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  • Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (United States [1988])

    Defense Production Act: …preparedness activities” (defined by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [1988] as “all those activities and measures designed or undertaken to prepare for or minimize the effects of a hazard upon the civilian population”).

  • Robert Taylor Homes (public-housing development, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago: People: The Robert Taylor Homes near the lakefront on the South Side was the largest such project ever built in the country.

  • Robert the Bruce (king of Scotland)

    Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland (1306–29), who freed Scotland from English rule, winning the decisive Battle of Bannockburn (1314) and ultimately confirming Scottish independence in the Treaty of Northampton (1328). The Anglo-Norman family of Bruce, which had come to Scotland in the early 12th

  • Robert the Devil (duke of Normandy)

    Robert I, duke of Normandy (1027–35), the younger son of Richard II of Normandy and the father, by his mistress Arlette, of William the Conqueror of England. On the death of his father (1026), Robert contested the duchy with his elder brother Richard III, legally the heir, until the latter’s

  • Robert the Devil (legendary character)

    Robert The Devil, legendary son of a duke of Normandy, born in answer to prayers addressed to the devil. He uses his immense strength only for crime. Directed by the pope to consult a certain holy hermit, he is delivered from his curse by maintaining absolute silence, feigning madness, taking his f

  • Robert the Frisian (count of Flanders)

    Robert I, count of Flanders (1071–93), second son of Count Baldwin V. In 1063 he married Gertrude and became guardian of her son, who had inherited Frisia east of the Scheldt River. Upon this marriage, Robert’s father also invested him with Imperial Flanders, including the islands of Frisia west of

  • Robert the Jerusalemite (count of Flanders)

    Robert II, count of Flanders (1093–1111), one of the most celebrated of crusaders. The son of Robert I, he sailed for the Holy Land on the First Crusade in 1096 and earned fame perhaps second only to that of Godfrey of Bouillon. Returning to Flanders in 1100, he fought with his suzerain, Louis VI t

  • Robert the Magnificent (duke of Normandy)

    Robert I, duke of Normandy (1027–35), the younger son of Richard II of Normandy and the father, by his mistress Arlette, of William the Conqueror of England. On the death of his father (1026), Robert contested the duchy with his elder brother Richard III, legally the heir, until the latter’s

  • Robert the Pious (king of France)

    Robert II, king of France who took Burgundy into the French realm. The son of Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian dynasty, and Adelaide of Aquitaine, Robert was educated at the episcopal school of Reims under Gerbert of Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II. Soon after his own coronation (July 987),

  • Robert the Steward (king of Scotland)

    Robert II, king of Scots from 1371, first of the Stewart (Stuart) sovereigns in Scotland. Heir presumptive for more than 50 years, he had little effect on Scottish political and military affairs when he finally acceded to the throne. On the death (1326) of his father, Walter the Steward, in 1326,

  • Robert the Strong (French court official)

    Robert the Strong, ancestor of the Capetian kings of France. A member of a powerful aristocratic family and a count of various regions between the Seine and Loire rivers, Robert served the Carolingian king of France Charles II the Bald; by his bold and inspiring military leadership he succeeded in

  • Robert the Wise (king of Naples)

    Robert, Angevin prince and Guelf (papal party) leader who ruled Naples as king for 34 years (1309–43). Robert’s early years were clouded by the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–88), in which his father, Charles II of Anjou, was taken prisoner by the Aragonese. By the terms of the treaty Charles

  • Robert’s Rules of Order (work by Robert)

    parliamentary procedure: Origins and development: Robert’s Rules of Order (1876), codified by U.S. Army officer General Henry M. Robert (1837–1923), which has gone through various editions and reprintings and continues to be published in periodic editions, has had a lasting impact on the development of parliamentary procedure.

  • Robert, Gruffydd (Welsh grammarian)

    Celtic literature: The Counter-Reformation: …Welsh primer, the work of Gruffydd Robert (c. 1522–c. 1610), and several religious works, many of which were published on the Continent.

