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  • Ritalin (drug)

    Ritalin, a mild form of amphetamine used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a condition that occurs primarily in children and is characterized by hyperactivity, inability to concentrate for long periods of time, and impulsivity. Ritalin, a trade-name drug, also has

  • Ritchey-Chrétien reflector (astronomy)

    telescope: Reflecting telescopes: The result is the Ritchey-Chrétien design, which has a curved rather than a flat focus. Obviously, the photographic medium must be curved to collect high-quality images across the curved focal plane. The 1-metre telescope of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz., was one of the early examples of…

  • Ritchie of Dundee, Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron (British politician)

    Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie, British Conservative politician, notable for his reorganization of local government. Educated at the City of London School, Ritchie pursued a career in business, and in 1874 he was elected to Parliament as Conservative member for the working-class

  • Ritchie, Charles Stewart Almon (Canadian diplomat)

    Charles Stewart Almon Ritchie, Canadian diplomat and diarist (born Sept. 23, 1906, Halifax, Nova Scotia—died June 7, 1995, Ottawa, Ont.), served with distinction as ambassador to Germany (1954-58), the United Nations (1958-62), the U.S. (1962-66), and NATO (1966-67) before reaching the pinnacle o

  • Ritchie, Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron (British politician)

    Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie, British Conservative politician, notable for his reorganization of local government. Educated at the City of London School, Ritchie pursued a career in business, and in 1874 he was elected to Parliament as Conservative member for the working-class

  • Ritchie, Dennis M. (American computer scientist)

    Dennis M. Ritchie, American computer scientist and cowinner of the 1983 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science. Ritchie and the American computer scientist Kenneth L. Thompson were cited jointly for “their development of generic soperating systems theory and specifically for the

  • Ritchie, Jean (American musician and folklorist)

    Jean Ritchie, (Jean Ruth Ritchie), American folk musician and folklorist (born Dec. 8, 1922, Viper, Ky.—died June 1, 2015, Berea, Ky.), sang, collected, and disseminated traditional Appalachian folk music and was a key figure in the folk music movement of the 1950s and ’60s. Ritchie was the

  • Ritchie, Jean Ruth (American musician and folklorist)

    Jean Ritchie, (Jean Ruth Ritchie), American folk musician and folklorist (born Dec. 8, 1922, Viper, Ky.—died June 1, 2015, Berea, Ky.), sang, collected, and disseminated traditional Appalachian folk music and was a key figure in the folk music movement of the 1950s and ’60s. Ritchie was the

  • Ritchie, John Simon (British musician)

    Gary Oldman: …as drug-ravaged Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious in the film Sid and Nancy. He later played doomed playwright Joe Orton in Prick Up Your Ears (1987) and Rosencrantz in the film adaptation of Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1990). His work in several

  • Ritchie, Joseph (Scottish explorer)

    Sahara: Study and exploration: …River took the British explorers Joseph Ritchie and George Francis Lyon to the Fezzan area in 1819, and in 1822 the British explorers Dixon Denham, Hugh Clapperton, and Walter Oudney succeeded in crossing the desert and discovering Lake Chad. The Scottish explorer Alexander Gordon Laing

  • Ritchie, Michael (American film director)

    Michael Ritchie, American film director who was best known for his comedies, notably The Candidate (1972), The Bad News Bears (1976), and Fletch (1985). While attending Harvard University, Ritchie began directing plays, including the first production (1960) of Arthur Kopit’s Oh Dad, Poor Dad,

  • Ritchie, Neil Methuen (British general)

    World War II: Libya and Egypt, autumn 1941–summer 1942: General Neil Methuen Ritchie took Cunningham’s place on November 25, still more tanks were brought up, and a fortnight’s resumed pressure constrained Rommel to evacuate Cyrenaica and to retreat to Agedabia. There, however, Rommel was at last, albeit meagrely, reinforced; and, after repulsing a British attack…

  • rite

    Ritual, the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed by tradition or by sacerdotal decree. Ritual is a specific, observable mode of behaviour exhibited by all known societies. It is thus possible to view ritual as a way of defining or describing humans. Human beings are sometimes described or

  • rite of passage

    Rite of passage, ceremonial event, existing in all historically known societies, that marks the passage from one social or religious status to another. This article describes these rites among various societies throughout the world, giving greatest attention to the most common types of rites;

  • Rite of Passage (novella by Wright)

    Richard Wright: A novella, Rite of Passage (1994), and an unfinished crime novel, A Father’s Law (2008), were also released posthumously.

