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  • Ra?mah, Jabal al- (hill, Saudi Arabia)

    hajj: …the holy places outside Mecca—Jabal al-Ra?mah, Muzdalifah, and Minā—and sacrifices an animal in commemoration of Abraham’s sacrifice. Male pilgrims’ heads are then usually shaved, and female pilgrims remove a lock of hair. After throwing seven stones at each of the three pillars at Minā on three successive days (the…

  • Rahman, A. R. (Indian composer)

    A.R. Rahman, Indian composer whose extensive body of work for film and stage earned him the nickname “the Mozart of Madras.” Rahman’s father, R.K. Sekhar, was a prominent Tamil musician who composed scores for the Malayalam film industry, and Rahman began studying piano at age four. The boy’s

  • Rahman, Abdul (sultan of Riau-Johor)

    Singapore: East India Company: …a subordinate of his cousin Abdul Rahman, sultan of Riau-Johor, who was under Dutch surveillance. Furthermore, Abdul Rahman was a younger son and not a sultan de jure. Raffles, disobeying instructions not to offend the Dutch, withdrew his own recognition of Abdul Rahman’s suzerainty over Singapore and installed Abdul Rahman’s…

  • Rahman, Abdul, Tuanku (Malaysian leader)

    Tuanku Abdul Rahman, first supreme chief of state of the Federation of Malaya. After the declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1957, the tuanku became the first head of state, or paramount ruler, elected by and from the Malay rulers for a five-year term. Abdul Rahman died before

  • Rahman, Abdul, Tunku (prime minister of Malaysia)

    Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj, first prime minister of independent Malaya (1957–63) and then of Malaysia (1963–70), under whose leadership the newly formed government was stabilized. After studies in England (1920–31), Abdul Rahman returned to Malaya to enter the Kedah civil service. In 1947 he

  • Rahman, Allah Rakha (Indian composer)

    A.R. Rahman, Indian composer whose extensive body of work for film and stage earned him the nickname “the Mozart of Madras.” Rahman’s father, R.K. Sekhar, was a prominent Tamil musician who composed scores for the Malayalam film industry, and Rahman began studying piano at age four. The boy’s

  • Rahman, Hasim (American athlete)

    Lennox Lewis: …2001, Lewis lost to underdog Hasim Rahman in a fifth-round knockout. In the November rematch Lewis reclaimed his title from Rahman, knocking him out in the fourth round. After much legal and business wrangling, a bout with Tyson was finally set for June 8, 2002, in Memphis, Tennessee. Lewis knocked…

  • Rahman, Hosain (American entrepreneur)

    Hosain Rahman, American entrepreneur who was perhaps best known as the CEO (1999–2017) and cofounder of the wearable technology company Aliph (also known as Jawbone). Rahman was the son of Pakistani immigrants who worked as oil-services consultants in Los Angeles. After he graduated (1999) from

  • Rahman, Indrani (American dancer)

    Indrani, (Indrani Rahman [or Rehman]), Indian-born dancer who performed and taught a number of the classical dances of India; she was the first professional to perform the ancient odissi,a dance that began in the temples, and she introduced this and other long-neglected dances to an international

  • Rahman, Mujibur (president of Bangladesh)

    Mujibur Rahman, Bengali leader who became the first prime minister (1972–75) and later the president (1975) of Bangladesh. Mujib, the son of a middle-class landowner, studied law and political science at the Universities of Calcutta and Dacca (now Dhaka). Although jailed briefly as a teenager for

  • Rahman, Shamsur (Bengali poet, journalist, and human rights advocate)

    Shamsur Rahman, Bengali poet, journalist, and human rights advocate (born Oct. 24, 1929, Dacca, British India [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]—died Aug. 17, 2006, Dhaka), earned the designation “unofficial poet laureate of Bangladesh” with more than 60 volumes of heartfelt, often fiercely patriotic p

  • Rahman, Ziaur (president of Bangladesh)

    Ziaur Rahman, Bangladeshi soldier and statesman who served as president of Bangladesh from 1977 to 1981. Joining the military as a cadet in 1953, Ziaur Rahman obtained a military commission in 1955 and became a paratrooper. After fighting in the Bangladesh Liberation War—in which the Pakistani

  • Ra?mānīyah (?ūfī order)

    Suhrawardīyah: The Algerian Ra?mānīyah grew out of the Khalwatīyah in the second half of the 18th century, when ?Abd ar-Ra?mān al-Ghushtulī, the founder, made himself the centre of Khalwatī devotion.