  • Robert, Henry Martyn (United States military officer and parliamentarian)

    Henry Martyn Robert, U.S. Army officer, author of the standard manual on parliamentary procedure in the United States, known as Robert’s Rules of Order. A graduate (1857) of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Robert was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers and retired (1901) with the

  • Robert, Hubert (French painter)

    Hubert Robert, French landscape painter sometimes called Robert des Ruines because of his many romantic representations of Roman ruins set in idealized surroundings. Robert left Paris for Rome in 1754 and studied at the French Academy there. He also met the French painter Jean-Honoré Fragonard in

  • Robert, Jean-Eugène (French magician)

    Jean-Eugène Robert-Houdin, French magician who is considered to be the father of modern conjuring. He was the first magician to use electricity; he improved the signalling method for the “thought transference” trick; and he exposed “fakes” and magicians who relied on supernatural explanations for

  • Robert, Joseph-Gaspard (French potter)

    Marseille faience: The factory of Joseph-Gaspard Robert was known for its faience and, from 1777, for porcelain with elaborate floral decoration. The greatest technical feat was a decoration entirely in gold, which is unique in French pottery.

  • Robert, Nicolas-Louis (French inventor)

    Nicolas-Louis Robert, inventor who with his brother and Jacques Charles launched the first hydrogen balloon in Paris in 1783. The same year he and Charles ascended in a gondola carried by the same kind of balloon. In 1798 Robert invented the first machine to produce paper in continuous

  • Robert, Paul (French lexicographer)

    Paul Robert, French lexicographer who followed émile Littré and Pierre Larousse in creating a French dictionary that became a household name. Robert studied law before publishing the first installment of his dictionary. When the dictionary won an award from the French Academy, he was able to

  • Robert, Paul-Charles-Jules (French lexicographer)

    Paul Robert, French lexicographer who followed émile Littré and Pierre Larousse in creating a French dictionary that became a household name. Robert studied law before publishing the first installment of his dictionary. When the dictionary won an award from the French Academy, he was able to

  • Robert, Shaaban (Tanzanian author)

    Shaaban Robert, popular Swahili writer. Robert was the product of two cultures—his father was a Christian, but Shaaban returned to Islam. His work ranges from poetry to essay and didactic tale, influenced in style by the Oriental tradition. Many poems follow the form of utendi verse (used for

  • Robert-Houdin, Jean-Eugène (French magician)

    Jean-Eugène Robert-Houdin, French magician who is considered to be the father of modern conjuring. He was the first magician to use electricity; he improved the signalling method for the “thought transference” trick; and he exposed “fakes” and magicians who relied on supernatural explanations for

  • Roberta (film by Reiter [1935])

    William A. Seiter: …director also had success with Roberta (1935), a popular adaptation of the Jerome Kern–Otto A. Harbach musical; it nominally starred Irene Dunne, but arguably the best scenes were those with Rogers and Fred Astaire. Rogers returned for In Person (1935), an amusing satire of the movie industry. Seiter’s credits from…

  • Roberti, Ercole de’ (Italian painter)

    Ercole de’ Roberti, Italian painter of the Ferrarese school whose work is characterized by a highly personal style of sensibility and deep pathos. Roberti is believed to have studied with Cosmè Tura, a court painter to the Este family of Ferrara, and he is known to have studied with Tura’s student

  • Roberto Carlos canta para a juventude (music album by Carlos)

    Roberto Carlos: …popularity—bolstered by a top-selling album, Roberto Carlos canta para a juventude (1965; “Roberto Carlos Sings to the Youth”), and a string of hit songs that tapped into the rebellious zeitgeist—swiftly earned him the nickname “the King.”

  • Roberto d’Angiò (king of Naples)

    Robert, Angevin prince and Guelf (papal party) leader who ruled Naples as king for 34 years (1309–43). Robert’s early years were clouded by the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–88), in which his father, Charles II of Anjou, was taken prisoner by the Aragonese. By the terms of the treaty Charles

  • Roberto il Saggio (king of Naples)

    Robert, Angevin prince and Guelf (papal party) leader who ruled Naples as king for 34 years (1309–43). Robert’s early years were clouded by the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–88), in which his father, Charles II of Anjou, was taken prisoner by the Aragonese. By the terms of the treaty Charles

  • Roberto, Federico De (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The veristi and other narrative writers: Another verista, Federico De Roberto, in his novel I vicerè (1894; The Viceroys), has given a cynical and wryly funny account of an aristocratic Sicilian family that adapted all too well to change. Capuana, the founder of verismo and most rigorous adherent to its impersonal method of…

