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  • Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Declaration of the (France [1789])

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, one of the basic charters of human liberties, containing the principles that inspired the French Revolution. Its 17 articles, adopted between August 20 and August 26, 1789, by France’s National Assembly, served as the preamble to the Constitution

  • Rights of the Child, Convention on the (international agreement)

    capital punishment: Capital punishment in the early 21st century: …which are prohibited by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, have occurred in the United States, which has not ratified the convention and which ratified the covenant with reservations regarding the death penalty. Beginning in the late 1990s, there…

  • Rights of White People (white supremacist organization)

    Wilmington Ten: …a white supremacist group, The Rights of White People (ROWP), a Ku Klux Klan affiliate, arrived. Heavily armed, the ROWP held Klan-like meetings in a public park, ratcheting up tension. African American protesters marched repeatedly to City Hall, requesting a citywide curfew to stop the gunfire that night riders aimed…

  • rights recovery program (Chinese history)

    China: Constitutional movements after 1905: …first in Hunan, the so-called rights recovery movement spread rapidly and gained noticeable success, reinforced by local officials, students returned from Japan, and the Beijing government. But finally the recovery of the railroad rights ended in a clash between the court and the provincial interests.

  • rights, arbitration of

    arbitration: Arbitration of rights: Arbitration of rights under the terms of a collective-bargaining agreement is employed in the United States far more frequently than in most other countries. Outside the United States, labour courts, industrial courts, or conciliation and arbitration commissions perform the function of arbitrating…

  • Rights, Bill of (British history)

    Bill of Rights, one of the basic instruments of the British constitution, the result of the long 17th-century struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament. It incorporated the provisions of the Declaration of Rights, acceptance of which had been the condition upon which

  • Rights, Bill of (United States Constitution)

    Bill of Rights, in the United States, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which were adopted as a single unit on December 15, 1791, and which constitute a collection of mutually reinforcing guarantees of individual rights and of limitations on federal and state governments. Click here

  • rights, civil (society)

    Civil rights, guarantees of equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law, regardless of race, religion, or other personal characteristics. Examples of civil rights include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to government services, the right to a public

  • Rights, Declaration of (Great Britain [1689])

    Glorious Revolution: …the crown, with an accompanying Declaration of Rights, to William and Mary jointly. Both gift and conditions were accepted. Thereupon, the convention turned itself into a proper Parliament and large parts of the Declaration into a Bill of Rights. This bill gave the succession to Mary’s sister, Anne, in default…

  • Rights, Freedoms, and Privileges of the Noble Russian Gentry, Charter for the (Russian history)

    Charter to the Gentry, (1785) edict issued by the Russian empress Catherine II the Great that recognized the corps of nobles in each province as a legal corporate body and stated the rights and privileges bestowed upon its members. The charter accorded to the gentry of each province and county in

  • rights, human

    Human rights, rights that belong to an individual or group of individuals simply for being human, or as a consequence of inherent human vulnerability, or because they are requisite to the possibility of a just society. Whatever their theoretical justification, human rights refer to a wide continuum

  • rigid airship (aircraft)

    airship: nonrigids (blimps), semirigids, and rigids. All three types have four principal parts: a cigar-shaped bag, or balloon, that is filled with a lighter-than-air gas; a car or gondola that is slung beneath the balloon and holds the crew and passengers; engines that drive propellers; and horizontal and vertical rudders…

  • rigid body (physics)

    mechanics: Rigid bodies: Statics is the study of bodies and structures that are in equilibrium. For a body to be in equilibrium, there must be no net force acting on it. In addition, there must be no net torque acting on it. Figure 17A shows…

  • rigid coaxial cable (electronics)

    telecommunications media: Applications of wire: …more efficient wire medium is rigid coaxial cable. The first such transatlantic telephone cable (TAT-1) was laid by a consortium that included the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T), beginning June 28, 1955, from Clarenville, on the island of Newfoundland in Canada, and reaching Oban, Scotland, on September 25, 1956.…

  • rigid fan (clothing accessory)

    fan: The rigid fan has a handle or stick with a rigid leaf, or mount. The folding fan is composed of sticks (the outer two called guards) held together at the handle end by a rivet or pin. On the sticks is mounted a leaf that is…

  • rigid frame (construction)

    construction: Steel long-span construction: The welded rigid frame became a new structural type for medium spans, reaching a length of 23 metres (77 feet) in the Cincinnati Union Terminal (1932), but widespread use of welding did not come until after 1945.

