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  • Riley, Terry (American composer)

    harmony: Avant-garde conceptions of harmony: Such a work as Terry Riley’s In C, for example, consists basically of a sustained triad on C (lasting, at the performer’s option, anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours), over which fleeting dissonances are occasionally sounded, seldom more revolutionary than an F sharp or B flat. Here again,…

  • Riley-Day syndrome (pathology)

    Riley-Day syndrome, an inherited disorder occurring almost exclusively in Ashkenazic Jews that is caused by abnormal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Riley-Day syndrome is characterized by emotional instability, decreased tear production, low blood pressure upon standing up (postural

  • rilievo stiacciato (sculpture)

    Desiderio da Settignano: …masterfully employed the technique of rilievo stiacciato (low, or flattened, relief) in a style related to that of Donatello. The delicacy of contrast in his carvings gives his surfaces a glowing, ethereal quality, as seen in his Angel from the Altar of the Sacrament (1458–61) and many of his busts…

  • Rilindja (literary movement)

    Albanian literature: …of this period, known as Rilindja (“Renaissance”), and writers of the time came to be known collectively as Rilindas.

  • Rilke, Rainer Maria (Austrian-German poet)

    Rainer Maria Rilke, Austro-German poet who became internationally famous with such works as Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus. Rilke was the only son of a not-too-happy marriage. His father, Josef, a civil servant, was a man frustrated in his career; his mother, the daughter of an

  • Rilke, René Maria (Austrian-German poet)

    Rainer Maria Rilke, Austro-German poet who became internationally famous with such works as Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus. Rilke was the only son of a not-too-happy marriage. His father, Josef, a civil servant, was a man frustrated in his career; his mother, the daughter of an

  • rill (lunar feature)

    Rille, any of various valleys or trenches on the surface of the Moon. The term was introduced by early telescopic observers—probably by the German astronomer Johann Schr?ter about 1800—to denote such lunar features. The word rima (from Latin, “fissure”) is often used for the same kind of features.

  • rill mining

    mining: Cut-and-fill mining: …mining and sublevel stoping called rill mining. In this method drifts are driven in the ore separated by a slice of ore two or three normal slices high. As in sublevel stoping, vertical slices are removed by longhole drilling and blasting, but, as the slices are extracted, filling is carried…

  • Rilla, Wolf (film director)

    Village of the Damned: Production notes and credits:

  • rille (lunar feature)

    Rille, any of various valleys or trenches on the surface of the Moon. The term was introduced by early telescopic observers—probably by the German astronomer Johann Schr?ter about 1800—to denote such lunar features. The word rima (from Latin, “fissure”) is often used for the same kind of features.

  • Rilski, Ivan (Bulgarian saint)

    Rila Monastery: …was founded by the hermit John of Rila (Yoan of Rila, in Bulgarian Ivan Rilski), who is the traditional patron saint of Bulgaria. Rila grew rapidly in power and influence from the 13th to the 14th century. After a devastating fire, it was rebuilt and fortified (c. 1334–35) in its…

  • Rilski, Neofit (Bulgarian monk)

    Bulgaria: Spread of education: With the monk Neofit Rilski (Neophyte of Rila) as its teacher, it was the first school to teach in Bulgarian. Its work was facilitated by the appearance of a Bulgarian publishing industry and a small but influential periodical press. By the 1870s the guilds, town and village councils,…

  • riluzole (drug)

    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Diagnosis and treatment: …treatment with a drug called riluzole. Riluzole is the only drug treatment available specifically for ALS and has been shown to increase survival by about two to three months. A surgical treatment available to patients with advanced disease is tracheostomy, in which an opening is created in the trachea in…

  • RIM (materials processing)

    major industrial polymers: Polyurethane elastomers: This technology, known as reaction injection molding, accounts for much of the production of thermosetting elastomers made from polyurethane. Polyurethane elastomers are made into automobile parts, industrial rollers, flexible molds, forklift tires, roller-skate and skateboard wheels, medical equipment, and shoe soles.

  • rim (technology)

    bicycle: Wheels: Bicycle wheels have a rim to retain the tire, a ball-bearing hub, and spokes between hub and rim. Spokes are made of steel wire, laced tangentially and kept under tension by threaded nipples in the rims that are adjusted to keep the rim straight (true). Hub axles are held…

  • RIM (biology)

    evolution: Reproductive isolation: …that prevent interbreeding are called reproductive isolating mechanisms (RIMs). Oaks on different islands, minnows in different rivers, or squirrels in different mountain ranges cannot interbreed because they are physically separated, not necessarily because they are biologically incompatible. Geographic separation, therefore, is not a RIM.

