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  • S (science)

    biosphere: Salinity: The term salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts that are present in water. Sodium and chloride are the predominant ions in seawater, and the concentrations of magnesium, calcium, and sulfate ions are also substantial. Naturally occurring waters vary in salinity from the…

  • S (4th-century biblical manuscript)

    Codex Sinaiticus, the earliest known manuscript of the Christian Bible, compiled in the 4th century ce. In 1844, 43 leaves of a 4th-century biblical codex (a collection of single pages bound together along one side) were discovered at St. Catherine’s Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai (hence the

  • s (unit of time)

    Second, fundamental unit of time, now defined in terms of the radiation frequency at which atoms of the element cesium change from one state to another. The second was formerly defined as 1/86,400 of the mean solar day—i.e., the average period of rotation of the Earth on its axis relative to the

  • s (unit of measurement)

    Stere, metric unit of volume equal to one cubic metre, or 1,000 litres. The stere (from Greek stereos, “solid”) was originally defined by law and used in France in 1793, primarily as a measure for firewood. It is thus the metric counterpart of the cord, one standard cord (128 cubic feet of stacked

  • S (chemical element)

    Sulfur (S), nonmetallic chemical element belonging to the oxygen group (Group 16 [VIa] of the periodic table), one of the most reactive of the elements. Pure sulfur is a tasteless, odourless, brittle solid that is pale yellow in colour, a poor conductor of electricity, and insoluble in water. It

  • S Andromeda (star)

    galaxy: Novae in the Andromeda Nebula: Designated S Andromeda in conformity with the pattern of terminology applied to stars of variable brightness, this supposed nova was a strong argument in favour of the hypothesis that nebulae are nearby objects in the Milky Way Galaxy.

  • s ap (unit of weight)

    Scruple, unit of weight in the apothecaries’ system, equal to 20 grains, or one-third dram, and equivalent to 1.296 grams. It was sometimes mistakenly assigned to the avoirdupois system. In ancient times, when coinage weights customarily furnished the lower subdivisions of weight systems, the

  • S band (frequency band)

    radar: Airport surveillance radar: 9 GHz (within the S band). Its klystron transmitter has a peak power of 1.3 megawatts, a pulse width of 1 microsecond, and an antenna with a horizontal beamwidth of 1.4 degrees that rotates at 12.5 revolutions per minute (4.8-second rotation period).

  • S Doradus (star)

    S Doradus, variable supergiant star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (the latter is one of two galactic companions to the Milky Way Galaxy). S Doradus (and the Large Magellanic Cloud) is visible to viewers in the Southern Hemisphere in the constellation Dorado. It is one of the most luminous stars

  • S effect (psychology)

    time perception: Perceived duration: …called the S effect or kappa effect. The reverse is the tau effect, in which the distance is perceived as being wider when the interval between successive stimuli is longer.

  • S stage (cytology)

    cell cycle: …stage), copies its DNA (synthesis, or S, stage), prepares to divide (gap 2, or G2, stage), and divides (mitosis, or M, stage). The stages G1, S, and G2 make up interphase, which accounts for the span between cell divisions. On the basis of the stimulatory and inhibitory messages a…

  • S togo berega (work by Herzen)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen: Life in exile.: …and S togo berega (From the Other Shore). His disillusionment was vastly increased by his wife’s infidelity with the radical German poet Georg Herwegh and by her death in 1852.