  • Rahmat Ali, Choudhary (Indian writer)

    Pakistan: Background to partition: That task fell to Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a young Muslim student studying at Cambridge in England, who best captured the poet-politician’s yearnings in the single word Pakistan. In a 1933 pamphlet, Now or Never, Rahmat Ali and three Cambridge colleagues coined the name as an acronym for Punjab, Afghania…

  • Rahmon, Emomali (president of Tajikistan)

    Tajikistan: Civil war: …Emomali Rahmonov (from March 2007, Emomali Rahmon) and backed by Russian troops had regained control, ending the first phase of the civil war. A mass exodus to Afghanistan followed. Sporadic fighting continued as the Islamic fundamentalist forces and their allies, now based in Afghanistan, continued to launch attacks on the…

  • Rahmonov, Emomali (president of Tajikistan)

    Tajikistan: Civil war: …Emomali Rahmonov (from March 2007, Emomali Rahmon) and backed by Russian troops had regained control, ending the first phase of the civil war. A mass exodus to Afghanistan followed. Sporadic fighting continued as the Islamic fundamentalist forces and their allies, now based in Afghanistan, continued to launch attacks on the…

  • Rahner, Karl (German theologian)

    Karl Rahner, German Jesuit priest who is widely considered to have been one of the foremost Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He is best known for his work in Christology and for his integration of an existential philosophy of personalism with Thomistic realism, by which human

  • Rahr Plains (region, India)

    Rahr Plains, geographic region that composes part of the Lower Ganges (Ganga) Plains in northern West Bengal state, eastern India. The alluvial plains, with an area of about 12,400 square miles (32,000 square km), are essentially flat, except in the mountainous northern area. Moist deciduous

  • Rahula (son of the Buddha)

    Buddha: Birth and early life: ” The child was named Rahula, meaning “fetter.” Before the prince left the palace, he went into his wife’s chamber to look upon his sleeping wife and infant son. In another version of the story, Rahula had not yet been born on the night of the departure from the palace.…

  • Rahv, Philip (American critic)

    Philip Rahv, Ukrainian-born American critic who was cofounder (1933) with William Phillips of The Partisan Review, a journal of literature and social thought. Rahv emigrated to the United States in 1922 and contributed to The New Masses, The Nation, The New Republic, and The New Leader. He wrote

  • RAI (Italian public service broadcaster)

    broadcasting: Partnership of public authorities and private interests: …example is Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI), originally founded in 1924. In 1927 an agreement was made with the government for a 25-year broadcasting concession. The charter was extended to cover television in 1952. Two years later a government agency acquired control, and in 1985 it owned 99 percent of the…

  • ra? (musical style)

    Ra?, a type of Algerian popular music that arose in the 1920s in the port city of Oran and that self-consciously ran counter to accepted artistic and social mores. An amalgam of local Algerian and Western popular-music styles, ra? emerged as a major world-music genre in the late 1980s. In the years

  • Rai (people)

    Rai, a people indigenous to eastern Nepal, living west of the Arun River in the area drained by the Sun Kosi River, at elevations of 5,500–7,700 feet (1,700–2,300 m), and also in southwestern Bhutan. The most populous group of the Kiranti people, the Rai numbered about 635,000 at the turn of the

  • Rai (ancient city, Iran)

    Rayy, formerly one of the great cities of Iran. The remains of the ancient city lie on the eastern outskirts of the modern city of Shahr-e Rey, which itself is located just a few miles southeast of Tehrān. A settlement at the site dates from the 3rd millennium bce. Rayy is featured in the Avesta

  • Rai, Aishwarya (Indian actress)

    Aishwarya Bachchan Rai, Indian actress whose classic beauty made her one of Bollywood’s premier stars. Rai was raised in a traditional South Indian home and was pursuing an education in architecture when she was crowned Miss World in 1994. The title put her on the fast track of the modeling

  • Rāi, Gobind (Sikh Guru)

    Gobind Singh, 10th and last Sikh Gurū, known chiefly for his creation of the Khālsā, the military brotherhood of the Sikhs. Gobind Singh inherited his grandfather Gurū Hargobind’s love of the military life and was also a man of great intellectual attainments. He was also the son of the ninth Guru,