  • Rite of Spring, The (ballet by Stravinsky)

    The Rite of Spring, ballet by Russian modernist composer Igor Stravinsky that premiered at the Théatre des Champs-Elysées in Paris on May 29, 1913. It is considered one of the first examples of Modernism in music and is noted for its brutality, its barbaric rhythms, and its dissonance. Its opening

  • Rites Controversy (Roman Catholicism)

    Chinese Rites Controversy, a 17th–18th-century argument originating in China among Roman Catholic missionaries about whether the ceremonies honouring Confucius and family ancestors were so tainted with superstition as to be incompatible with Christian belief. The Jesuits believed that they probably

  • Rites familiaux (work by Cua)

    Paulus Cua: Rites familiaux (1886; “Family Rites”), describing the Confucian-influenced, familial ancestor cult, is among his frequently cited books.

  • Rites of Passage, The (work by Gennep)

    Arnold van Gennep: …Les Rites de Passage (1909; The Rites of Passage), in which he systematically compared those ceremonies that celebrate an individual’s transition from one status to another within a given society. He found a tripartite sequence in ritual observance: separation, transition, and incorporation. Gennep offered interpretations of the significance of these…

  • rithā? (poetic genre)

    Arabic literature: Genres and themes: …the dead, or elegy (rithā?).

  • Riti (Hindi literature)

    Harishchandra: …mark the end of the Rīti period of Hindi literature (c. 1650–1850) and usher in what is called the Bhartendu epoch, which in turn leads into the modern period. His advocacy of the development of the Hindi language and his opposition to the undue importance given to Urdu in official…

  • Ritmo Laurenziano (Italian literature)

    Italian language: …any length is the Tuscan Ritmo Laurenziano (“Laurentian Rhythm”) from the end of the 12th century, which was followed soon by other compositions from the Marches and Montecassino. In the 13th century lyric poetry was first written in a conventionalized Sicilian dialect that influenced later developments in Tuscany.

  • Ritola, Ville (Finnish athlete)

    Ville Ritola, Finnish long-distance runner, winner of three Olympic gold medals and two-time world-record holder for the 10,000-metre run. Ritola ran somewhat in the shadow of his great countryman Paavo Nurmi. Ritola lived and trained in the United States but competed internationally for Finland.

  • Ritola, Willie (Finnish athlete)

    Ville Ritola, Finnish long-distance runner, winner of three Olympic gold medals and two-time world-record holder for the 10,000-metre run. Ritola ran somewhat in the shadow of his great countryman Paavo Nurmi. Ritola lived and trained in the United States but competed internationally for Finland.

  • ritonavir (drug)

    protease inhibitor: Examples of protease inhibitors include ritonavir, saquinavir, and indinavir.

  • ritornel (music)

    Ritornello, (Italian: “return”) a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. The repetition can be exact or varied to a greater or lesser extent. In the concerto grosso the full orchestra (tutti) has the ritornello; the solo group (concertino) has the

  • ritornelle (music)

    Ritornello, (Italian: “return”) a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. The repetition can be exact or varied to a greater or lesser extent. In the concerto grosso the full orchestra (tutti) has the ritornello; the solo group (concertino) has the

  • ritornello (music)

    Ritornello, (Italian: “return”) a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. The repetition can be exact or varied to a greater or lesser extent. In the concerto grosso the full orchestra (tutti) has the ritornello; the solo group (concertino) has the

  • ritorno d’Ulisse in patria, Il (opera by Monteverdi)