  • S wave (seismology)

    seismic wave: …recording station faster than the secondary, or S, wave. P waves, also called compressional or longitudinal waves, give the transmitting medium—whether liquid, solid, or gas—a back-and-forth motion in the direction of the path of propagation, thus stretching or compressing the medium as the wave passes any one point in a…

  • S&H Green Stamps (trading stamps)

    trading stamp: …program in the United States, S&H Green Stamps, was sponsored by Sperry & Hutchinson. The company started operations in 1896 and flourished from the 1930s through the 1960s. In 1964 the S&H Green Stamp catalog became the largest single publication distributed in the United States. Trading stamp programs were also…

  • S&P 500 (stock market)

    S&P 500, in the United States, a stock market index that tracks 500 publicly traded domestic companies. It is considered by many investors to be the best overall measurement of American stock market performance. Standard & Poor’s, which sponsors a number of other market indexes, traces its roots to

  • S&S-Arrow (American company)

    roller coaster: Introduction of steel coasters: …Company (later Arrow Dynamics; now S&S-Arrow), led by Ed Morgan and Karl Bacon, to design the bobsled-style Matterhorn (1959), the first steel coaster. Tubular steel rails and nylon wheels expanded the possibilities of coaster design while making the rides themselves dramatically smoother.

  • S’uz na Demokraticheskite Sili (labour organization, Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Political process: Despite these reforms, the opposition Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) won leadership of the Bulgarian government by a small margin over the BSP in elections held in 1991 and 1997. The National Movement for Simeon II (NDSV), a new party centred on the former king of Bulgaria (but not seeking…

  • S’uz na Nezavisemite B’lgarski Profs’uze (labour organization, Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Labour and taxation: …reconstituted in 1989 as the Confederation of Independent Bulgarian Trade Unions (S’uz na Nezavisemite B’lgarski Profs’uze).

  • S*P*Y*S (film by Kershner [1974])

    Irvin Kershner: From B-24s to Laura Mars: S*P*Y*S (1974) was much less successful, with Elliott Gould and Donald Sutherland as inept CIA agents overseeing the defection of a Russian ballet star.

  • S-2 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: From liquid to solid fuel: …the first of their solid-fueled S-2 missiles in 1971. These two-stage IRBMs carried a 150-kiloton warhead and had a range of 1,800 miles. The S-3, deployed in 1980, could carry a one-megaton warhead to a range of 2,100 miles.

  • S-3 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: From liquid to solid fuel: The S-3, deployed in 1980, could carry a one-megaton warhead to a range of 2,100 miles.

  • S-37 (Russian aircraft)

    Sukhoy: Its fifth-generation, multirole, all-weather S-37 Berkut air-superiority fighter, first flown in 1997, was equipped with state-of-the-art electronics, forward-swept wings, and thrust vector control. In competition with MiG for the international market, Sukhoy also continued to develop the lightweight Su-54 fighter. In 1997 the Russian government formed AVPK Sukhoy by…

  • S-A node (nerve bundle)

    mammal: Circulatory system: …of specialized cells called the sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium near the junction with the venae cavae. A wave of excitation spreads from this node to the atrioventricular node, which is located in the right atrium near the base of the interatrial septum. From this point excitation is…

  • S-adenosyl methionine (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfonium and oxosulfonium salts; sulfur ylides: …in nature; some examples include S-adenosyl methionine, a key biological source of the methyl group; thetin or 3-dimethylsulfonium propanoate, (CH3)2S+CH2CH2CO2?; and certain (2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylsulfoxonium salts, (CH3)2S+(O)CH2CH2OH. The latter two compounds occur in marine organisms. Thetin is an example

  • S-Bahn (railway, Berlin, Germany)

    Berlin: Transportation: …the Stadt- or Schnellbahn (S-Bahn), a largely elevated and partly underground railway system, began in 1871, and building of the subway, or Untergrundbahn (U-Bahn), was initiated in 1897. By World War II the city had one of the finest rapid transit systems in Europe. After the erection of the…

  • s-block element (chemistry)

    organometallic compound: s- and p-block organometallic compounds: The metal in main-group organometallic compounds can be any of the elements in the s block (i.e., groups 1 and 2) or any of the heavier elements in groups 13 through 15. (Groups 13–18 constitute the p block.) The elements…