  • Raiatea (island, French Polynesia)

    Raiatea, largest island of the ?les Sous le Vent (Leeward Islands), in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in the central South Pacific Ocean. With an area of 92 square miles (238 square km), it is the second largest island of French Polynesia. Raiatea is volcanic and mountainous, culminating in

  • Raibolini, Francesco di Marco di Giacomo (Italian artist)

    Francia, Italian Renaissance artist and the major Bolognese painter of the late 15th century. He is considered one of the initiators of the Renaissance style in Bologna. He was much influenced by such Ferrarese painters as Lorenzo Costa, Francesco del Cossa, and Ercole de’ Roberti, but his later

  • Raich, Benjamin (Austrian skier)

    Benjamin Raich, Austrian Alpine skier who won gold medals in both the slalom and the giant slalom (GS) at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. Raich earned international acclaim at age 18 when he won the slalom at the 1996 junior world championships. He returned the next year to the junior

  • Raichur (India)

    Raichur, city, eastern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland basin, about 10 miles (16 km) south of the Krishna River. The city contains a palace-citadel (1294) and fort (c. 1300) built on a hill 290 feet (88 metres) above the surrounding plain. In 1489 Raichur became the

  • raid (military operation)

    tactics: The ambush and the trial of strength: , the ambush and the raid. Such tactics, which are closely connected to those used in hunting and may indeed have originated in the latter, are well known to tribal societies all over the world. Typically the operation gets under way when warriors, having reconnoitred the terrain and stalked their…

  • RAID (computing)

    computer memory: Magnetic disk drives: RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) combines multiple disk drives to store data redundantly for greater reliability and faster access. They are used in high-performance computer network servers.

  • Raid on Entebbe (television film by Kershner [1977])

    Irvin Kershner: From B-24s to Laura Mars: …screen with the made-for-TV movie Raid on Entebbe, an account of a hostage rescue by Israeli commandos in Uganda in 1976; the cast included Peter Finch, Charles Bronson, James Woods, Robert Loggia, and Yaphet Kotto. The erotic thriller Eyes of Laura Mars (1978) would develop a minor cult following that…

  • Raid, The (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: First publications: …Caucasus, including “Nabeg” (1853; “The Raid”) and his three sketches about the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War: “Sevastopol v dekabre mesyatse” (“Sevastopol in December”), “Sevastopol v maye” (“Sevastopol in May”), and “Sevastopol v avguste 1855 goda” (“Sevastopol in August”; all published 1855–56). The first sketch, which deals…

  • Raidas (Indian mystic and poet)

    Ravidas, mystic and poet who was one of the most renowned of the saints of the North Indian bhakti movement. Ravidas was born in Varanasi as a member of an untouchable leather-working caste, and his poems and songs often revolve around his low social position. While objecting to the notion that

  • Raiders of the Lost Ark (film by Spielberg [1981])

    Michael Eisner: …of such hit movies as Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Terms of Endearment (1983), and Footloose (1984). The company’s television wing also grew under Eisner, who helped to produce both Cheers (1982–93) and Family Ties (1982–89) as well as the syndicated newsmagazine Entertainment Tonight (1981– ).

  • raiding (military operation)

    tactics: The ambush and the trial of strength: , the ambush and the raid. Such tactics, which are closely connected to those used in hunting and may indeed have originated in the latter, are well known to tribal societies all over the world. Typically the operation gets under way when warriors, having reconnoitred the terrain and stalked their…

  • Rāiganj (India)

    Raiganj, city, northern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It is located in a broad plain on the Kulik River. Raiganj is an important agricultural-trade and jute-exporting centre and is connected by road with Ingraj Bazar and with Dinajpur (in Bangladesh). Rice milling is an important industry.

  • Raiganj (India)

    Raiganj, city, northern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It is located in a broad plain on the Kulik River. Raiganj is an important agricultural-trade and jute-exporting centre and is connected by road with Ingraj Bazar and with Dinajpur (in Bangladesh). Rice milling is an important industry.

