedoms of speech, of the press, of assembly, and to petition: …speech, of the press, of assembly, and to petition—discussed here together as “freedom of expression”—broadly protect expression from governmental restrictions. Thus, for instance, the government may not outlaw antiwar speech, speech praising violence, racist speech, pro-communist speech, and the like. Nor may the government impose special

  • right to bear arms (law and legal right)

    McDonald v. City of Chicago: Constitution, which guarantees “the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,” applies to state and local governments as well as to the federal government.

  • right to counsel (law)

    legal ethics: Criminal cases: The defense counsel has different concerns. Under Anglo-American law an accused may compel the state to prove that he is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. The defense counsel, therefore, becomes ethically obligated to require the state to produce such proof, whether or not the attorney believes his…

  • right to petition (law)

    First Amendment: Freedoms of speech, of the press, of assembly, and to petition: …press, of assembly, and to petition—discussed here together as “freedom of expression”—broadly protect expression from governmental restrictions. Thus, for instance, the government may not outlaw antiwar speech, speech praising violence, racist speech, pro-communist speech, and the like. Nor may the government impose special taxes on speech on certain

  • right triangle (mathematics)

    East Asian mathematics: Problems involving right triangles: …to solve various problems on right triangles such as the following: “Given the base, and the sum of the height and of the hypotenuse, find the height and the hypotenuse.” Other algorithms are given for determining the diameter of an inscribed circle and the side of an inscribed square.

  • right ventricular heart failure (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Ventricular dysfunction in heart failure: …ventricular heart failure (sometimes called right-sided heart failure) results in right-sided alterations in the pulmonary circulation. These alterations may be associated with severe lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, and poorly understood primary diseases, such as primary pulmonary hypertension. Since the right side of the heart is the…

  • right view (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path: …of the path are: (1) correct view, an accurate understanding of the nature of things, specifically the Four Noble Truths, (2) correct intention, avoiding thoughts of attachment, hatred, and harmful intent, (3) correct speech, refraining from verbal misdeeds such as lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, and senseless speech, (4) correct…

  • right whale (mammal)

    Right whale, (family Balaenidae), any of four species of stout-bodied whales having an enormous head measuring one-quarter to one-third their total body length. From the 17th to 19th century, these whales were hunted for their oil and their strong, elastic baleen. Because of the considerable

  • right wing (ideology)

    Right, portion of the political spectrum associated with conservative political thought. The term derives from the seating arrangement of the French revolutionary parliament (c. 1790s) in which the conservative representatives sat to the presiding officer’s right. In the 19th century the term

  • Right You Are (If You Think So) (play by Pirandello)

    Right You Are—If You Think You Are, play in three acts by Luigi Pirandello, produced in Italian in 1917 as Così è (se vi pare) and published the following year. The title is sometimes translated as Right You Are (If You Think So), among other variations. This work, like almost all of Pirandello’s

  • Right You Are—If You Think You Are (play by Pirandello)

    Right You Are—If You Think You Are, play in three acts by Luigi Pirandello, produced in Italian in 1917 as Così è (se vi pare) and published the following year. The title is sometimes translated as Right You Are (If You Think So), among other variations. This work, like almost all of Pirandello’s

  • Right, Party of (political party, Croatia)

    Croatia: Croatian national revival: …encouraged the development of the Party of Right, led by Ante Star?evi?, which emphasized the idea of Croatian “state rights” and aspired to the creation of an independent Great Croatia. The necessity of relying on the other South Slavs in opposition to the Habsburgs and Hungarians also kept alive the…

  • right, petition of (English law)

    Petition of right, legal petition asserting a right against the English crown, the most notable example being the Petition of Right of 1628, which Parliament sent to Charles I complaining of a series of breaches of law. The term also referred to the procedure (abolished in 1947) by which a subject

  • Right, Petition of (British history [1628])

    Petition of Right, (1628) petition sent by the English Parliament to King Charles I complaining of a series of breaches of law. The petition sought recognition of four principles: no taxation without the consent of Parliament, no imprisonment without cause, no quartering of soldiers on subjects,

  • right-angled triangle (mathematics)

    East Asian mathematics: Problems involving right triangles: …to solve various problems on right triangles such as the following: “Given the base, and the sum of the height and of the hypotenuse, find the height and the hypotenuse.” Other algorithms are given for determining the diameter of an inscribed circle and the side of an inscribed square.

  • right-eyed flounder (fish family)

    pleuronectiform: Annotated classification: Family Pleuronectidae (right-eyed flounders and halibuts) Eyes dextral; anus on blind side, commonly on or near midline; gill membranes connected; dorsal and anal fin rays shortened posteriorly; pelvic fin bases of ocular side short or long, on blind side short, 3–13 pelvic fin rays. 23 genera…

  • right-hand rule (vectors)

    mechanics: Vectors: …B is given by the right-hand rule: if the fingers of the right hand are made to rotate from A through θ to B, the thumb points in the direction of A × B, as shown in Figure 1D. The cross product is zero if the two vectors are parallel,…

  • right-hand rule (electromagnetism)

    electromagnetism: Experimental and theoretical studies of electromagnetic phenomena: …was able to express the right-hand rule for the direction of the force on a current in a magnetic field. He also established experimentally and quantitatively the laws of magnetic force between electric currents. He suggested that internal electric currents are responsible for permanent magnets and for highly magnetizable materials…

  • right-handed quartz (mineral)

    silica mineral: Quartz: …as two types: left-handed or right-handed (enantiomorphism). Left-handed quartz is less than 1 percent more abundant than right-handed quartz. The structural tetrahedrons spiral upward through the crystal in the sense of the handedness parallel to the c axis. Similarly, if polarized light is transmitted by a quartz crystal along the…

  • right-handedness (physiology and psychology)

    laterality: …practice to classify persons as right-handed, left-handed, or ambidextrous (two-handed). People differ considerably in the range of activities for which they prefer a given hand as well as in the degree of disparity in skill between their two hands. Probably no one favours either the right or left hand exclusively.