  • rigid pavement

    roads and highways: Pavement: …are called either flexible or rigid, according to their relative flexural stiffness. Flexible pavements (see figure, left) have base courses of broken stone pieces either compacted into place in the style of McAdam or glued together with bitumen to form asphalt. In order to maintain workability, the stones are usually…

  • rigidity (physics)

    mechanics: Rigid bodies: Statics is the study of bodies and structures that are in equilibrium. For a body to be in equilibrium, there must be no net force acting on it. In addition, there must be no net torque acting on it. Figure 17A shows…

  • rigidity modulus (physics)

    Shear modulus, numerical constant that describes the elastic properties of a solid under the application of transverse internal forces such as arise, for example, in torsion, as in twisting a metal pipe about its lengthwise axis. Within such a material any small cubic volume is slightly distorted

  • Rigil Kentaurus (star)

    Alpha Centauri, triple star, the faintest component of which, Proxima Centauri, is the closest star to the Sun, about 4.2 light-years distant. The two brighter components, called A and B, about 0.2 light-year farther from the Sun, revolve around each other with a period of about 80 years, while

  • Rigna, Saint (Celtic missionary)

    St. Ninian, ; feast day September 16), bishop generally credited as the first Christian missionary to Scotland, responsible for widespread conversions among the Celts and possibly the Southern Picts. The two primary historical sources about Ninian’s life and work are of dubious reliability.

  • Rigoletto (opera by Verdi)

    Rigoletto, opera in three acts by Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave) that premiered at La Fenice opera house in Venice on March 11, 1851. Based closely on the controversial 1832 play Le Roi s’amuse (The King Amuses Himself; also performed in English as The

  • rigor mortis (biology)

    meat processing: Protein changes: …is commonly referred to as rigor mortis. The time an animal requires to enter rigor mortis is highly dependent on the species (for instance, cattle and sheep take longer than hogs), the chilling rate of the carcass from normal body temperature (the process is slower at lower temperatures), and the…

  • rigor, resolution of (biochemistry)

    meat processing: Protein changes: This phenomenon is known as resolution of rigor and can continue for weeks after slaughter in a process referred to as aging of meat. This aging effect produces meats that are more tender and palatable.

  • Rigord (French historian)

    Rigord, chronicler, who is best known for a biography of King Philip II Augustus of France. Initially a physician, Rigord left the medical profession in 1189 and joined the monastic order at the abbey of Saint-Denis, in the north of France. Impressed with King Philip’s territorial conquests, Rigord

  • rigour (mathematics)

    foundations of mathematics: The quest for rigour: While laying rigorous foundations for mathematics, 19th-century mathematicians discovered that the language of mathematics could be reduced to that of set theory (developed by Cantor), dealing with membership (?) and equality (=), together

  • Rigr (Norse mythology)

    Heimdall, in Norse mythology, the watchman of the gods. Called the shining god and whitest skinned of the gods, Heimdall dwelt at the entry to Asgard, where he guarded Bifrost, the rainbow bridge. He required less sleep than a bird, could see 100 leagues, and could hear grass growing in the meadows

  • rigsar (music genre)

    Bhutan: The arts: One new genre, called rigsar, blends Bhutanese, Indian, and Western elements within an international popular music idiom.

  • Rigsr?d (Danish council)

    Denmark: Reunion under Valdemar IV: …hof was replaced by the Rigsr?d (Council of the Realm)—a national council of the archbishop, the bishops, and the lensm?nd (vassals) from the main castles—and the king’s Retterting (Court of Law) became the supreme court. Valdemar also attacked major economic problems: after the Black Death pandemic in 1350, he confiscated…

  • Rigveda (Hindu literature)

    Rigveda, (Sanskrit: “The Knowledge of Verses”) the oldest of the sacred books of Hinduism, composed in an ancient form of Sanskrit about 1500 bce, in what is now the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It consists of a collection of 1,028 poems grouped into 10 “circles” (mandalas). It is generally

  • Rihand River (river, India)

    Mirzapur-Vindhyachal: …Son River; its tributary, the Rihand River, has been dammed to create a large reservoir and provide hydroelectric power. Most of the land is irrigated by canals, and rice, barley, and wheat are grown. Pop. (2001) 205,053; (2011) 234,871.