  • RIM (Canadian company)

    BlackBerry: …manufactured by the Canadian company Research in Motion (RIM).

  • rim syncline (geology)

    salt dome: Physical characteristics of salt domes.: …a circular depression called a rim syncline may encircle or nearly encircle the domal uplift. Unaffected strata develop into highs surrounded by low areas. These highs, called remnant highs or turtleback highs, do not have as much vertical relief as the salt domes among which they are interspersed. Present-day structure…

  • Rim-Sin (king of Larsa)

    Larsa: Under Warad-Sin’s son Rim-Sin (1822–1763), the arts, especially the old Sumerian scribal schools, received great encouragement. The days of Larsa were numbered, however, for Hammurabi of Babylon, who had long been determined to destroy his most dangerous enemy, defeated Rim-Sin in 1763 bc and substituted his own authority…

  • rim-type flywheel (machine component)

    flywheel: A rim-type flywheel will burst at a much lower rotary speed than a disk-type wheel of the same weight and diameter. For minimum weight and high energy-storing capacity, a flywheel may be made of high-strength steel and designed as a tapered disk, thick at the centre…

  • ríma (Icelandic poetry)

    Ríma, (Icelandic: “rhyme,”) versified sagas, or episodes from the sagas, a form of adaptation that was popular in Iceland from the 15th century. One of three genres of popular early Icelandic poetry (the other two being dances and ballads), rímur were produced from the 14th to the 19th century.

  • rima glottidis (anatomy)

    Glottis, either the space between the vocal fold and arytenoid cartilage of one side of the larynx and those of the other side, or the structures that surround that space. See

  • Rima Hyginus (lunar rille)

    Moon: Effects of impacts and volcanism: …and some of these—such as Rima Hyginus and the rilles around the floor of the large old crater Alphonsus—are peppered with rimless eruption craters. Though the Moon shows both tension and compression features (low wrinkle ridges, usually near mare margins, may result from compression), it gives no evidence of having…

  • Rímac (district, Peru)

    Rímac, distrito (district) of the Lima–Callao metropolitan area, north of central Lima, Peru. Created a district in 1921, the site was settled in early colonial days. The Puente de Piedras (“Bridge of Stone”) was built in 1610. Notable colonial landmarks include the promenade and Monastery of the

  • Rímac River (river, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: …west slope of which the Rímac River rises in a cluster of lakes fed by glaciers and descends rapidly to the ocean (15,700 feet in 60 miles). Ticlio Pass, at an altitude of some 15,800 feet, is used by a railway. Many small lakes and ponds are found on the…

  • Rimado de palacio (work by López de Ayala)

    Pedro López de Ayala: …is chiefly remembered for his Rimado de palacio (c. 1400), one of the last works in cuaderna vía (Spanish narrative verse form consisting of 4-line stanzas, each line having 14 syllables and identical rhyme), an autobiographical satire on contemporary society. Ayala’s translations from Livy, Boccaccio, and others gave him a…

  • Rimah–Al-Bā?in, Wadi Ar- (river, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabian Desert: Physiography: …represented by such wadis as Al-Rimah–Al-Bā?in, Al-Sahbā?, and Dawāsir-Jawb, which carried vast loads of sediment from the interior toward the Persian Gulf. The Al-Dibdibah region once was the delta of Wadi Al-Rimah–Al-Bā?in, and Al-Budū? Plain was the delta of Wadi Al-Sahbā?. The gravel plains of Raydā? and Abū Ba?r, and…

  • rimantadine (drug)

    Rimantadine, drug used to treat infections caused by influenza type A virus, the most common cause of influenza epidemics. Rimantadine is a derivative of the antiviral agent amantadine. It is composed of an alicyclic compound called adamantane that contains a methyl group (CH3) attached to an

  • Rimas (work by Cam?es)

    Luís de Cam?es: Literary works: The first edition of Cam?es’ Rimas was published in 1595, 15 years after his death. The editor, Fern?o Rodrigues Lobo Soropita, had exercised scrupulous care in collecting the poems from manuscript songbooks, but even so he could not avoid the inclusion of some apocryphal poems. The increasing fame of Cam?es’…

  • Rimas (work by Bécquer)

    Spanish literature: The Romantic movement: poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, in Rimas (published posthumously in 1871; “Rhymes”), expressed his own tortured emotions, suffering, and solitude but also celebrated love, poetry, and intimacy while experimenting with free verse. Rimas influenced more 20th-century Spanish poets than any other 19th-century work.