  • Roberto, Holden (Angolan leader)

    Holden álvaro Roberto, Angolan independence leader (born Jan. 12, 1923, S?o Salvador [now M’banza Congo], Angola—died Aug. 2, 2007, Luanda, Angola), founded Angola’s first nationalist movement in 1956 and five years later led the first attack on colonial settlers in Angola. Roberto’s Union of

  • Roberto, Marcelo (Brazilian architect)

    Latin American architecture: Brazil: …Press Association Building (1938), by Marcelo and Milton Roberto, incorporated the idea of a fixed brise-soleil that would provide natural light without the heat and glare of the strong tropical sun; it was the first large-scale modern building constructed in Brazil. Future Brazilian president Juscelino Kubitschek, then the mayor of…

  • Roberto, Milton (Brazilian architect)

    Latin American architecture: Brazil: …Building (1938), by Marcelo and Milton Roberto, incorporated the idea of a fixed brise-soleil that would provide natural light without the heat and glare of the strong tropical sun; it was the first large-scale modern building constructed in Brazil. Future Brazilian president Juscelino Kubitschek, then the mayor of Belo Horizonte,…

  • Roberts Bank (coal depot, Canada)

    Canada: Domestic policies: Roberts Bank, one of the world’s largest ocean coal depots, was built near Vancouver to expedite the shipment of British Columbian coal to Japan. Saskatchewan’s potash and uranium commanded premium prices during those years, and international demand for wheat, beef, and other farm products brought…

  • Roberts Field (airport, Redmond, Oregon, United States)

    Redmond: Redmond is the site of Roberts Field, formerly the World War II-era Redmond Army Air Base and now a commercial airport serving three counties in central Oregon. The city’s population has grown considerably since the 1990s. Inc. 1910. Pop. (2000) 13,481; (2010) 26,215.

  • Roberts of Kandahar, Baron (British field marshal)

    Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal, an outstanding combat leader in the Second Afghan War (1878–80) and the South African War (1899–1902), and the last commander in chief of the British Army (1901–04; office then abolished). Foreseeing World War I, he was one of the

  • Roberts of Kandahar, Pretoria, and Waterford, Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl, Viscount St. Pierre (British field marshal)

    Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal, an outstanding combat leader in the Second Afghan War (1878–80) and the South African War (1899–1902), and the last commander in chief of the British Army (1901–04; office then abolished). Foreseeing World War I, he was one of the

  • Roberts v. City of Boston (law case)
  • Roberts, Anderson Montgomery Everton (West Indian cricketer)

    Andy Roberts, West Indian cricketer who is considered the father of modern West Indian fast bowling. Roberts was the first player from Antigua to represent the West Indies. He was a vital member of the four-pronged pace (fast-bowling) attack that made the West Indies such a feared team in the 1970s

  • Roberts, Andy (West Indian cricketer)

    Andy Roberts, West Indian cricketer who is considered the father of modern West Indian fast bowling. Roberts was the first player from Antigua to represent the West Indies. He was a vital member of the four-pronged pace (fast-bowling) attack that made the West Indies such a feared team in the 1970s

  • Roberts, B. T. (American clergyman)

    Free Methodist Church of North America: …in 1860 by the Reverend B.T. Roberts and several associates after they were expelled from the Methodist Episcopal Church, which they had criticized for not maintaining the original standards of Methodism. In addition to sanctification, the Free Methodist Church stresses evangelical beliefs, such as the Virgin Birth of Jesus. In…

  • Roberts, Barbara Millicent (doll)

    Barbie, an 11-inch- (29-cm-) tall plastic doll with the figure of an adult woman that was introduced on March 9, 1959, by Mattel, Inc., a southern California toy company. Ruth Handler, who cofounded Mattel with her husband, Elliot, spearheaded the introduction of the doll. Barbie’s physical

  • Roberts, Bartholomew (Welsh pirate)

    Bartholomew Roberts, pirate captain of a succession of ships—the “Royal Rover,” “Fortune,” “Royal Fortune,” and “Good Fortune”—who burned and plundered ships from the coasts of West Africa to the coasts of Brazil and the Caribbean and as far north as Newfoundland. His conquests are said to have

  • Roberts, Bryan (American sociologist)

    urban culture: The neocolonial city: …can play an equivalent role: Bryan Roberts in Cities of Peasants (1978) shows that the growth of Pentecostal and other Protestant sects in Guatemala fulfills needs for mutual support networks in poor neighbourhoods and for those without kin ties.