    Claudio Monteverdi: Three decades in Venice: …them have survived in score—The Return of Ulysses to His Country and The Coronation of Poppea—and both are masterpieces. Although they still retain some elements of the Renaissance intermezzo and pastoral, they can be fairly described as the first modern operas. Their interest lies in revealing the development of…

  • Ritos (work by Valencia)

    Guillermo Valencia: His first volume of poetry, Ritos (1898, rev. ed. 1914; “Rites”), containing original poems and free translations from French, Italian, and Portuguese, established his literary reputation at home and abroad as a leader of the experimental Modernist movement with its exotic imagery. Unlike many of the Modernists, however, he was…

  • Ritournelle de la faim (novel by Le Clézio)

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio: …to literature, and the novels Ritournelle de la faim (2008 “Ritornello of Hunger”) and Alma (2017).

  • Ritschl, Albrecht (German theologian)

    Albrecht Ritschl, German Lutheran theologian who showed both the religious and ethical relevance of the Christian faith by synthesizing the teaching of the Scriptures and the Protestant Reformation with some aspects of modern knowledge. Most of the results of Ritschl’s scholarship were presented in

  • Ritschl, F. W. (German scholar)

    F.W. Ritschl, German classical scholar remembered for his work on Plautus and as the founder of the Bonn school of classical scholarship. Influenced by the textual criticism of the English and German classicists Richard Bentley and Gottfried Hermann, he made exhaustive studies that laid the

  • Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm (German scholar)

    F.W. Ritschl, German classical scholar remembered for his work on Plautus and as the founder of the Bonn school of classical scholarship. Influenced by the textual criticism of the English and German classicists Richard Bentley and Gottfried Hermann, he made exhaustive studies that laid the

  • Rítsos, Yánnis (Greek writer)

    Yannis Ritsos, popular Greek poet whose work was periodically banned for its left-wing content. Ritsos was born into a wealthy but unfortunate family. His father died insane; his mother and a brother died of tuberculosis when he was 12. Reared by relatives, Ritsos attended Athens Law School briefly

  • Ritsu (Buddhism)

    Ritsu, (Japanese: “Regulation”, ) school of Buddhist moral discipline primarily concerned with vinaya, or the rules of monastic and religious practice. The school was founded in China in the 7th century by the monk Tao-hsüan on the basis of Theravāda texts that emphasized the letter of the law, as

  • ritsu (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Tonal system: >ritsu scale, however, seems to reveal the early presence of an indigenous Japanese tonal ideal with the placement of its half steps.

  • Ritsurin Park (park, Takamatsu, Japan)

    Takamatsu: Ritsurin Park, renowned for its landscaping, occupies 185 acres (75 hectares) and contains much of interest, including a natural pine forest, a zoo, an art gallery, and a museum. The tiny offshore island of Megi is associated with an ancient Japanese children’s story, while the…

  • ritsuryō (Japanese legal system)

    Japanese art: Nara period: …and complex legal codifications (ritsuryō) based on the Chinese system established an idealized order of social relationships and obligations. Thus, a hierarchical society was established, in symbolic and real terms, with all power proceeding from the emperor. The integration of religion into this scheme fixed a properly understood relationship…

  • Ritt ins Leben, Der (work by Schickele)

    René Schickele: …his first collection of poetry, Der Ritt ins Leben (1905; “The Ride into Life”), and in his first novel, Der Fremde (1907; “The Stranger”). This conflict was powerfully dramatized in Hans im Schnakenloch (1916; “Hans in the Gnat Hole”), in which the protagonist, Hans, must choose between Germany and France…

  • Ritt über den Bodensee, Der (play by Handke)

    Peter Handke: …Ritt über den Bodensee (1971; The Ride Across Lake Constance).