  • Raigarh (historical region, India)

    Raigarh, historical region of western India. It is situated immediately south of Mumbai (Bombay). Though part of the Konkan coastal plain, its terrain undulates with rugged transverse hills reaching from the steep scarp slopes of the Sahyadri Hills of the Western Ghats in the east to bluffs on the

  • Raigarh (India)

    Raigarh, city, eastern Chhattisgarh state, central India. It lies in the eastern Chhattisgarh Plain just west of the Kelo River, a tributary of the Mahanadi River. The city was capital of the former Raigarh princely state. Several Hindu temples are in the city. A major rail junction, it has

  • raigō (Amida Buddhism)

    Japanese art: Amidism: This image of the Amida Buddha and attendants descending from the heavens to greet the soul of the dying believer is called a raigōzu (Descent of Amida painting). The theme would later be developed during the Kamakura period as an immensely popular icon, but it saw its first powerful…

  • raigōzu (religious art)

    Japanese art: Amidism: …dying believer is called a raigōzu (Descent of Amida painting). The theme would later be developed during the Kamakura period as an immensely popular icon, but it saw its first powerful expressions during the Heian period in the late 11th century. As is typical of Amidism, the compassionate attitude of…

  • Raijua Island (island, Indonesia)

    Sawu Islands: …square miles [414 square km]), Raijua (14 square miles [36 square km]), and several islets located about 100 miles (160 km) west of the southern tip of the island of Timor. Sabu, 23 miles (37 km) long and 10 miles (16 km) wide, and Raijua, 8 miles (13 km) long…

  • Raikes, Robert (British philanthropist)

    Robert Raikes, British journalist, philanthropist, and pioneer of the Sunday-school movement. His philanthropic work began with a concern with prison reform. The son of a printer and newspaper publisher (the Gloucester Journal), Raikes succeeded to his father’s business in 1757. He joined in such

  • Raikin, Arkady Isaakovich (Soviet humorist)

    Arkady Isaakovich Raikin, Soviet comedian and variety-show entertainer, among the most popular and respected Soviet humorists of the 20th century. After graduating from the Leningrad Theatrical Technicum in 1935, Raikin worked in both state theatres and variety shows (estradas) and in 1939 opened

  • Raikō (Japanese mythology)

    Yorimitsu, one of the most popular of the legendary Japanese warrior heroes and a member of the martial Minamoto clan. In his exploits he is always accompanied by four trusty lieutenants. One adventure concerns his vanquishing the boy-faced giant Shuten-dōji (“Drunkard Boy”), who lived on human b

  • Raikov, Marin (Bulgarian politician)

    Bulgaria: Bulgaria’s transition: …month, Borisov was replaced by Marin Raikov at the head of a technocratic caretaker administration that would rule until snap elections could be held. Those elections, held in May 2013, failed to produce a conclusive result, and voter turnout barely topped 50 percent. Although GERB obtained the largest percentage of…

  • rail (bird)

    Rail, any of 127 species of slender, somewhat chicken-shaped marsh birds, with short rounded wings, short tail, large feet, and long toes, of the family Rallidae (order Gruiformes). The name is sometimes used to include coots and gallinules, which belong to the same family, but coots and gallinules

  • rail (cinematography)

    motion-picture technology: Camera supports: …being traversed is not smooth, rails, resembling train tracks, must be laid on the floor or ground for the dolly. The camera may be freed from the tripod or dolly and carried by the operator by means of a body brace and gyroscope stabilizer. One such support is the Steadicam,…

  • rail (racing car)

    drag racing: …most familiar professional categories are Top Fuel (powered by nitromethane), Funny Cars (nitromethane and methanol), Pro Stock (gasoline), Pro Stock Bikes (nitromethane-powered motorcycles), and Pro Stock Trucks (gasoline).

  • rail (track)

    railroad: Rail: The modern railroad rail has a flat bottom, and its cross section is much like an inverted T. An English engineer, Charles Vignoles, is credited with the invention of this design in the 1830s. A similar design also was developed by Robert L. Stevens,…

  • rail family (bird family)

    Rallidae, the rail family, a bird family that includes the species known as rail, coot, crake, and gallinule

  • rail fence cipher (cryptology)

    transposition cipher: …schoolboy cipher is the “rail fence,” in which letters of the plaintext are written alternating between rows and the rows are then read sequentially to give the cipher. In a depth-two rail fence (two rows) the message WE ARE DISCOVERED SAVE YOURSELF would be written