  • Rimatara (island, French Polynesia)

    Tubuai Islands: …square miles [39 square km]), Rimatara, (3 square miles [8 square km]), Rurutu (11 square miles [29 square km]), and Tubuai (18 square miles [47 square km])—as well as the tiny, uninhabited Marotiri Islands at the southern end of the chain, and Maria Atoll in the north.

  • Rimbaud, Arthur (French poet)

    Arthur Rimbaud, French poet and adventurer who won renown in the Symbolist movement and markedly influenced modern poetry. Rimbaud grew up at Charleville in the Ardennes region of northeastern France. He was the second son of an army captain and a local farmer’s daughter. The father spent little

  • Rimbaud, Jean Nicolas Arthur (French poet)

    Arthur Rimbaud, French poet and adventurer who won renown in the Symbolist movement and markedly influenced modern poetry. Rimbaud grew up at Charleville in the Ardennes region of northeastern France. He was the second son of an army captain and a local farmer’s daughter. The father spent little

  • rime (weather)

    Rime, white, opaque, granular deposit of ice crystals formed on objects that are at a temperature below the freezing point. Rime occurs when supercooled water droplets (at a temperature lower than 0° C [32° F]) in fog come in contact with a surface that is also at a temperature below freezing; the

  • rime (poetic device)

    Rhyme, the correspondence of two or more words with similar-sounding final syllables placed so as to echo one another. Rhyme is used by poets and occasionally by prose writers to produce sounds appealing to the reader’s senses and to unify and establish a poem’s stanzaic form. End rhyme (i.e.,

  • Rime (work by Petrarch)

    Petrarch: Break with his past (1346–53): The theme of his Canzoniere (as the poems are usually known) therefore goes beyond the apparent subject matter, his love for Laura. For the first time in the history of the new poetry, lyrics are held together in a marvellous new tapestry, possessing its own unity. By selecting all…

  • rime ice (weather)

    Rime, white, opaque, granular deposit of ice crystals formed on objects that are at a temperature below the freezing point. Rime occurs when supercooled water droplets (at a temperature lower than 0° C [32° F]) in fog come in contact with a surface that is also at a temperature below freezing; the

  • Rime in morte di Laura (poems by Petrarch)

    Petrarch: Break with his past (1346–53): …During Laura’s Life”) and the Rime in morte di Laura (“Poems After Laura’s Death”), which he now selected and arranged to illustrate the story of his own spiritual growth. The choice of poems was further governed by an exquisite aesthetic taste and by a preference for an approximately chronological arrangement,…

  • Rime in vita di Laura (poems by Petrarch)

    Petrarch: Break with his past (1346–53): …divided into two parts: the Rime in vita di Laura (“Poems During Laura’s Life”) and the Rime in morte di Laura (“Poems After Laura’s Death”), which he now selected and arranged to illustrate the story of his own spiritual growth. The choice of poems was further governed by an exquisite…

  • Rime nuove (work by Carducci)

    Giosuè Carducci: Rime nuove (1887; The New Lyrics) and Odi barbare (1877; The Barbarian Odes) contain the best of Carducci’s poetry: the evocations of the Maremma landscape and the memories of childhood; the lament for the loss of his only son; the representation of great historical events; and the ambitious…

  • Rime of the Ancient Mariner, The (work by Coleridge)

    The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, poem in seven parts by Samuel Taylor Coleridge that first appeared in Lyrical Ballads, published collaboratively by Coleridge and William Wordsworth in 1798. The title character detains one of three young men on their way to a wedding feast and mesmerizes him with

  • rime riche (prosody)

    Rime riche, (French: “rich rhyme,”) in French and English prosody, a rhyme produced by agreement in sound not only of the last accented vowel and any succeeding sounds but also of the consonant preceding this rhyming vowel. A rime riche may consist of homographs (fair/fair) or homophones

  • rime royal (poetic form)

    Rhyme royal, seven-line iambic pentameter stanza rhyming ababbcc. The rhyme royal was first used in English verse in the 14th century by Geoffrey Chaucer in Troilus and Criseyde and The Parlement of Foules. Traditionally, the name rhyme royal is said to derive from The Kingis Quair (“The King’s

  • Rime spirituali (work by Colonna)

    Vittoria Colonna: …modern edition of which is Rime spirituali (1882; The “In Memoriam” of Italy: A Century of Sonnets from the Poems of Vittoria Colonna). She also wrote much religious poetry.