  • Rihani Essays, The (book by Rihani)

    Ameen Rihani: There he completed Al-Rī?āniyyāt (1910; The Rihani Essays), an Arabic-language essay collection that was well received in the Arab intellectual community, and The Book of Khalid (1911), an English-language novel, considered to be the first by an Arab. The Book of Khalid concerns the immigration of two Lebanese boys to…

  • Rihani, Ameen (Arab American author and political figure)

    Ameen Rihani, Arab American novelist, poet, essayist, and political figure whose written works examined the differences and intersections between the categories of “East” and “West.” Rihani was born in a town northeast of Beirut during the period of Ottoman control. He immigrated with his uncle to

  • Rihani, Ameen Fares (Arab American author and political figure)

    Ameen Rihani, Arab American novelist, poet, essayist, and political figure whose written works examined the differences and intersections between the categories of “East” and “West.” Rihani was born in a town northeast of Beirut during the period of Ottoman control. He immigrated with his uncle to

  • Rihani, Amin al- (Arab American author and political figure)

    Ameen Rihani, Arab American novelist, poet, essayist, and political figure whose written works examined the differences and intersections between the categories of “East” and “West.” Rihani was born in a town northeast of Beirut during the period of Ottoman control. He immigrated with his uncle to

  • Rī?ānī, Najīb ar- (Egyptian actor)

    Islamic arts: Arab countries: …the company of Najīb al-Rī?ānī, oscillating between outright farce and comedy, skillfully depicted contemporary Egyptian manners; in particular, Najīb al-Rī?ānī created a character called Kish-Kish Bey, whose misadventures and unsolicited advice on every subject made him a classic creation. A conventional theatre sprang up in Egypt too, catering to…

  • Rī?āniyyāt, Al- (book by Rihani)

    Ameen Rihani: There he completed Al-Rī?āniyyāt (1910; The Rihani Essays), an Arabic-language essay collection that was well received in the Arab intellectual community, and The Book of Khalid (1911), an English-language novel, considered to be the first by an Arab. The Book of Khalid concerns the immigration of two Lebanese boys to…

  • Rihanna (Barbadian singer)

    Rihanna, Barbadian pop and rhythm-and-blues (R&B) singer who became a worldwide star in the early 21st century, known for her distinctive and versatile voice and for her fashionable appearance. She was also known for her beauty and fashion lines. Fenty grew up in Barbados with a Barbadian father

  • Ri?lah (work by Ibn Jubayr)

    Ibn Jubayr: Broadhurst, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, 1952; French trans. by Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Voyages, 1949–56).

  • Ri?lah (work by Ibn Battuta)

    Travels, classic travel account by Ibn Ba??ū?ah of his journeys through virtually all Muslim countries and many adjacent lands. The full title means “The Gift of the Beholders on the Peculiarities of the Regions and the Marvels of Journeys.” The narrative was dictated in 1353 to Ibn Juzayy, who

  • Riigikogu (Estonian legislative body)

    Estonia: Constitutional framework: …established a unicameral legislature, the Riigikogu (parliament), whose members are directly elected through proportional representation to four-year terms. The president, who serves as the head of state and supreme commander of the armed forces, is elected to not more than two consecutive five-year terms by the Riigikogu. Executive power rests…

  • Riis, Bjarne (Danish cyclist)

    Tour de France: That year also saw Bjarne Riis of Denmark, the 1996 victor, dropped from the Tour’s list of winners after he admitted using EPO during his race; however, due to time limits for sanctions, his title could not be officially revoked. The most infamous Tour doping scandal came in 2012…

  • Riis, Jacob (American journalist)

    Jacob Riis, American newspaper reporter, social reformer, and photographer who, with his book How the Other Half Lives (1890), shocked the conscience of his readers with factual descriptions of slum conditions in New York City. Riis immigrated to the United States at the age of 21 and held various

  • Riis, Jacob August (American journalist)

    Jacob Riis, American newspaper reporter, social reformer, and photographer who, with his book How the Other Half Lives (1890), shocked the conscience of his readers with factual descriptions of slum conditions in New York City. Riis immigrated to the United States at the age of 21 and held various