  • Rail Jam (sports)

    snowboarding: Rail jam: Rail jams are among the most grassroots of all snowboard competitions because of their minimal requirements. They can be staged almost anywhere at any time given a small space, a rail-type feature, and some snow or ice shavings from a hockey rink. Competitors take turns…

  • rail-babbler (bird)

    Rail-babbler, any member of the songbird subfamily Orthonychinae (order Passeriformes), placed by some authorities with other babblers in the family Timaliidae and by others near the subfamily Timaliinae when the latter are placed in the Muscicapidae. It is also the particular name of species that

  • rail-highway grade crossing

    traffic control: Conventional control techniques: These areas, called rail-highway grade crossings, pose particular control and safety problems. Because rail trains are of substantial mass and often travel at high speeds, any collision with a road vehicle is likely to severely damage the road vehicle and injure or kill its occupant(s). Because trains cannot…

  • Rail-splitter, the (president of United States)

    Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–65), who preserved the Union during the American Civil War and brought about the emancipation of the slaves. Among American heroes, Lincoln continues to have a unique appeal for his fellow countrymen and also for people of other lands. This

  • railroad

    Railroad, mode of land transportation in which flange-wheeled vehicles move over two parallel steel rails, or tracks, either by self-propulsion or by the propulsion of a locomotive. After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of

  • railroad car (railroad vehicle)

    railroad: Cars: After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of differing economic conditions and technological developments. Early cars on both continents were largely of two-axle design, but passenger-car builders soon began constructing cars with three and then…

  • Railroad Convention (United States history)

    railroad: The transcontinental railroad: Whitney’s Railroad Convention proposed a line from the head of the Great Lakes at Duluth, Minn., to the Oregon Country. The Mexican War, by adding California, Arizona, and New Mexico to the American domain, complicated the matter greatly. North-South sectionalism intruded when it was appreciated that…

  • railroad coupling (train device)

    Railroad coupling, device by which a locomotive is connected to a following car and by which succeeding cars in a train are linked. The first couplings were chains with solid buffers to help absorb shock during braking. Later, spring buffers were introduced, with screw couplings that permit two

  • Railroad Euchre (card game)

    euchre: ) Railroad euchre refers to various local rules adopted to speed up play, especially among commuters. Auction euchre is played with five, six, or seven players and a three-card widow (cards dealt facedown). Each player in turn has one opportunity to bid at least three tricks…

  • Railroad Retirement Act (United States [1934])

    Social Security Act: …were covered separately under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1934. The Social Security Act has been periodically amended, expanding the types of coverage, bringing progressively more workers into the system, and adjusting both taxes and benefits in an attempt to keep pace with inflation.

  • railroad signal

    Railroad signal, device designed to inform train-operating crews of conditions of the track ahead and to relay instructions as to speed and other matters. The earliest signals were flags and lamps indicating that the track was clear. The semaphore signal, with its three indications of “stop,”

  • railroad station

    railroad: Buildings: …and surroundings of new passenger stations are laid out to provide adequate and convenient areas for connecting bus or trolley-car services, for private automobile parking, or for so-called “kiss-and-ride”—automobiles that are discharging or picking up rail passengers. Many existing stations have had their surroundings reorganized to provide these facilities.

  • railroad tie (railroad track)

    railroad: Sleepers (crossties): Timber has been used for railroad sleepers or ties almost from the beginning, and it is still the most common material for this purpose. The modern wood sleeper is treated with preservative chemical to improve its life. The cost of wood ties has risen…

  • railroad track

    railroad: Railroad track and roadway: Ideally, a railroad should be built in a straight line, over level ground, between large centres of trade and travel. In practice, this ideal is rarely approached. The location engineer, faced with the terrain to be traversed, must…

  • railroad transportation

    Railroad, mode of land transportation in which flange-wheeled vehicles move over two parallel steel rails, or tracks, either by self-propulsion or by the propulsion of a locomotive. After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of

  • Railroad Tycoon (electronic game)

    Railroad Tycoon, train business simulation game created by American game designer Sid Meier and the electronic game manufacturer MicroProse Software. The title debuted in 1990 and helped launch the successful Tycoon line of games. The game was praised for its unique premise, which combined

  • Railroaded! (film by Mann [1947])