  • rime suffisante (prosody)

    Rime suffisante, (French: “sufficient rhyme,”) in French and English prosody, end rhyme produced by agreement in sound of an accented final vowel and following final consonant or consonants, if any. Examples of rimes suffisantes in English include the rhymes ship/dip and flee/see. It is

  • Rimers of Eldritch, The (play by Wilson)

    Lanford Wilson: The Rimers of Eldritch (1967) examines life in a small town.

  • Rimes, LeAnn (American singer)

    LeAnn Rimes, American country music singer who topped the charts at age 13 with her rendition of “Blue.” She drew attention and admiration for her vocal similarity to country legend Patsy Cline. Rimes began singing at age two and won her first competition when she was five. Like Cline, Rimes first

  • rimfire cartridge (ammunition)

    cartridge: …was exploded in the cartridge rim. Later improvements changed the point of impact from the rim to the centre of the cartridge, where a percussion cap was inserted. The cartridge with a percussion cap, or cup, centred on the base of the cartridge—centre-fire—predominated in all larger calibres, but rimfire cartridges…

  • Rimini (Italy)

    Rimini, town, Emilia-Romagna regione, northern Italy. The town is located along the Riviera del Sole of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Marecchia River, just northeast of Mount Titano and the Republic of San Marino. The Romans called it Ariminum, from Ariminus, the old name of the Marecchia,

  • Rimini, A. (Italian physicist)

    philosophy of physics: The theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber: …in the 1980s by Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber and is thus sometimes referred to as “GRW”; it was subsequently developed by Philip Pearle and John Stewart Bell (1928–90).

  • Rimini, Council of (Roman Catholic history)

    Council of Ariminum, (359 CE), in early Christianity, one of the several 4th-century church councils concerned with Arianism. It was called by the pro-Arian Roman emperor Constantius II and held at Ariminum (modern Rimini, Italy). It was attended by some 400 bishops of the Western Roman Empire,

  • Rimini, Gregory of (Italian philosopher)

    Gregory Of Rimini, Italian Christian philosopher and theologian whose subtle synthesis of moderate nominalism with a theology of divine grace borrowed from St. Augustine strongly influenced the mode of later medieval thought characterizing some of the Protestant Reformers. In 1357 Gregory was e

  • Rimitti el Reliziana, Cheikha (Algerian musician)

    Cheikha Rimitti, (Saadia), Algerian singer-songwriter (born May 8, 1923, Tessala, French Algeria—died May 15, 2006, Paris, France), was called the “mother of rai music,” the rebellious fusion of traditional Algerian and Western popular music. After a childhood of wandering as a homeless orphan, s

  • Rimitti, Cheikha (Algerian musician)

    Cheikha Rimitti, (Saadia), Algerian singer-songwriter (born May 8, 1923, Tessala, French Algeria—died May 15, 2006, Paris, France), was called the “mother of rai music,” the rebellious fusion of traditional Algerian and Western popular music. After a childhood of wandering as a homeless orphan, s

  • Rimland, Bernard (American psychologist)

    Bernard Rimland, American psychologist (born Nov. 15, 1928, Cleveland, Ohio—died Nov. 21, 2006, San Diego, Calif.), dispelled the theory that autism was an emotional disorder caused by a cold, distant mother in the 1964 book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory o

  • Rimmon (ancient god)

    Hadad, the Old Testament Rimmon, West Semitic god of storms, thunder, and rain, the consort of the goddess Atargatis. His attributes were identical with those of Adad of the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon. He was the chief baal (“lord”) of the West Semites (including both sedentary and nomadic

  • Rimmon (Connecticut, United States)

    Seymour, town (township), New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies along the Naugatuck River near New Haven. The area was settled about 1678 as part of Derby on land purchased from the Pequot Indians, who called it Naugatuck. It was known successively as Rimmon (1670); Chusetown

  • R?mnicu V?lcea (Romania)