  • Ritt, Martin (American director)

    Martin Ritt, American motion-picture director noted for his films on socially conscious themes. The main characters in Ritt’s films tended to be loners or underdogs whose ethical scruples place them at odds with the dubious values of society. Ritt never developed a distinct visual style, but his

  • Rittenberg, David (American chemist)

    Konrad E. Bloch: In 1942 Bloch and David Rittenberg discovered that the two-carbon compound acetic acid was the major building block in the 30 or more steps in the biosynthesis (natural formation) of cholesterol, a waxlike alcohol found in animal cells. In his search to determine how acetic acid molecules combine in…

  • Rittenhouse, David (American astronomer and inventor)

    David Rittenhouse, American astronomer and inventor who was an early observer of the atmosphere of Venus. A clockmaker by trade, Rittenhouse built mathematical instruments and, it is believed, the first telescope in the United States. He also introduced the use of natural spider webbing to form the

  • Ritter (cavalryman)

    Knight, now a title of honour bestowed for a variety of services, but originally in the European Middle Ages a formally professed cavalryman. The first medieval knights were professional cavalry warriors, some of whom were vassals holding lands as fiefs from the lords in whose armies they served,

  • Ritter reaction (chemistry)

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: …are made industrially by the Ritter reaction. In this method a tertiary alcohol reacts with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the presence of a concentrated strong acid; a formamide, RNH―CHO, is formed first, which then undergoes hydrolysis.

  • Ritter vom Geiste, Die (work by Gutzkow)

    Karl Gutzkow: …of the nine volumes of Die Ritter vom Geiste (“The Knights of the Spirit”), now considered the starting point of the modern German social novel; it also anticipated the Naturalist movement.

  • Ritter von Artha, Leopold Hasner (Austrian prime minister)

    Leopold Hasner, Ritter von Artha, economist, jurist, and politician who served as liberal Austrian minister of education (1867–70) and briefly as prime minister (1870). Educated in philosophy and law at Prague and Vienna, Hasner in 1848 became editor of an official newspaper in Prague—the Prager

  • Ritter von Kahr, Gustav (German politician)

    Gustav, Ritter von Kahr, conservative monarchist politician who served briefly as prime minister and then was virtual dictator of Bavaria during the anti-leftist reaction of the early 1920s. Kahr was appointed provincial governor of Upper Bavaria in 1917. Shortly after the abortive Kapp Putsch

  • Ritter, Bruce (American priest)

    Bruce Ritter, (John Ritter), American priest who was the founder in 1969 of Covenant House in New York City, a haven for runaway children and homeless teenagers; Ritter was forced to resign from Covenant House in 1990, when charges of sexual abuse were leveled against him by former residents of the

  • Ritter, Carl (German geographer)

    Carl Ritter, German geographer who was cofounder, with Alexander von Humboldt, of modern geographical science. Ritter received an excellent education in the natural sciences and was well versed in history and theology. Guided by the educational principles of the famed Swiss teacher Johann Heinrich

  • Ritter, Gerhard (German historian)

    20th-century international relations: The search for causes: The conservative historian Gerhard Ritter even challenged the Fischer thesis in the German case. The real problem, he argued, was not fear of the Social Democrats but the age-old tension between civilian and military influence in the Prussian-German government. Politicians, exemplified by Bethmann, did not share the eagerness…

  • Ritter, Hellmut (German scholar)

    Islamic arts: Modern criticism: …world was taken up by Hellmut Ritter in his booklet über die Bildersprache Ni?āmīs (1927; “On the Imagery of Ne?āmī”), which gives a most sensitive philosophical interpretation of Ne?āmī’s metaphorical language and of the role of imagery in the structure of Ne?āmī’s thought. Ritter’s criticism is basic to the study…

  • Ritter, Johann Wilhelm (German physicist)

    Johann Wilhelm Ritter, German physicist who discovered the ultraviolet region of the spectrum and thus helped broaden humanity’s view beyond the narrow region of visible light to encompass the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the shortest gamma rays to the longest radio waves. A pharmacist in

  • Ritter, John (American actor)

    Jonathon Southworth Ritter, (“John”), American actor and comedian (born Sept. 17, 1948, Burbank, Calif.—died Sept. 11, 2003, Burbank), was a master of physical comedy, a talent he put to especially good use in the best-known of his television series, Three’s Company (1977–84), for which he won an E