  • Roberts, Charles Patrick (United States senator)

    Pat Roberts, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and began his first term representing Kansas in that body the following year. He previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1981–97). Roberts’s family was involved in journalism and politics;

  • Roberts, Christian (British actor)

    To Sir, with Love: Cast: Assorted Referencesrole of Poitier

  • Roberts, Doris (American actress)

    Doris Roberts, (Doris May Green), American character actress (born Nov. 4, 1925, St. Louis, Mo.—died April 17, 2016, Los Angeles, Calif.), portrayed the acerbic and manipulative Marie Barone in the durable TV sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond (1996–2005). She won four Emmy Awards (2001–03; 2005) and

  • Roberts, E. A. L. (American inventor)

    explosive: Dynamite: E.A.L. Roberts in that country obtained a patent covering this procedure and later acquired the right to manufacture and use nitroglycerin under the Nobel patents. Theoretically, this gave him a monopoly on shooting oil wells, and his company dominated the field, but many of his…

  • Roberts, Ed (American computer pioneer and physician)

    H(enry) Edward Roberts, (Ed), American computer pioneer and physician (born Sept. 13, 1941, Miami, Fla.—died April 1, 2010, Macon, Ga.), helped usher in the personal computer (PC) by inventing the Altair 8800, which debuted in the mid-1970s after Bill Gates, then a college student, and Paul Allen

  • Roberts, Ed (American disability rights activist)

    Ed Roberts, American disability rights activist who is considered the founder of the independent-living movement. Roberts contracted polio at age 14 and was paralyzed from the neck down. Requiring an iron lung or a respirator to breathe, he attended high school in California by telephone before

  • Roberts, Edward Verne (American disability rights activist)

    Ed Roberts, American disability rights activist who is considered the founder of the independent-living movement. Roberts contracted polio at age 14 and was paralyzed from the neck down. Requiring an iron lung or a respirator to breathe, he attended high school in California by telephone before

  • Roberts, Elizabeth Madox (American writer)

    Elizabeth Madox Roberts, Southern American novelist, poet, and short story writer noted especially for her vivid, impressionistic depiction of her protagonists’ inner life and for her accurate portrayal of life in Kentucky. Educated in schools in Springfield, a village near her birthplace, Roberts

  • Roberts, Eric (American actor)

    Julia Roberts: …by her older brother, actor Eric Roberts, for a bit part as his on-screen sister in Blood Red (1989), a drama set in the late 1800s; although the film was completed in 1986, its release was delayed for several years. She next made several television appearances before securing her first…

  • Roberts, Frederick Sleigh (British field marshal)

    Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal, an outstanding combat leader in the Second Afghan War (1878–80) and the South African War (1899–1902), and the last commander in chief of the British Army (1901–04; office then abolished). Foreseeing World War I, he was one of the

  • Roberts, Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl (British field marshal)

    Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal, an outstanding combat leader in the Second Afghan War (1878–80) and the South African War (1899–1902), and the last commander in chief of the British Army (1901–04; office then abolished). Foreseeing World War I, he was one of the

  • Roberts, Granville Oral (American evangelist)

    Oral Roberts, American evangelist. The son of a Pentecostal preacher, he underwent a conversion experience in 1935. He spent 12 years as a pastor in several towns in the South and built up his own organization, the Pentecostal Holiness Church. He studied at Oklahoma Baptist College (1943–45),

  • Roberts, H. Edward (American computer pioneer and physician)

    H(enry) Edward Roberts, (Ed), American computer pioneer and physician (born Sept. 13, 1941, Miami, Fla.—died April 1, 2010, Macon, Ga.), helped usher in the personal computer (PC) by inventing the Altair 8800, which debuted in the mid-1970s after Bill Gates, then a college student, and Paul Allen

  • Roberts, Henry Edward (American computer pioneer and physician)