  • S-class asteroid

    asteroid: Spacecraft exploration: …miles), established that Gaspra, an S-class asteroid, is an irregular body with dimensions of 19 × 12 × 11 km (12 × 7.5 × 6.8 miles). Nearly two years later, in August 1993, Galileo flew by (243) Ida, another S-class asteroid. Ida was found to be somewhat crescent-shaped when viewed…

  • ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    ’s-Hertogenbosch, gemeente (municipality), south-central Netherlands. It is situated where the Dommel and Aa rivers join to form the Dieze and lies along the Zuidwillemsvaart (canal). Chartered in 1185 by Henry I, duke of Brabant, who had a hunting lodge nearby (hence the name, meaning “the duke’s

  • S-matrix (quantum mechanics)

    S-matrix, in quantum mechanics, array of mathematical quantities that predicts the probabilities of all possible outcomes of a given experimental situation. For instance, two particles in collision may alter in speed and direction or even change into entirely new particles: the S-matrix for the

  • s-orbital (physics)

    chemical bonding: Quantum numbers: …orbital, which is called an s orbital; a p subshell (l = 1) consists of three orbitals, called p orbitals; and a d subshell (l = 2) consists of five orbitals, called d orbitals. The individual orbitals are labeled with the magnetic quantum number, ml, which can take the 2l…

  • S-potential (physiology)

    human eye: The nervous messages: …recorded from them were called S-potentials; these were of two types, which classified them as responding to colour (C-units) and luminosity (L-units).

  • s-process (physics)

    chemical element: Neutron capture: …capture; and the s -process, slow neutron capture. If neutrons are added to a stable nucleus, it is not long before the product nucleus becomes unstable and the neutron is converted into a proton. Outside a nucleus, a neutron decays into a proton and an electron by a process called…

  • S-R behaviour (psychology)

    animal behaviour: Instinctive learning: …to associate a novel (conditioned) stimulus with a familiar (unconditioned) one. For example, in his study of classical conditioning, Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov demonstrated that by consistently exposing a dog to a particular sound (novel stimulus) and simultaneously placing meat powder (familiar stimulus) in its mouth the dog could…

  • S-R theory (psychology)

    automata theory: The finite automata of McCulloch and Pitts: Certain responses of an animal to stimuli are known by controlled observation, and, since the pioneering work of a Spanish histologist, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, in the latter part of the 19th and early part of the 20th century, many neural structures have been well known.…

  • s-state (physics)

    chemical bonding: Quantum numbers: …orbital, which is called an s orbital; a p subshell (l = 1) consists of three orbitals, called p orbitals; and a d subshell (l = 2) consists of five orbitals, called d orbitals. The individual orbitals are labeled with the magnetic quantum number, ml, which can take the 2l…

  • s-surface (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Major features: …features that are often termed s-surfaces. The simplest planar features may be primary bedding (akin to the layering in sedimentary rocks). As the rock crystallizes or recrystallizes under directed pressure, new crystals may grow in some preferred direction, sometimes subparallel to the primary bedding but often at new angles defining…

  • S-tank (Swedish tank)

    tank: Gun calibre: …German Leopard 1, the Swedish S-tank, the Japanese Type 74, and the Mark 1 and 2 versions of the Israeli Merkava. It was also retained in the original version of the U.S. M1 Abrams tank developed in the 1970s, but the subsequent M1A1 version of the 1980s was rearmed with…

  • S-twist (yarn and rope manufacturing)

    twisting: …to the left, described as S twist.

  • S-type granite (geology)

    granite: …high amounts of Na2O, and S-type granitoids, derived from sedimentary protoliths and containing high amounts of Al2O3 and relatively low amounts of Na2O. Amphibole and pyroxene are more common in I-type granitoids, while S-type granitoids may have garnet, cordierite, and sillimanite. Both types of granitoids may also contain biotite and…

  • S-type granitoid (geology)

    granite: …high amounts of Na2O, and S-type granitoids, derived from sedimentary protoliths and containing high amounts of Al2O3 and relatively low amounts of Na2O. Amphibole and pyroxene are more common in I-type granitoids, while S-type granitoids may have garnet, cordierite, and sillimanite. Both types of granitoids may also contain biotite and…

  • S-type star (astronomy)

    stellar classification: …less than 3,000 K), and S, which resemble class M stars but have spectral bands of zirconium oxide prominent instead of those of titanium oxide.