    Ramnicu Valcea, city, capital of Valcea jude? (county), south-central Romania, on the Olt River. Documented as a town in the late 14th century, it was a local market town during the Middle Ages. Historical buildings in the city include the house of Anton Pann, folklorist and writer, and the local

  • Rimouski (Quebec, Canada)

    Rimouski, city, Bas-Saint-Laurent region, eastern Quebec province, Canada. The city lies on a hillside sloping gently toward its deepwater port (sheltered by the ?le Saint-Barnabé) on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River estuary. The land was granted to Augustin Rouer de la Cardonnière in

  • RIMS (physics)

    spectroscopy: Resonance-ionization mass spectrometry: For the purpose of determining the relative weights of atomic nuclei, the mass spectrometer is one of the most useful instruments used by analytical chemists. If two atoms with the same number of protons (denoted Z) contain different numbers of

  • Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay (Russian composer)

    Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, teacher, and editor who was at his best in descriptive orchestrations suggesting a mood or a place. Rimsky-Korsakov was the product of many influences. His father was a government official of liberal views, and his mother was well educated and could play

  • Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay Andreyevich (Russian composer)

    Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, teacher, and editor who was at his best in descriptive orchestrations suggesting a mood or a place. Rimsky-Korsakov was the product of many influences. His father was a government official of liberal views, and his mother was well educated and could play

  • rimu (tree)

    Rimu, (Dacrydium cupressinum), coniferous timber tree of the family Podocarpaceae, native to New Zealand. The rimu tree may attain a height of 45 metres (150 feet) or more. The wood is reddish brown to yellowish brown, with a distinctive figuring, or marking, of light and dark streaks. It is made

  • rímur (Icelandic poetry)

    Ríma, (Icelandic: “rhyme,”) versified sagas, or episodes from the sagas, a form of adaptation that was popular in Iceland from the 15th century. One of three genres of popular early Icelandic poetry (the other two being dances and ballads), rímur were produced from the 14th to the 19th century.

  • Rimush (king of Akkad)

    history of Mesopotamia: Sargon’s reign: …in copies, of his son Rimush are full of reports about battles fought in Sumer and Iran, just as if there had never been a Sargonic empire. It is not known in detail how rigorously Akkad wished to control the cities to the south and how much freedom had been…

  • Rin school (Japanese art)

    Ogata Kōrin: …of the masters of the Sōtatsu-Kōetsu school of decorative painting. He is particularly famous for his screen paintings, lacquerwork, and textile designs.

  • Rin Tin Tin (fictional character)

    Rin Tin Tin, American film and television character, a heroic dog portrayed over many years by a series of German shepherds. The real-world Rin Tin Tin was a newborn puppy when he, his littermates, and their mother were rescued in 1918 from a bombed German kennel by American soldier Lee Duncan. A

  • Rin-chen-bzang-po (Buddhist monk)

    Rin-chen-bzang-po, Tibetan Buddhist monk, called the “Great Translator,” known primarily for his extensive translations of Indian Buddhist texts into Tibetan, thus furthering the subsequent development of Buddhism in Tibet. First sent to India in the late 10th century under Tibetan royal p

  • Rinaldo (opera by Handel)

    George Frideric Handel: Life: In 1711 his opera Rinaldo was performed in London and was greeted so enthusiastically that Handel sensed the possibility of continuing popularity and prosperity in England. In 1712 he went back to London for the production of his operas Il pastor fido and Teseo (1713). In 1713 he won…

  • Rinaldo (poem by Tasso)

    Torquato Tasso: Early life and works.: The resulting Rinaldo (1562) exhibited his technical ability but not as yet his poetic genius.

  • Rinaldo Conti, count of Segni (pope)

    Alexander IV, pope from 1254 to 1261. Alexander was appointed cardinal deacon (1227) and cardinal bishop of Ostia (1231) by his uncle Pope Gregory IX. After becoming pope, Alexander followed the policies of his predecessor Innocent IV: he continued war on Manfred, Emperor Frederick II’s natural son

  • Rinaldo degli Albizzi (Florentine ruler)

    Italy: Political development, 1380–1454: …and then of his son, Rinaldo (until 1434). The Albizzi regime successfully resisted the Visconti and then a temporary threat from King Ladislas of Naples in the years 1408–14, and it also contributed to Florence’s expansion over Tuscany, which since the mid-14th century had transformed the city-state into a territorial…

  • Rinaldo Rinaldini, der Rauberhauptmann (work by Vulpius)

    Christian August Vulpius: …celebrated work is his three-volume Rinaldo Rinaldini, der Rauberhauptmann (1797–1800; “Rinaldo Rinaldini, the Robber Captain”), a work that served as a model for other historical novels and that was translated into many languages. He wrote about 60 popular romantic narratives.