    H(enry) Edward Roberts, (Ed), American computer pioneer and physician (born Sept. 13, 1941, Miami, Fla.—died April 1, 2010, Macon, Ga.), helped usher in the personal computer (PC) by inventing the Altair 8800, which debuted in the mid-1970s after Bill Gates, then a college student, and Paul Allen

  • Roberts, Irmin (American filmmaker)
  • Roberts, Isaac (British astronomer)

    Isaac Roberts, British astronomer who was a pioneer in photography of nebulae. In 1883 Roberts began experimenting with astronomical photography, taking pictures of stars, the Orion and Andromeda nebulae, and the Pleiades cluster. Although the photographs proved difficult to interpret, they were

  • Roberts, J. M. (British historian)

    J.M. Roberts, British historian (born April 14, 1928, Bath, Somerset, Eng.—died May 30, 2003, Roadwater, Somerset, Eng.), was a respected academician, scholar, and writer, but he captured the viewing public’s fancy as the presenter of The Triumph of the West (1985), a 13-part television series in w

  • Roberts, Joan (American actress)

    Joan Roberts, (Josephine Rose Seagrist), American actress (born July 15, 1917, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 13, 2012, Stamford, Conn.), created the role of the demure “yeller”-haired Laurey in the original Broadway production of Oklahoma! (1943). Roberts’s fresh appeal and lyric soprano voice were

  • Roberts, John G., Jr. (United States jurist)

    John G. Roberts, Jr., 17th chief justice of the United States (2005– ). Roberts was raised in Indiana and received undergraduate (1976) and law (1979) degrees from Harvard University, where he was the managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. From 1980 to 1981 he served as a law clerk to Supreme

  • Roberts, John Glover, Jr. (United States jurist)

    John G. Roberts, Jr., 17th chief justice of the United States (2005– ). Roberts was raised in Indiana and received undergraduate (1976) and law (1979) degrees from Harvard University, where he was the managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. From 1980 to 1981 he served as a law clerk to Supreme

  • Roberts, John Morris (British historian)

    J.M. Roberts, British historian (born April 14, 1928, Bath, Somerset, Eng.—died May 30, 2003, Roadwater, Somerset, Eng.), was a respected academician, scholar, and writer, but he captured the viewing public’s fancy as the presenter of The Triumph of the West (1985), a 13-part television series in w

  • Roberts, Joseph Jenkins (president of Liberia)

    Joseph Jenkins Roberts, American-born, first president of Liberia (1848–56). A native of Virginia, Roberts was the son of free “blacks” whose heritage was more than seven-eighths white. At the age of 20 he immigrated to Liberia with his mother and younger brothers, became a merchant, and also

  • Roberts, Julia (American actress)

    Julia Roberts, American actress whose deft performances in varied roles helped make her one of the highest-paid and most-influential actresses in the 1990s and early 2000s. Although Roberts’s parents briefly ran an actors’ workshop when she was a child, she had no acting experience or formal

  • Roberts, Julia Fiona (American actress)

    Julia Roberts, American actress whose deft performances in varied roles helped make her one of the highest-paid and most-influential actresses in the 1990s and early 2000s. Although Roberts’s parents briefly ran an actors’ workshop when she was a child, she had no acting experience or formal

  • Roberts, Kate (Welsh writer)

    Kate Roberts, one of the outstanding Welsh-language novelists and short-story writers of the 20th century and the first woman to be recognized as a major figure in the history of Welsh literature. Roberts set her early works in the quarrying districts of North Wales and in the mining villages of

  • Roberts, Kenneth (American author)

    Kenneth Roberts, American journalist and novelist who wrote fictional reconstructions of the American Revolution. Roberts worked as a journalist until 1917, when he began service as a captain in the Intelligence Section of the U.S. Army’s Siberian Expeditionary Force. He was a staff correspondent

  • Roberts, Kenneth Lewis (American author)

    Kenneth Roberts, American journalist and novelist who wrote fictional reconstructions of the American Revolution. Roberts worked as a journalist until 1917, when he began service as a captain in the Intelligence Section of the U.S. Army’s Siberian Expeditionary Force. He was a staff correspondent

  • Roberts, Lawrence (American computer scientist)

    Lawrence Roberts, American computer scientist who supervised the construction of the ARPANET, a computer network that was a precursor to the Internet. Roberts received bachelor’s (1959), master’s (1960), and doctoral (1963) degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of