    Anthony Mann: The 1940s: film noirs: Railroaded! (1947) was the first of four noirs that Mann directed for tiny Producers Releasing Corporation (later Eagle-Lion); there a tough cop (Hugh Beaumont) tries to save Sheila Ryan’s character from a lowlife hood (John Ireland). Railroaded! was Mann’s first film with screenwriter John C.…

  • Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Economic History (book by Fogel)

    historiography: Economic history: …counterfactual question was offered in Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Economic History (1964) by Robert Fogel, an American economist who shared the Nobel Prize for Economics with Douglass C. North in 1993. Fogel tested the claim that railroads were of fundamental importance in American economic development by constructing…

  • Railsback, Thomas (American politician)
  • Railsback, Tom (American politician)
  • Railton, Peter (philosopher)

    ethics: Moral realism: Railton, in Facts, Values and Norms: Essays Toward a Morality of Consequence (2003), added that such desires must also express the value of impartiality. The practical effect of these requirements was to make the naturalists’ ideal moral code very similar to the principles that would…

  • railway

    Railroad, mode of land transportation in which flange-wheeled vehicles move over two parallel steel rails, or tracks, either by self-propulsion or by the propulsion of a locomotive. After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of

  • Railway Act (United Kingdom [1844])

    William Ewart Gladstone: The influence of Peel: His Railway Act of 1844 set up minimum requirements for railroad companies and provided for eventual state purchase of railway lines. Gladstone also much improved working conditions for London dock workers. Early in 1845, when the Cabinet proposed to increase a state grant to the Irish…

  • Railway Express Agency, Inc. (American company)

    REA Express, Inc., American company that at one time operated the nation’s largest ground and air express services, transporting parcels, money, and goods, with pickup and delivery. American Railway Express Company was established by the U.S. government in 1918, during World War I, at the same time

  • railway gauge (railroad track)

    Gauge, in railroad transportation, the width between the inside faces of running rails. Because the cost of construction and operation of a rail line is greater or less depending on the gauge, much controversy has surrounded decisions in respect to it, and a proliferation of gauges has developed t

  • Railway Labor Act (United States [1926])

    Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: Passage of the Railway Labor Act by the U.S. Congress in May 1926 provided cause for optimism for Randolph and the porters. The act stipulated that all disputes over wages, rules, and working conditions involving railroad workers were to be settled promptly through negotiations between labour and management,…

  • Railway Man, The (film by Teplitzky [2013])

    Colin Firth: …interpreter who tortured him in The Railway Man (2013), based on a memoir. Firth then evinced the husband of a woman (played by Nicole Kidman) who loses her memory in the thriller Before I Go to Sleep (2014). He deployed his starchy diction and composure to comic effect as a…

  • Railway Station Man, The (novel by Johnston)

    Jennifer Johnston: …on Our Skin (1977) and The Railway Station Man (1984) focus on violence in Northern Ireland, and The Old Jest (1979; filmed as The Dawning, 1988) and Fool’s Sanctuary (1987) are set during the emergence of modern Ireland in the 1920s. The protagonist of The Christmas Tree (1981) attempts to…

  • railway, national

    National railways, rail transportation services owned and operated by national governments. U.S. railways are privately owned and operated, though the Consolidated Rail Corporation was established by the federal government and Amtrak uses public funds to subsidize privately owned intercity

  • Raimar, Freimund (German poet)

    Friedrich Rückert, prolific German poet known for his facility with many different verse forms. Rückert studied at Würzburg and Heidelberg and qualified for, but withdrew from, an academic career. A gifted linguist, he was self-educated in Oriental languages and, through translations and imitations

  • Raimbaut de Vaqueyras (French musician)

    Proven?al literature: Origins and development: …Vidal of Toulouse; the chivalrous Raimbaut de Vaqueyras; Folquet de Marseille, a monk who became bishop of Toulouse; the truculent monk of Montaudon; and the satirical Peire Cardenal.