  • Rijeka (Croatia)

    Rijeka, city, major port and industrial, commercial, and cultural centre of western Croatia. It is located on the Kvarner (a gulf of the Adriatic Sea) and is the country’s major port. The city is situated on a narrow flatland between the Julian Alps and the Adriatic, spreading up the slopes and

  • Rijeka Resolution (Croatian history)

    Frano Supilo: …1905 he drew up the Rijeka Resolution designed to create a Croat-Serb coalition, which he hoped would bring about an alliance with anti-Habsburg Hungarians. In an effort to discredit the coalition, Austro-Hungarian authorities provided the publicist Heinrich Friedjung with documents alleging that Supilo and his associates were working on behalf…

  • Rijijiuzhong (work by Yu Dafu)

    Yu Dafu: …works the most popular was Rijijiuzhong (1927; “Nine Diaries”), an account of his affair with the young left-wing writer Wang Yingxia; the book broke all previous sales records in China. The critics’ favourite is probably Guoqu (1927; “The Past”), praised for its psychological depth. Yu also wrote essays and classical…

  • Rijkaard, Frank (Dutch football player and manager)

    Ajax: …on to greater heights were Frank Rijkaard, Dennis Bergkamp, and Marc Overmars in the 1990s and, later, Ryan Babel, Wesley Sneijder, and Rafael van der Vaart.

  • Rijkel, Denys van (Flemish theologian)

    Dionysius the Carthusian, theologian and mystic, one of the important contributors to, and propagators of, the influential school of Rhenish spirituality originating in the 14th century. Educated at the University of Cologne, Dionysius entered the Carthusian order at the charterhouse of Roermond in

  • Rijks-Vlaanderen (historical region, Europe)

    Baldwin IV: … (Kroon-Vlaanderen), the German fiefs as Imperial Flanders (Rijks-Vlaanderen). Baldwin’s son—afterward Baldwin V—rebelled in 1028 against his father at the instigation of his wife, Adela, daughter of Robert II of France; two years later peace was sworn at Oudenaarde, and the old count continued to reign until his death.

  • Rijksmuseum (museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Rijksmuseum, (Dutch: “State Museum”) national art collection of the Netherlands in Amsterdam. The galleries originated with a royal museum erected in 1808 by Napoleon I’s brother Louis Bonaparte, then king of Holland, and the first collection consisted of paintings that had not been sent to France

  • Rijksmuseum Kr?ller-Müller (museum, Otterlo, Netherlands)

    Kr?ller-Müller State Museum, collection in Otterlo, Netherlands, primarily of late 19th- and 20th-century art, especially paintings by Vincent van Gogh. The museum is named after shipping heiress Helene Kr?ller-Müller (1869–1939), whose personal collection constitutes a large portion of the

  • Rijksmuseum voor de Geschiedenis van der Natuurwetenschappen en van de Geneeskunde (museum, Leiden, Netherlands)

    Boerhaave Museum, in Leiden, Neth., museum of the history of natural sciences and one of the foremost European museums of its type. It has a fine collection of old scientific instruments. There is a collection of microscopes belonging formerly to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) and t

  • Rijksmuseum, Het (work by Potgieter)

    Everhardus Johannes Potgieter: …mental inertia; and in Het Rijksmuseum (1844), a homage to 17th-century Holland and to the prose style of Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, which it imitates.

  • Rijksprentenkabinet (art collection, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Rijksmuseum: …with the museum is the Rijksprentenkabinet, which has one of Europe’s finest collections of prints and drawings as well as illuminated manuscripts.

  • Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden (university, Leiden, Netherlands)

    State University of Leiden, university in Leiden, Neth., founded in 1575 by William of Orange. It was originally modelled on the Academy of Geneva, an important centre of Calvinistic teaching. By the early 17th century Leiden had an international reputation as a centre of theology, science, and

  • Rijmbijbel (Bible version by Maerlant)

    biblical literature: Dutch versions: …the rhymed versions is the Rijmbijbel of Jacob van Maerlant (1271), based on Peter Comestar’s Historia scholastica. Despite the poor quality of Johan Schutken’s translation of the New Testament and Psalms (1384), it became the most widely used of medieval Dutch versions.