  • Roberts, Lawrence Gilman (American computer scientist)

    Lawrence Roberts, American computer scientist who supervised the construction of the ARPANET, a computer network that was a precursor to the Internet. Roberts received bachelor’s (1959), master’s (1960), and doctoral (1963) degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of

  • Roberts, Margaret Hilda (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Margaret Thatcher, British Conservative Party politician and prime minister (1979–90), Europe’s first woman prime minister. The only British prime minister in the 20th century to win three consecutive terms and, at the time of her resignation, Britain’s longest continuously serving prime minister

  • Roberts, Mary (American writer)

    Mary Roberts Rinehart, American novelist and playwright best known for her mystery stories. Mary Roberts graduated from the Pittsburgh Training School for Nurses in 1896. That same year she married physician Stanley M. Rinehart. She and her husband started a family, and she took up writing in 1903

  • Roberts, Needham (American soldier)

    Harlem Hellfighters: The Hellfighters at war: Needham Roberts of the 369th were on sentry duty when their post was attacked by a German patrol. The two men fought off as many as two dozen Germans in brutal hand-to-hand combat. Johnson sustained 21 wounds in the engagement, and the French military awarded…

  • Roberts, Nora (American novelist)

    Nora Roberts, American romance novelist who was one of the most successful and prolific authors of the genre. As a child, Roberts was an avid reader and frequently formulated her own stories. After graduating from high school, she married and later had two sons. Confined to her home with her young

  • Roberts, Ollie L. Brushy Bill (American outlaw)

    Billy the Kid, one of the most notorious gunfighters of the American West, reputed to have killed at least 27 men before being gunned down at about age 21. Born on New York City’s East Side, Billy as a child migrated with his parents to Kansas; his father died there, and the mother and her two boys

  • Roberts, Oral (American evangelist)

    Oral Roberts, American evangelist. The son of a Pentecostal preacher, he underwent a conversion experience in 1935. He spent 12 years as a pastor in several towns in the South and built up his own organization, the Pentecostal Holiness Church. He studied at Oklahoma Baptist College (1943–45),

  • Roberts, Owen Josephus (United States jurist)

    Owen Josephus Roberts, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1930–45). Roberts was the son of hardware merchant Josephus R. Roberts and Emma Lafferty Roberts. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1895 from the University of Pennsylvania and then entered the university’s law school,

  • Roberts, Pat (United States senator)

    Pat Roberts, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and began his first term representing Kansas in that body the following year. He previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1981–97). Roberts’s family was involved in journalism and politics;

  • Roberts, Patricia (American public official)

    Patricia Roberts Harris, American public official, the first African American woman named to a U.S. ambassadorship and the first as well to serve in a presidential cabinet. Harris grew up in Mattoon and in Chicago. She graduated from Howard University, Washington, D.C., in 1945, pursued graduate

  • Roberts, Pernell (American actor)

    Pernell Elvin Roberts, Jr., American actor (born May 18, 1928, Waycross, Ga.—died Jan. 24, 2010, Malibu, Calif.), was best remembered for his television portrayals of two characters: the brainy and debonair Adam Cartwright (the eldest of three sons) on the long-running western Bonanza (1959–73; he

  • Roberts, Rachel (Welsh actress)

    Rachel Roberts, Welsh actress probably best known for her British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award-winning performance as Brenda—an unhappily married woman who becomes pregnant with another man’s child—in the Karel Reisz film Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960). She also won

  • Roberts, Richard (British inventor)

    Richard Roberts, British inventor known for his great versatility. Roberts began his career as an uneducated quarryman. He had remarkable mechanical ability, however, and worked at various times for the industrialist John Wilkinson and the inventor Henry Maudslay. He was one of the inventors of the

  • Roberts, Richard J. (British molecular biologist)

    Richard J. Roberts, molecular biologist, the winner, with Phillip A. Sharp, of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his independent discovery of “split genes.” Roberts received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Sheffield, Eng., in 1968. After postdoctoral research

  • Roberts, Richard John (British molecular biologist)

    Richard J. Roberts, molecular biologist, the winner, with Phillip A. Sharp, of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his independent discovery of “split genes.” Roberts received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Sheffield, Eng., in 1968. After postdoctoral research

  • Roberts, Rick (American musician)

    the Flying Burrito Brothers: ), and Rick Roberts (b. August 31, 1949, Clearwater, Florida).