  • Raimi, Sam (American director, producer, and screenwriter)

    Sam Raimi, American film and television director, producer, and screenwriter whose inventive camera techniques and wry humour breathed life into the horror genre. Raimi began experimenting with filmmaking at a very early age. By his teen years, he was already an active member of a circle of amateur

  • Raimi, Samuel Marshall (American director, producer, and screenwriter)

    Sam Raimi, American film and television director, producer, and screenwriter whose inventive camera techniques and wry humour breathed life into the horror genre. Raimi began experimenting with filmmaking at a very early age. By his teen years, he was already an active member of a circle of amateur

  • Raimond de Poitiers (prince of Antioch)

    Raymond, prince of Antioch (1136–49) who successfully resisted the attempts of the Byzantine emperor John II to establish control over the principality. Raymond was the younger son of William VII, count of Poitiers, in west-central France. In 1135 King Fulk of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, regent

  • Raimond de Saint-Gilles (count of Toulouse)

    Raymond IV, count of Toulouse (1093–1105) and marquis of Provence (1066–1105), the first—and one of the most effective—of the western European rulers who joined the First Crusade. He is reckoned as Raymond I of Tripoli, a county in the Latin East which he began to conquer from 1102 to 1105. In the

  • Raimondi Stone (archaeology)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Chavín monuments and temples: …the god shown on the Raimondi Stone, now in Lima. The stone shows the Staff God, a standing semihuman figure having claws, a feline face with crossed fangs, and a staff in each hand. Above his head, occupying two-thirds of the stone, is a towering, pillarlike structure fringed with snakes…

  • Raimondi, Marcantonio (Italian engraver)

    Marcantonio Raimondi, Italian Renaissance master of engraving whose production of more than 300 prints did much to disseminate the style of the High Renaissance throughout Europe, especially the work of Raphael. Raimondi received his training in the workshop of the famous goldsmith and painter

  • Raimondino dei Liucci (Italian physician)

    Mondino De’ Luzzi, Italian physician and anatomist whose Anathomia Mundini (MS. 1316; first printed in 1478) was the first European book written since classical antiquity that was entirely devoted to anatomy and was based on the dissection of human cadavers. It remained a standard text until the

  • Raimundo, Don (Spanish archbishop)

    Don Raimundo, archbishop and leading prelate of the 12th-century Spanish Christian church, whose patronage of the Toledan school of translators contributed greatly to medieval learning. Raimundo was one of the many French Cluniac monks who, under the leadership of Bernard of Périgord (archbishop of

  • rain (meteorology)

    Rain, precipitation of liquid water drops with diameters greater than 0.5 mm (0.02 inch). When the drops are smaller, the precipitation is usually called drizzle. See also precipitation. Concentrations of raindrops typically range from 100 to 1,000 per cubic m (3 to 30 per cubic foot); drizzle

  • Rain (film by Milestone [1932])

    Lewis Milestone: Films of the 1930s: Rain (1932), an adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham’s short story, seemed like another sure-fire hit—star Joan Crawford was cast as Sadie Thompson, a prostitute in Pago Pago, and Walter Huston played the island missionary who attempts to reform her while growing increasingly attracted to her.…

  • Rain (South Korean singer and actor)

    Rain, South Korean pop singer and actor known for his boyish good looks and smooth hip-hop dance moves. Rain began performing in his teens as a rapper in a short-lived band called Fanclub and later became a backup dancer for popular Korean singer Park Ji-Yoon. Deciding to pursue a solo music

  • rain attenuation

    telecommunications media: Atmospheric propagation: Scattering loss due to heavy rainfall is the dominant form of attenuation for radio frequencies ranging from 10 gigahertz to 500 gigahertz (microwave to submillimetre wavelengths), while scattering loss due to fog dominates for frequencies ranging from 103 gigahertz to 106 gigahertz (infrared through visible light range).

  • rain barrel (container)

    rainwater harvesting system: …harvesting systems range from simple rain barrels to more elaborate structures with pumps, tanks, and purification systems. The nonpotable water can be used to irrigate landscaping, flush toilets, wash cars, or launder clothes, and it can even be purified for human consumption. With water scarcity a pressing problem for many…

  • rain dance (anthropology)

    Native American dance: Mexico and Mesoamerica: …Tarahumara for three agricultural festivals—rain, green corn, and harvest—and for death and memorial rites. After triple invocations by a shaman, the women cross the dance space six times, then circle counterclockwise, holding hands and leaping with a stamp from left to right foot.

  • rain forest (ecosystem)

    Rainforest, luxuriant forest, generally composed of tall, broad-leaved trees and usually found in wet tropical uplands and lowlands around the Equator. A brief treatment of rainforests follows. For full treatment, see tropical forest. Rainforests usually occur in regions where there is a high

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