  • Ritter, John (American priest)

    Bruce Ritter, (John Ritter), American priest who was the founder in 1969 of Covenant House in New York City, a haven for runaway children and homeless teenagers; Ritter was forced to resign from Covenant House in 1990, when charges of sexual abuse were leveled against him by former residents of the

  • Ritter, Jonathon Southworth (American actor)

    Jonathon Southworth Ritter, (“John”), American actor and comedian (born Sept. 17, 1948, Burbank, Calif.—died Sept. 11, 2003, Burbank), was a master of physical comedy, a talent he put to especially good use in the best-known of his television series, Three’s Company (1977–84), for which he won an E

  • Ritter, Maurice Woodward (American musician and actor)

    western: …Gene Autry and later by Tex Ritter and Roy Rogers, was an odd accoutrement of some of the westerns of the late 1930s and the ’40s and ’50s.

  • Ritter, Tex (American musician and actor)

    western: …Gene Autry and later by Tex Ritter and Roy Rogers, was an odd accoutrement of some of the westerns of the late 1930s and the ’40s and ’50s.

  • Ritter, Thelma (American actress)

    Samuel Fuller: Films of the 1950s: Thelma Ritter was Oscar nominated for her colourful role as a hard-luck snitch. Hell and High Water (1954) was a more conventional submarine adventure also starring Widmark.

  • Ritts, Herb (American photographer)

    Herbert Ritts, Jr., (“Herb”), American photographer (born Aug. 1952, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Dec. 26, 2002, Los Angeles), excelled in capturing images that celebrated the beauty of the human body—especially the male body—and in creating stylish, unorthodox portraits of celebrities; his efforts g

  • Ritts, Herbert, Jr. (American photographer)

    Herbert Ritts, Jr., (“Herb”), American photographer (born Aug. 1952, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Dec. 26, 2002, Los Angeles), excelled in capturing images that celebrated the beauty of the human body—especially the male body—and in creating stylish, unorthodox portraits of celebrities; his efforts g

  • Ritty, James (American tavern owner)

    John Henry Patterson: …by a Dayton tavern owner, James Ritty. The store eventually showed a profit, and Patterson bought Ritty out and renamed the firm the National Cash Register Company, later to be known familiarly as NCR.

  • ritual

    Ritual, the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed by tradition or by sacerdotal decree. Ritual is a specific, observable mode of behaviour exhibited by all known societies. It is thus possible to view ritual as a way of defining or describing humans. Human beings are sometimes described or

  • ritual bath

    Ritual bath, religious or magic ceremony involving the use of water to immerse or anoint a subject’s body. The many forms of baptism (q.v.), ranging from total submersion to a symbolic sprinkling, indicate how certain ritual baths can vary in form even while retaining the same purificational

  • ritual city (sociology)

    urban culture: The ritual city: Ritual cities represented the earliest form of urban centre, in which the city served as a centre for the performance of ritual and for the orthogenetic constitution and conservation of the society’s traditions. Ritual was the major cultural role of such cities, and…

  • ritual combat (trial process)

    ordeal: In ordeal by combat, or ritual combat, the victor is said to win not by his own strength but because supernatural powers have intervened on the side of the right, as in the duel in the European Middle Ages in which the “judgment of God” was…

  • ritual hunt (religious rite)

    Arabian religion: Sanctuaries, cultic objects, and religious practices and institutions: …sacral brotherhoods (mrz?; “thiasoi”) held ritual meals in the temples or in burial rooms of the dead.

  • Ritual of the Bacabs (Mayan document)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Classic Maya religion: The Ritual of the Bacabs covers religious symbolism, medical incantations, and similar matters.

  • Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure, The (work by Turner)

    rite of passage: Victor Turner and anti-structure: …of African rites of passage, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (1969), Turner revealed the drama and flux of everyday social life and highlighted the agency of rites in effecting social change, which he considered to be their fundamental role. Building upon van Gennep’s observation that rites of passage and…

  • ritual slavery

    human trafficking: Types of exploitation: …of human trafficking known as ritual (religion-based) slavery, in which young girls are provided as sexual slaves to atone for the sins of family members.