  • Roberts, Robin (American baseball player)

    Robin Evan Roberts, American baseball player (born Sept. 30, 1926, near Springfield, Ill.—died May 6, 2010, Temple Terrace, Fla.), was a phenomenal right-handed pitcher (1948–61) for the major league Philadelphia Phillies; as one of the famed “Whiz Kids,” he led the team to the 1950 National League

  • Roberts, Robin Evan (American baseball player)

    Robin Evan Roberts, American baseball player (born Sept. 30, 1926, near Springfield, Ill.—died May 6, 2010, Temple Terrace, Fla.), was a phenomenal right-handed pitcher (1948–61) for the major league Philadelphia Phillies; as one of the famed “Whiz Kids,” he led the team to the 1950 National League

  • Roberts, Sir Charles G. D. (Canadian poet)

    Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, poet who was the first to express the new national feeling aroused by the Canadian confederation of 1867. His example and counsel inspired a whole nationalist school of late 19th-century poets, the Confederation group. Also a prolific prose writer, Roberts wrote several

  • Roberts, Sir Charles George Douglas (Canadian poet)

    Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, poet who was the first to express the new national feeling aroused by the Canadian confederation of 1867. His example and counsel inspired a whole nationalist school of late 19th-century poets, the Confederation group. Also a prolific prose writer, Roberts wrote several

  • Roberts, Sir Gilbert (British engineer)

    Sir Gilbert Roberts, British civil engineer who pioneered new design and construction methods in a series of major bridges including the 3,300-foot (1,006-metre) Firth of Forth highway bridge in Scotland, the seventh longest in the world. After attending City and Guilds College of the University of

  • Roberts, Terrence (American student)

    Little Rock Nine: Elizabeth Eckford, Minnijean Brown, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Jefferson Thomas, Gloria Ray, and Thelma Mothershed—became the centre of the struggle to desegregate public schools in the United States, especially in the South. The events that followed their enrollment in Little Rock Central High School provoked intense national debate about…

  • Roberts, Thomas William (Australian painter)

    Tom Roberts, painter who introduced Impressionism to Australia. Arriving in Melbourne at age 13, Roberts worked as a photographer, supplementing his meagre earnings with paintings produced as an evening art student. In 1881 he went to England to study at the Royal Academy in London and toured Spain

  • Roberts, Tom (Australian painter)

    Tom Roberts, painter who introduced Impressionism to Australia. Arriving in Melbourne at age 13, Roberts worked as a photographer, supplementing his meagre earnings with paintings produced as an evening art student. In 1881 he went to England to study at the Royal Academy in London and toured Spain

  • Roberts, William (British painter)

    Western painting: Cubism and its consequences: …striking clarity and force, and William Roberts combined a Cubist formulation with social commentary analogous to that of the 18th-century painter William Hogarth.

  • Roberts-Austen, Sir William Chandler (British metallurgist)

    Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen, English metallurgist noted for his research on the physical properties of metals and their alloys. He was knighted in 1899. As professor of metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines in London from 1882 to 1902, Roberts-Austen conducted extensive studies on the

  • Robertson Aircraft Corporation (American company)

    American Airlines: Two nucleate companies were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. Robertson Aircraft, first organized in 1921 in Missouri as a general flying service and manufacturer, flew its first mail route on April 15, 1926, between Chicago and St. Louis, Missouri; the pilot on the first flight was Charles…

  • Robertson Land Acts (Australian history)

    New South Wales: Economic developments: The Robertson Land Acts, once wrongly regarded as a failure, did succeed in areas suitable for dairying or intensive cultivation and helped promote these branches of rural industry. Elsewhere, however, selectors often failed or were reduced to poverty. This economic climate helped provide the conditions in…

  • Robertson Of Brighton, Frederick William (British clergyman)

    Frederick William Robertson, Anglican clergyman who became widely popular particularly among the working class because of the oratory and psychological insight in his sermons preached from 1847 at Trinity Chapel, Brighton. Appealing to a broad religious consensus within Anglican belief by avoiding

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