  • right-heart catheterization (medicine)

    human cardiovascular system: Right-heart catheterization: Right-heart catheterization is performed by insertion of a catheter (a long tube) into the cubital vein (at the bend of the elbow), the saphenous vein (in the inner thigh), or the femoral vein (at the groin). The catheter, which is opaque to X-ray,…

  • right-of-way (traffic management)

    roads and highways: Legal control: …most countries drivers must give right-of-way to vehicles on their right. However, in practice the stop and yield (or give-way) signs have commonly supplanted the right-of-way rule. Speed limits vary greatly with jurisdiction, ranging from walking pace in a Dutch woonerf, or “shared” street, to unrestricted on a German autobahn.…

  • right-of-way (fencing)

    fencing: Fencing conventions: …of rules known as “right-of-way” governs situations in which both fencers register hits. There are differences between the two weapons in the application of these rules, but the broad underlying principles are the same. A fencer on the attack has priority over a defending fencer, and a defending fencer…

  • right-of-way (law)

    property law: Private land-use control: servitudes: The classic case is the right-of-way, whereby an owner agrees to allow a neighbour to cross his land in order to allow the neighbour to reach his own land. What distinguishes the right-of-way and similar interests from the myriad types of enforceable agreements not to sue is that the right-of-way…

  • right-sided heart failure (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Ventricular dysfunction in heart failure: …ventricular heart failure (sometimes called right-sided heart failure) results in right-sided alterations in the pulmonary circulation. These alterations may be associated with severe lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, and poorly understood primary diseases, such as primary pulmonary hypertension. Since the right side of the heart is the…

  • right-to-life movement

    abortion: Opponents of abortion, or of abortion for any reason other than to save the life of the mother, argue that there is no rational basis for distinguishing the fetus from a newborn infant; each is totally dependent and potentially a member of society, and each…

  • right-to-work law

    Right-to-work law, in the United States, any state law forbidding various union-security measures, particularly the union shop, under which workers are required to join a union within a specified time after they begin employment. The Taft–Hartley Act of 1947 outlawed not the union shop but the

  • right-wing movement (politics and society)

    Japan: The weakening of party government: ” A number of rightist organizations existed that were dedicated to the theme of internal purity and external expansion. These sought to preserve what they thought was unique in the Japanese spirit and fought against excessive Western influence. Some originated in the Meiji period, when nationalists had felt obliged…

  • Righteous Brothers, the (American music duo)

    Phil Spector: …the blue-eyed soul of the Righteous Brothers’ epic “You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feelin’,” a huge worldwide hit. Spector threatened to top it with Ike and Tina Turner’s majestic “River Deep—Mountain High” the following year, but some sectors of the music industry, jealous of his success and irritated by his arrogance,…

  • Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America (work by Marty)

    Martin E. Marty: …a National Book Award for Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America (1971), which described how Protestantism shaped early American culture and then, except for brief revivals, waned after the Civil War. His masterwork was Modern American Religion (1986–96), a three-volume study of the development of American religious life from…

  • Righteous Gemstones, The (American television series)

    John Goodman: Other TV work, including The Conners: …time he also starred in The Righteous Gemstones (2019– ), a comedy series about a family of televangelists.

  • Righteous Kill (film by Avnet [2008])

    Robert De Niro: Comedies and later work: …Pacino in the police drama Righteous Kill, and the following year he starred in Everybody’s Fine, portraying a widower who discovers various truths about his adult children. He later took supporting roles in the thrillers Machete (2010) and Limitless (2011), the action drama Killer Elite (2011), and the ensemble romantic…

  • righting response (zoology)

    echinoderm: Righting response: Among echinoderms a normal position may be with the mouth either facing a surface, as in asteroids, ophiuroids, concentricycloids, and echinoids, or facing away from it, as in crinoids and holothurians. When overturned, echinoderms exhibit a righting response. Starfishes show this response most…

  • rights (political philosophy)

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: At Berlin: …is concerned with law and rights as such: persons (i.e., people as people, quite independently of their individual characters) are the subject of rights, and what is required of them is mere obedience, no matter what the motives of obedience may be. Right is thus an abstract universal and therefore…

  • Rights and Freedoms, Charter of (Canadian law)

    Canada Act: …of the document was the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This set down 34 rights to be observed across Canada, ranging from freedom of religion to linguistic and educational rights based on the test of numbers. Many of the rights could be overridden by a “notwithstanding clause,” which allowed both…

  • Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Declaration on the (United Nations)

    Native American: International developments: …Human Rights received the draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The commission assigned a working group to review the declaration, and in 2006 the group submitted a final document to the Human Rights Council. Despite efforts by many members of the UN General Assembly to block a vote…

  • Rights of Man (work by Paine)

    United Kingdom: Britain during the French Revolution: …argued that Thomas Paine’s best-seller, The Rights of Man (1791–92), fostered mass enthusiasm for democratic reform and mass alienation from Britain’s ruling class. Paine attacked the monarchy, aristocracy, and all forms of privilege, and he demanded not only manhood suffrage and peace but also public education, old-age pensions, maternity benefits,…

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