  • S-wave (seismology)

    seismic wave: …recording station faster than the secondary, or S, wave. P waves, also called compressional or longitudinal waves, give the transmitting medium—whether liquid, solid, or gas—a back-and-forth motion in the direction of the path of propagation, thus stretching or compressing the medium as the wave passes any one point in a…

  • S. (novel by Dorst and Abrams)

    J.J. Abrams: Abrams conceptualized the novel S. (2013), written by Doug Dorst. It consisted of a frame story about two scholars told in the marginalia of another novel, the author of which they are investigating.

  • S. M. (American musician)

    Pavement: …singer, guitarist, and principal songwriter Stephen Malkmus (also known as S.M.; b. May 30, 1966, Santa Monica, California, U.S.) and guitarist Scott Kannberg (also known as Spiral Stairs; b. August 30, 1966, Stockton, California). Manic original drummer Gary Young (b. c. 1954, Marmaroneck, New York), a counterculture veteran who ran…

  • S.6B (aircraft)

    military aircraft: Civilian design improvements: The last of these, the S.6B, powered by a liquid-cooled Rolls-Royce racing engine with in-line cylinders, later raised the world speed record to more than 400 miles (640 km) per hour. The S.6B’s tapered fuselage and broad, thin, elliptical wings were clearly evident in Mitchell’s later and most famous design,…

  • S.C. Johnson & Son (American company)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: International success and acclaim: …was the administrative centre for S.C. Johnson, wax manufacturers, at Racine, Wisconsin. Here Wright combined a closed, top-lit space with recurving forms and novel, tubular mushroom columns. The resulting airy enclosure is one of the most humane workrooms in modern architecture. Each of these buildings showed Wright to be as…

  • S.D.B. (religious order)

    Salesian: The founder of the Salesians of Don Bosco (formally, the Society of St. Francis de Sales; S.D.B.) was St. John Bosco (Don Bosco), a young priest who focused his concern on the orphaned and homeless child labourers he encountered in Turin, Italy. In 1859, inspired by the example of…

  • S.I. (political party, Indonesia)

    Sarekat Islām, the first nationalist political party in Indonesia to gain wide popular support. Founded in 1912 the party originated as an association of those Muslim merchants who wanted to advance their economic interests in relation to Chinese merchants in Java, but the association became

  • S.J. (religious order)

    Jesuit, member of the Society of Jesus (S.J.), a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works. The order has been regarded by many as the principal agent of the Counter-Reformation and was later a leading force

  • S.M. (Roman Catholic congregation)

    Marianist, a religious congregation of the Roman Catholic church founded by William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, Fr., in 1817. The Marianists, including the Brothers of Mary, developed from the sodality (a devotional association of the laity) of the Blessed Mother organized in 1800 by Chaminade.

  • S.O.B. (film by Edwards [1981])

    Blake Edwards: Later films: S.O.B. (1981) came next. A savage lampooning of the film industry, it received a mixed response from critics, who were much more in agreement with their general praise for Victor/Victoria (1982), which received a clutch of Academy Award nominations. It was based on a 1933…

  • S.O.Cist. (religious order)

    Cistercian, member of a Roman Catholic monastic order that was founded in 1098 and named after the original establishment at C?teaux (Latin: Cistercium), a locality in Burgundy, near Dijon, France. The order’s founders, led by St. Robert of Molesme, were a group of Benedictine monks from the abbey

  • S.O.S. Iceberg (film by Garnett [1933])