  • Rijn River (river, Europe)

    Rhine River, river and waterway of western Europe, culturally and historically one of the great rivers of the continent and among the most important arteries of industrial transport in the world. It flows from two small headways in the Alps of east-central Switzerland north and west to the North

  • Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon van (Dutch artist)

    Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker, one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art, possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an

  • Rijn, Saskja van (Dutch heiress)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: The myth of Rembrandt’s fall: The death of Rembrandt’s wife, Saskia, and the presumed rejection of the Night Watch by those who commissioned it were long supposed to be the most important events leading to the presumed change in Rembrandt’s life after 1642. But modern art-historical research has questioned the myth of a crisis in…

  • Rijndael (computer program)

    AES: …October 2000 NIST announced that Rijndael, a program created by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, had been accepted as the new standard, or the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The NIST predecessor, the National Bureau of Standards, had expected the DES to be implemented in special-purpose hardware and…

  • Rijsbrack, Jan Michiel (English sculptor)

    John Michael Rysbrack, one of the principal sculptors and designers in England in the 18th century. Rysbrack studied at Antwerp, probably in the workshop of Michael van de Voort. In 1720 he established himself in London, where he lived until his death. Rysbrack worked in a classical, sometimes

  • rijsttafel (food)

    Rijsttafel, (Dutch: “rice table”) an elaborate meal of Indonesian dishes developed during the Dutch colonial era. The Dutch were likely inspired by a similar Indonesian multiple-dish meal known as nasi padang. While it remains popular in the Netherlands, many native Indonesians eschew rijsttafel

  • Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, gemeente (municipality), western Netherlands, on the southeastern outskirts of The Hague (’s-Gravenhage). The Reformed church dates from the 14th century, and there are some 17th-century houses. Although primarily residential, the town has oil wells, laboratories, and an important

  • Rijswijk, Treaty of (Europe [1697])

    King William's War: …protracted war ended with the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697). Because of the importance of Indian participation, it is also known as the first of the four French and Indian Wars.

  • Rikaze (China)

    Xigazê, city, south-central Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. Situated on a well-defended height (elevation 12,800 feet [3,900 metres]) overlooking the confluence of two rivers in one of the most fertile valley areas of Tibet, it is the traditional centre of the area known as Tsang or

  • Riker, William (American political scientist)

    William Riker, American political scientist who popularized the use of mathematical models, and in particular game theory, in the study of political behaviour. After moving with his family to Indiana in 1932, Riker graduated from Shortridge High School in Indianapolis in 1938 and attended DePauw

  • Riker, William Harrison (American political scientist)

    William Riker, American political scientist who popularized the use of mathematical models, and in particular game theory, in the study of political behaviour. After moving with his family to Indiana in 1932, Riker graduated from Shortridge High School in Indianapolis in 1938 and attended DePauw

  • Rikers Island (island, New York, United States)

    Rikers Island, island in the East River near the entrance of Bowery Bay, north of La Guardia Airport, New York, N.Y., U.S. Politically part of the borough of the Bronx (north), Rikers Island is joined to the borough of Queens by a bridge (inaccessible to the public). The island was owned from 1664

  • Rikham (European grammarian)

    Joseph Kimhi, European grammarian, biblical exegete, and poet who, with his sons, Moses and David, made fundamental contributions to establishing Hebrew-language studies. Through his many translations into Hebrew of works written in Arabic by Spanish Jews, Kimhi came to play a principal part in

  • Rikhter, Svyatoslav Teofilovich (Russian musician)

    Sviatoslav Richter, Soviet pianist whose technical virtuosity combined with subtle introspection, made him one of the preeminent pianists of the 20th century. Though his repertoire was enormous, he was especially praised for his interpretations of J.S. Bach, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Sergey

  • rikka (floral arrangement)

    Rikka, (Japanese: “standing flowers”), in classical Japanese floral art, a highly conventionalized and formal style of flower arranging. It is difficult to say when rikka became a distinct, recognized form, because it evolved over several centuries. The first rules for rikka arrangements may be

  • Rikken Dōshi-kai (political party, Japan)