  • ritualistic object (religion)

    Ceremonial object, any object used in a ritual or a religious ceremony. Throughout the history of religions and cultures, objects used in cults, rituals, and sacred ceremonies have almost always been of both utilitarian and symbolic natures. Ceremonial and ritualistic objects have been utilized as

  • ritualized friendship (sociology)

    ancient Greek civilization: The world of the tyrants: …small-scale ventures exploiting relationships of xenia (hospitality), there was something like free internationalism. Not that the old xenia ties disappeared—on the contrary, they were solidified, above all by the tyrants themselves.

  • rituximab (drug)

    granulomatosis and polyangiitis: Other agents, such as rituximab, or chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or methotrexate, may be used. GPA can be brought into remission through prompt treatment, in some cases without long-term maintenance with drug therapies.

  • Ritz Brothers (American entertainers)

    Ritz Brothers, American comedy team of three brothers, celebrated for their parodies and energetic slapstick humour. Their true surname was Joachim, and the three were known as Al (Alfred; b. August 27, 1901, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. December 22, 1965, New Orleans, Louisiana), Jimmy (b. October

  • Ritz Hotel (hotel, Paris, France)

    César Ritz: The Ritz Hotel opened in 1898 to a crowd of diners.

  • Ritz, Al (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …the three were known as Al (Alfred; b. August 27, 1901, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. December 22, 1965, New Orleans, Louisiana), Jimmy (b. October 23, 1904, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. November 17, 1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29,…

  • Ritz, Al (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …the three were known as Al (Alfred; b. August 27, 1901, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. December 22, 1965, New Orleans, Louisiana), Jimmy (b. October 23, 1904, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. November 17, 1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29,…

  • Ritz, César (Swiss businessman)

    César Ritz, founder of the Paris hotel that made his name a synonym for elegance and luxury. In order to learn the restaurant business, Ritz got a job at the finest restaurant in Paris, the Voisin, until the Siege of Paris of 1870 caused shortages of food and fuel and put an end to Voisin’s

  • Ritz, Harry (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29, 1986, San Diego, California).

  • Ritz, Harry (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29, 1986, San Diego, California).

  • Ritz, Jimmy (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …22, 1965, New Orleans, Louisiana), Jimmy (b. October 23, 1904, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. November 17, 1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29, 1986, San Diego, California).

  • Ritz, Jimmy (American entertainer)

    Ritz Brothers: …22, 1965, New Orleans, Louisiana), Jimmy (b. October 23, 1904, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. November 17, 1985, Los Angeles, California), and Harry (Herschel May; b. May 28, 1907, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—d. March 29, 1986, San Diego, California).

  • Rius (Mexican cartoonist)

    comic strip: The fact-based comic: historical, didactic, political, narrative: …Gonick and the Mexican cartoonist Rius (Eduardo del Río). These are at once elementary introductions and sophisticated presentations of sometimes difficult material (Gonick, for instance, has produced “cartoon guides” to physics, genetics, and computer science); they mix line drawings and explanations with asides, political observations, touches of satire, and farcical,…

  • Riva Ridge (racehorse)

    Secretariat: Final years: Onion took the lead, and Riva Ridge stayed with him. Going into the far turn, Riva Ridge made his move, as did Secretariat. The stablemates ran head-to-head in a match race until Secretariat pulled away, winning by three and a half lengths in a new world record time for a…

  • Riva, Emmanuelle (French actress)

    Emmanuelle Riva, (Paulette Germaine Riva), French actress (born Feb. 24, 1927, Cheniménil, France—died Jan. 27, 2017, Paris, France), conveyed great emotional depth in her portrayals of complex characters in a career bookended by her two most memorable performances: as the unnamed actress in the

  • Riva, Paulette Germaine (French actress)