    Tay Garnett: Early work: In1933 Garnett helmed S.O.S. Iceberg, a well-received adventure drama that starred Rod La Rocque as a scientist who leads a mission to Greenland; Leni Riefenstahl was featured in a supporting role. The director earned further acclaim for China Seas (1935), a lively tale about piracy that starred Clark…

  • S.O.S. Wereldhandel (charitable Roman Catholic organization)

    fair trade: History: Wereldhandel, later renamed Fair Trade Original. In 1967 Fair Trade Original began purchasing products from producer groups in developing countries, initially importing wood carvings from the slums of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and later establishing subsidiaries in West Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Belgium.

  • S.S. Kresge Co. (American company)

    Kmart, American retail chain with a history of marketing general merchandise primarily through discount and variety stores. It is a subsidiary of Sears Holdings Corporation. The company was founded by Sebastian S. Kresge, a traveling hardware salesman, and John G. McCrory, owner of eight general

  • S.S. Tenacity (play by Vildrac)

    Charles Vildrac: …Le Paquebot Tenacity (produced, 1920; S.S. Tenacity), is a character study of two former soldiers about to immigrate to Canada. Michel Auclair (1921) revolves around the loyalty of a man to a woman who has rejected him. La Brouille (1930; “The Misunderstanding”) traces the quarrel of an idealist and a…

  • S.V.D. (religious organization)

    Divine Word Missionary, a Roman Catholic religious organization, composed of priests and brothers, founded in 1875 at Steyl, Neth., by Arnold Janssen to work in the foreign missions. Its members are engaged in all phases of missionary activity, from teaching in universities, colleges, and secondary

  • S/2005 P1 (moon of Pluto)

    Pluto: Pluto’s moons: Pluto’s other four moons—Hydra, Nix, Kerberos, and Styx—are much smaller than Charon. All four are elongated. They revolve around Pluto outside Charon’s path in nearly circular orbits (like Charon) and in the same orbital plane as Charon. The orbital radius of Hydra is about 64,721 km (40,216 miles);…

  • S/2005 P2 (moon of Pluto)

    Pluto: Pluto’s moons: Nix, Kerberos, and Styx—are much smaller than Charon. All four are elongated. They revolve around Pluto outside Charon’s path in nearly circular orbits (like Charon) and in the same orbital plane as Charon. The orbital radius of Hydra is about 64,721 km (40,216 miles); that…

  • S/A (navigation)

    GPS: Triangulation: …2000, a feature known as selective availability (S/A) intentionally degraded the civilian signal’s accuracy; S/A was terminated in part because of safety concerns related to the increasing use of GPS by civilian marine vessels and aircraft. Unaugmented civilian GPS now gives an error variance, for horizontal distances, of 30 metres…

  • S0 galaxy (astronomy)

    galaxy: S0 galaxies: These systems exhibit some of the properties of both the ellipticals and the spirals and seem to be a bridge between these two more common galaxy types. Hubble introduced the S0 class long after his original classification scheme had been universally adopted, largely…

  • S10 (satellite of Saturn)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: Janus and Epimetheus are co-orbital moons—they share the same average orbit. Every few years they make a close approach, interacting gravitationally in such a way that one transmits angular momentum to the other, which forces the latter into a slightly higher orbit and the former…

  • S11 (satellite of Saturn)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: Janus and Epimetheus are co-orbital moons—they share the same average orbit. Every few years they make a close approach, interacting gravitationally in such a way that one transmits angular momentum to the other, which forces the latter into a slightly higher orbit and the former into a…

  • S17 (satellite of Saturn)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: …of such inner moons as Atlas are puzzling, and they appear to support the idea that the current ring system is much younger than Saturn itself.

  • S3 (data storage)

    Amazon.com: Beyond retailing: That same year, the Simple Storage Service (S3), which rents data storage over the Internet, became available.