  • rinceau (architecture)

    Rinceau, in architecture, decorative border or strip, featuring stylized vines with leaves and often with fruit or flowers. It first appears as a decorative motif in Classical antiquity. Roman rinceaux most often consisted of an undulating double vine growing from a vase. Branches, vines, and

  • Rinchen, Byambiin (Mongolian writer)

    Mongolian literature: The 20th century and beyond: Byambiin Rinchen was a patriotic dissenter best known for poems such as “Ber tsetseg” (“Young Lady Flower”), an antiwar poem, and for short stories such as “Mangaa Doogiin etssiin dzüüd” (“The Last Dream of Monster Do”), about a cruel prison guard. Rinchen was also a…

  • Rinchin, Byambiin (Mongolian writer)

    Mongolian literature: The 20th century and beyond: Byambiin Rinchen was a patriotic dissenter best known for poems such as “Ber tsetseg” (“Young Lady Flower”), an antiwar poem, and for short stories such as “Mangaa Doogiin etssiin dzüüd” (“The Last Dream of Monster Do”), about a cruel prison guard. Rinchen was also a…

  • Rincón de Gautier, Felisa (Puerto Rican politician)

    Felisa Rincón de Gautier, Puerto Rican politician (born 1897?, Ceiba, P.R.—died Sept. 16, 1994, San Juan, P.R.), served as a popular mayor of San Juan (1946-69) after helping in the 1932 campaign in which women succeeded in gaining the right to vote. Rincón de Gautier was the daughter of a l

  • Rincón de Zárate (Argentina)

    Zárate, city, northeastern Buenos Aires provincia (province), eastern Argentina. It is located on the Paraná de las Palmas River, a channel of the lower Paraná River delta emptying into the Río de la Plata estuary northwest of Buenos Aires. Founded in 1825 as Rincón de Zárate, the settlement was

  • Rincón, Emanuele Gioacchino Cesare, Baron d’Astorga (Italian composer)

    Emanuele d’ Astorga, composer known for his dignified and moving Stabat Mater (c. 1707) and for his chamber cantatas, of which about 170 survive. Astorga belonged to a family of Spanish descent that won a barony in Sicily in the 17th century. The family eventually settled in Palermo. Astorga’s

  • rinderpest (animal disease)

    Rinderpest, an acute, highly contagious viral disease of ruminant animals, primarily cattle, that was once common in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East. Rinderpest was a devastating affliction of livestock and wildlife, and for centuries it was a major threat to food production

  • Rinehart, Georgina Hope (Australian business executive)

    Georgina Hope Rinehart, Australian business executive and political activist who built a fortune as the head of her father’s privately held Western Australian mining company, Hancock Prospecting, by increasing its holdings and influence in the Australian iron-ore market after his death. Known for

  • Rinehart, Gina (Australian business executive)

    Georgina Hope Rinehart, Australian business executive and political activist who built a fortune as the head of her father’s privately held Western Australian mining company, Hancock Prospecting, by increasing its holdings and influence in the Australian iron-ore market after his death. Known for

  • Rinehart, Mary Roberts (American writer)

    Mary Roberts Rinehart, American novelist and playwright best known for her mystery stories. Mary Roberts graduated from the Pittsburgh Training School for Nurses in 1896. That same year she married physician Stanley M. Rinehart. She and her husband started a family, and she took up writing in 1903

  • ring (planetary)

    Voyager: Saturn’s rings were found to have enigmatic braids, kinks, and spokes and to be accompanied by myriad “ringlets.” At Uranus Voyager 2 discovered a substantial magnetic field around the planet and 10 additional moons. Its flyby of Neptune uncovered three complete rings and six hitherto unknown…

  • Ring (American magazine)

    boxing: Prizes and awards: Nat Fleischer, Ring magazine’s founder, changed this in 1926 when he began awarding belts to the world champion in each weight division in boxing, and for the next 50 years these belts were one of the greatest prizes to be gained in the sport. The Ring belts…