    Kōshaku Katsura Tarō: His Rikken Dōshikai was at first unsuccessful but eventually became one of the two major political groups in pre-World War II Japan. Katsura’s third premiership lasted only seven weeks (December 1912–February 1913) and ended amidst riots against his oligarchic methods and his program for greater armaments.…

  • Rikken Dōshikai (political party, Japan)

    Kōshaku Katsura Tarō: His Rikken Dōshikai was at first unsuccessful but eventually became one of the two major political groups in pre-World War II Japan. Katsura’s third premiership lasted only seven weeks (December 1912–February 1913) and ended amidst riots against his oligarchic methods and his program for greater armaments.…

  • Rikken Kaishintō (political party, Japan)

    Kaishintō, a leading Japanese political party from its founding in 1882 by the democratic leader ōkuma Shigenobu until its merger with several smaller parties in 1896. It generally represented the urban elite of intellectuals, industrialists, and merchants. Its platform, like that of its main

  • Rikken Kokumintō (political party, Japan)

    Inukai Tsuyoshi: …a new political party, the Constitutional National Party (Rikken Kokumintō). In 1913 he headed a popular movement against the autocratic and unpopular government of the former army general Katsura Tarō. As a result of Inukai’s efforts, Katsura was forced to resign, opening the way for the gradual development of a…

  • Rikken Seiyūkai (political party, Japan)

    Rikken Seiyūkai, the dominant Japanese political party from its inception in 1900 until 1940, when all parties were absorbed into the government-controlled Taisei Yokusankai (“Imperial Rule Assistance Association”). The Rikken Seiyūkai was founded by one of the leading government bureaucrats, Itō

  • Rikki-Tikki-Tavi (story by Kipling)

    The Jungle Book: …python; Bagheera the panther; and Rikki-tikki-tavi the mongoose.

  • Riksdag (Swedish states general [1435-1865])

    Riksdag, (Swedish: “Day of the Realm”), the Swedish states general from 1435 to 1865, unique in Europe because it included the peasantry as the fourth state. The Riksdag had the power to elect kings, to tax, and to declare war. Adroit kings were able to play off the states against each other, but

  • Riksdag (Swedish parliament)

    Adolf Frederick: …king’s reign rested in the Riksdag (parliament). Twice he tried to free himself of its control. In his first attempt (1756)—aided by his influential wife, Queen Louisa Ulrika, who was sister to Frederick II of Prussia—he nearly lost his throne, but in his second (1768–69)—with the assistance of his son,…

  • Riksm?l (Norwegian language)

    Bokm?l, a literary form of Norwegian developed by the gradual reform of written Danish in conformity to Norwegian usage. Bokm?l means in Norwegian “book language” and Riksm?l approximately “official language” (meaning literally, “language of the

  • Riksteatret (theatre, Norway)

    Norway: Cultural institutions: …the state traveling theatre, the Riksteatret, organizes tours throughout the country, giving as many as 1,200 performances annually. The Norwegian Opera, opened in 1959, receives state subsidies (as do most other theatres).

  • Rikuchū Coast National Park (national park, Japan)

    Iwate: …serves as the gateway to Rikuchū Coast National Park, which includes some rugged, scenic shoreline. The western fringe of the prefecture is part of Towada-Hachimantai National Park.

  • RIL (Indian company)

    Dhirubhai Ambani: …1950s, calling his nascent venture Reliance Commercial Corporation. He soon expanded into other commodities, following a strategy of offering higher-quality products and accepting smaller profits than his competitors. His business grew quickly. After deciding that the corporation had gone as far as it could with commodities, Ambani turned his attention…

  • ril (Danish dance)

    reel: …and Wales and, as the ril, in Denmark. Popular reels include the Irish Sixteenhand Reel and the Scottish reels Mairi’s Wedding and the Duke of Perth.