    Emmanuelle Riva, (Paulette Germaine Riva), French actress (born Feb. 24, 1927, Cheniménil, France—died Jan. 27, 2017, Paris, France), conveyed great emotional depth in her portrayals of complex characters in a career bookended by her two most memorable performances: as the unnamed actress in the

  • Riva-Bella (town, France)

    Ouistreham: …the smaller resort town of Riva-Bella, where the 4th Commando Museum (also known as the Sword Beach Museum) commemorates the D-Day (June 6, 1944) landing of British troops during the Normandy Invasion in World War II. The Great Bunker of Riva-Bella is a German-built command-and-control centre that now houses a…

  • Rivadavia, Bernardino (president of Argentina)

    Bernardino Rivadavia, first president of the Argentine republic. Although one of his country’s ablest leaders, he was unable to unite the warring provinces or to control the provincial caudillos (bosses). Active in resistance to British invasion in 1806, he also supported the 1810 movement for

  • Rival Queens, The (work by Lee)

    Nathaniel Lee: A blank-verse tragedy, The Rival Queens (1677), made his reputation; it remained popular until the 19th century. Lucius Junius Brutus (1680) was prohibited for antimonarchical sentiments. Lee collaborated with John Dryden in Oedipus (1678) and The Duke of Guise (1682). Beginning in 1684, he was confined to Bedlam…

  • Rivaldo (Brazilian athlete)

    Rivaldo, Brazilian football (soccer) player who was among the game’s most revered players in the 1990s and a vital component of the powerful Brazilian national team that included the similarly mono-monikered Romário and Ronaldo. Rivaldo was born into a working-class family, and, like many poor

  • rivalry (economics)

    private good: …or willingness to pay and rivalrous indicates that one person’s consumption of a product reduces the amount available for consumption by another. In practice, private goods exist along a continuum of excludability and rivalry and can even exhibit only one of these characteristics.

  • Rivals, The (play by Sheridan)

    The Rivals, comedy in five acts by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, produced and published in 1775. The Rivals concerns the romantic difficulties of Lydia Languish, who is determined to marry for love and into poverty. Realizing this, the aristocratic Captain Jack Absolute woos her while claiming to be

  • Rivarol, Antoine Rivaroli, comte de (French author)

    Antoine Rivaroli, count de Rivarol, French publicist, journalist, and epigrammatist and a would-be nobleman whose works supported monarchy and traditionalism in the era of the French Revolution. He assumed the title of count de Rivarol, claiming to come of a noble Italian family, but is said to

  • Rivas (Nicaragua)

    Rivas, city, southwestern Nicaragua, on a narrow strip of land between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Ocean. Founded in 1736 and formerly known as Nicaragua, Rivas gained fame as a town on the “Vanderbilt Road,” over which Americans joining the California Gold Rush traveled from the adjoining lake

  • Rivas Isthmus (isthmus, Nicaragua)

    Lake Nicaragua: Geography: …a narrow land corridor, the Rivas Isthmus, which is 12 miles (19 km) wide.

  • Rivas, ángel de Saavedra Ramírez de Baquendano, duque de (Spanish author)

    ángel de Saavedra , duke de Rivas, Spanish poet, dramatist, and politician, whose fame rests principally on his play Don álvaro, o la fuerza del sino (“Don álvaro, or the Power of Fate”), which marked the triumph of Romantic drama in Spain. After entering politics Saavedra was condemned to death in

  • rive droite (district, Paris, France)

    Paris: City site: …the simple, unchanging designation of Right Bank and Left Bank (when facing downstream). Specific places, however, are usually indicated by arrondissement or by quarter (quartier).

  • rive gauche (district, Paris, France)

    Paris: City site: …designation of Right Bank and Left Bank (when facing downstream). Specific places, however, are usually indicated by arrondissement or by quarter (quartier).

  • Rive, Auguste-Arthur de La (French physicist)

    Auguste-Arthur de La Rive, Swiss physicist who was one of the founders of the electrochemical theory of batteries. La Rive was elected to the chair of natural philosophy at the Academy of Geneva in 1823, and for the next seven years he conducted studies on the specific heat of various gases and the

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