  • ring (boxing)

    boxing: Ring, rules, and equipment: …take place in a “ring” that is 18 to 22 feet (5.5 to 6.7 metres) square and surrounded by four strands of rope. Professional bouts may be scheduled to last from 4 to 12 rounds of three minutes’ duration, though two-minute rounds are commonly used in women’s bouts and…

  • ring (circus)

    circus: Philip Astley and the first circuses: …standardized the diameter of the ring at 13 metres (approximately 42 feet). In 1802, with the arrival of Napoleon and his empire, Astley resumed control of his Paris circus. The Franconis moved to Rue du Mont-Thabor, where they built another circus.

  • ring (hydrology)

    climate: The Gulf Stream: …eddies are the Gulf Stream rings, which develop in meanders of the current east of Cape Hatteras. Though the eddies were mentioned as early as 1793 by Jonathan Williams, a grandnephew of American scientist and statesman Benjamin Franklin, they were not systematically studied until the early 1930s by the oceanographer…

  • ring (jewelry)

    Ring, circular band of gold, silver, or some other precious or decorative material that is worn on the finger. Rings are worn not only on the fingers but also on toes, the ears (see earring), and through the nose. Besides serving to adorn the body, rings have functioned as symbols of authority,

  • ring (mathematics)

    Ring, in mathematics, a set having an addition that must be commutative (a + b = b + a for any a, b) and associative [a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c for any a, b, c], and a multiplication that must be associative [a(bc) = (ab)c for any a, b, c]. There must also be a zero (which functions as an identity

  • Ring and the Book, The (poem by Browning)

    The Ring and the Book, more than 20,000-line poem by Robert Browning, written in blank verse and published in 12 books from 1868 to 1869. The work, considered to be his greatest, was based on the proceedings of a Roman murder trial in 1698. Each of the 12 books consists of a dramatic monologue in

  • ring arc (astronomy)

    Neptune: The ring system: …form of partial rings, or ring arcs.

  • ring barking (horticulture)

    angiosperm: Evolution of the transport process: Experiments now called girdling experiments were performed, in which a ring of bark is removed from a woody plant. Girdling, or ringing, does not immediately interfere with upward movement of water in the xylem, but it does interrupt phloem movement. In some plants surgical removal of phloem is…

  • Ring Canal (waterway, Netherlands)

    Haarlem Lake: A waterway called the Ring Canal was first dug around the lake in order to receive the water and to accommodate shipping, which the lake had previously carried. Since the water from the lake had no natural outlet, pumping by steam engines began in 1848, and the lake was…

  • ring canal (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Echinodermata: …with a circular canal (ring canal) that circumvents the mouth. Long canals radiate from the water ring into each arm. Lateral canals branch alternately from the radial canals, each terminating in a muscular sac (or ampulla) and a tube foot (podium), which commonly has a flattened tip that can…

  • Ring City (region, Netherlands)

    Randstad, industrial and metropolitan conurbation occupying an area of peat and clay lowlands, west-central Netherlands. The Randstad (“Ring City,” “Rim City,” “City on the Edge”) consists of major Dutch industrial cities extending in a crescent (open to the southeast) from Utrecht in the east to

  • ring closure (chemistry)

    heterocyclic compound: Synthesis and modification of heterocyclic rings: The actual ring closure, or cyclization, however, may involve the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. In any case, ring formation reactions are divided into three general categories according to whether the cyclization reaction occurs primarily as a result of nucleophilic or electrophilic attack or by way of…

  • ring compound (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Aromatic hydrocarbons: Benzene (C6H6), the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, was first isolated in 1825 by English chemist Michael Faraday from the oily residues left from illuminating gas. In 1834 it was prepared from benzoic acid (C6H

  • ring current (geomagnetic field)

    geomagnetic field: The ring current: Farther out, at 4 Re and beyond, is the next major source of magnetic field, the ring current. At this distance almost all atmospheric particles are fully ionized and, hence, subject to the effects of electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the density of…

  • Ring cycle (music dramas by Wagner)

    Der Ring des Nibelungen, (German: “The Ring of the Nibelung”) four music dramas (grand operas) by German composer Richard Wagner, all with German librettos by the composer himself. The operas are Das Rheingold (“The Rhine Gold”), Die Walküre (“The Valkyrie”), Siegfried, and G?tterd?mmerung (“The

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