  • Rila (mountains, Bulgaria)

    Rila, highest mountain range in Bulgaria and in the Balkan Peninsula, and one of the highest ranges in Europe. A northwestern section of the Rhodope Mountains, it has an area of 1,015 square miles (2,629 square km) and extends for about 50 miles (80 km) between the Thracian Plain at central

  • Rila Monastery (monastery, Bulgaria)

    Rila Monastery, historic monastery and cultural site in the Rhodope Mountains of southwestern Bulgaria. It is situated in a valley of the Rila massif, some 70 miles (110 km) south of Sofia. Rila is a symbol of Bulgarian national identity, and it is the most prominent monastery of the Bulgarian

  • Rila Mountains (mountains, Bulgaria)

    Rila, highest mountain range in Bulgaria and in the Balkan Peninsula, and one of the highest ranges in Europe. A northwestern section of the Rhodope Mountains, it has an area of 1,015 square miles (2,629 square km) and extends for about 50 miles (80 km) between the Thracian Plain at central

  • Rila Planina (mountains, Bulgaria)

    Rila, highest mountain range in Bulgaria and in the Balkan Peninsula, and one of the highest ranges in Europe. A northwestern section of the Rhodope Mountains, it has an area of 1,015 square miles (2,629 square km) and extends for about 50 miles (80 km) between the Thracian Plain at central

  • Rila, John of (Bulgarian saint)

    Rila Monastery: …was founded by the hermit John of Rila (Yoan of Rila, in Bulgarian Ivan Rilski), who is the traditional patron saint of Bulgaria. Rila grew rapidly in power and influence from the 13th to the 14th century. After a devastating fire, it was rebuilt and fortified (c. 1334–35) in its…

  • Rila, Neophyte of (Bulgarian monk)

    Bulgaria: Spread of education: With the monk Neofit Rilski (Neophyte of Rila) as its teacher, it was the first school to teach in Bulgarian. Its work was facilitated by the appearance of a Bulgarian publishing industry and a small but influential periodical press. By the 1870s the guilds, town and village councils,…

  • Riley, Bridget (British artist)

    Bridget Riley, English artist whose vibrant optical pattern paintings were central to the Op art movement of the 1960s. Riley spent her childhood in Cornwall and attended Goldsmiths College (1949–52; now part of the University of London) and the Royal College of Art (1952–55; B.A.). Until 1960 she

  • Riley, Bridget Louise (British artist)

    Bridget Riley, English artist whose vibrant optical pattern paintings were central to the Op art movement of the 1960s. Riley spent her childhood in Cornwall and attended Goldsmiths College (1949–52; now part of the University of London) and the Royal College of Art (1952–55; B.A.). Until 1960 she

  • Riley, Charles Valentine (American entomologist)

    Charles Valentine Riley, British-born American entomologist who contributed much to the advancement of the systematic study of insects of economic significance in the United States and helped to establish the Division of Entomology (later called Entomology Research Division) of the U.S. Department

  • Riley, Fort (fort, Kansas, United States)

    Kansas: Military installations: Fort Riley, near Junction City, was established in 1853 and was also a military outpost. In the 20th century, it became an important infantry-training centre, the home of the famous 1st Infantry Division (“the Big Red One”). McConnell Air Force Base at Wichita is a…

  • Riley, James Whitcomb (American author)

    James Whitcomb Riley, poet remembered for nostalgic dialect verse and often called “the poet of the common people.” Riley’s boyhood experience as an itinerant sign painter, entertainer, and assistant to patent-medicine vendors gave him the opportunity to compose songs and dramatic skits, to gain

  • Riley, Mickey (American athlete)

    Michael Riley Galitzen, American diver who won four Olympic medals. Galitzen captured a springboard silver and a platform bronze at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam. At the 1932 Games in Los Angeles, he won a gold in the springboard and a silver in the platform event. Galitzen also earned numerous

  • Riley, Pat (American basketball player, coach, and executive)

    Pat Riley, American basketball player, coach, and executive who was one of the most successful National Basketball Association (NBA) coaches of all time. Riley filed for a trademark on the term three-peat when he was head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers in 1988, even though the team had only two

  • Riley, Patrick James (American basketball player, coach, and executive)

    Pat Riley, American basketball player, coach, and executive who was one of the most successful National Basketball Association (NBA) coaches of all time. Riley filed for a trademark on the term three-peat when he was head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers in 1988, even though the team had only two

  • Riley, Teddy (American musician and producer [b. 1967])

    Pharrell Williams: A scout for music producer Teddy Riley, who had recently opened a recording studio near the high school that Williams attended, heard the Neptunes perform at a school talent show and brought them to Riley’s attention. In 1992 Williams wrote a verse for hip-hop group Wreckx-n-Effect’s most-popular single, “Rump Shaker,”…

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