  • S4 (logical system)

    formal logic: Alternative systems of modal logic: … to T is known as S4; that obtained by adding Mp ? LMp to T is known as S5; and the addition of p ? LMp to T gives the Brouwerian system (named for the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer), here called B for short.

  • S5 (logical system)

    formal logic: Alternative systems of modal logic: … to T is known as S5; and the addition of p ? LMp to T gives the Brouwerian system (named for the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer), here called B for short.

  • SA (Nazi organization)

    SA, in the German Nazi Party, a paramilitary organization whose methods of violent intimidation played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power. The SA was founded in Munich by Hitler in 1921 out of various roughneck elements that had attached themselves to the fledgling Nazi movement. It drew

  • ?ā Al-?ajar (ancient city, Egypt)

    Sais, ancient Egyptian city (Sai) in the Nile River delta on the Canopic (Rosetta) Branch of the Nile River, in Al-Gharbīyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate). From prehistoric times Sais was the location of the chief shrine of Neith, the goddess of war and of the loom. The city became politically important

  • Sá Carneiro, Francisco (prime minister of Portugal)

    Francisco Sá Carneiro, Portuguese politician who served as prime minister of Portugal (1979–80). A lawyer by profession, Sá Carneiro was elected to the National Assembly in 1969 but resigned in 1973. After a military coup in April 1974, he founded the Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) and

  • Sá da Bandeira (Angola)

    Lubango, city, southwestern Angola, about 100 miles (160 km) east of Namibe (formerly Mo?amedes), to which it is linked by rail. The city was originally established in 1885 as a settlement for colonists from the Madeira Islands. It lies at an elevation of 5,774 feet (1,760 metres) in a valley of

  • Sa Dac (Vietnam)

    Sa Dec, town on the Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam. It is a river port, agricultural trading centre, and transshipment point for small craft on the left bank of the shallow Han Giang (Bassac) River, 88 miles (140 km) southwest of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). It is linked by highway to

  • Sá de Miranda, Francisco de (Portuguese author)

    Francisco de Sá de Miranda, Portuguese poet who introduced Renaissance poetic forms to Portugal. The illegitimate son of a canon of Coimbra, Gon?alo Mendes de Sá, and Dona Inês de Melo, he was made legitimate in 1490. He studied at the university, which was then in Lisbon, and seems to have lived

  • Sa Dec (Vietnam)

    Sa Dec, town on the Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam. It is a river port, agricultural trading centre, and transshipment point for small craft on the left bank of the shallow Han Giang (Bassac) River, 88 miles (140 km) southwest of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). It is linked by highway to

  • Sa El-Hagar (ancient city, Egypt)

    Sais, ancient Egyptian city (Sai) in the Nile River delta on the Canopic (Rosetta) Branch of the Nile River, in Al-Gharbīyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate). From prehistoric times Sais was the location of the chief shrine of Neith, the goddess of war and of the loom. The city became politically important

  • Sa galaxy (astronomy)

    galaxy: Sa galaxies: These normal spirals have narrow, tightly wound arms, which usually are visible because of the presence of interstellar dust and, in many cases, bright stars. Most of them have a large amorphous bulge in the centre, but there are some that violate this…

  • Sa Suisse Pour La Navigation Aérienne (Swiss airline)

    Swiss International Air Lines (SWISS), Swiss airline formed in 2002 following the bankruptcy of Swiss Air Transport Company Ltd. (Swissair). The airline serves cities in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and North and Latin America. Swissair was founded on March 26, 1931, in the merger of

  • Sa’inu (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pelusium, ancient Egyptian city on the easternmost mouth of the Nile River (long silted up). The Egyptians likely called it Sa?inu and also Per-Amon (House of Amon), whence perhaps the site’s modern name, Tell Farama. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Port Said, in the Sinai Peninsula. I

  • Sá, Mem de (captain-general of Brazil)

    donatário: …of the succeeding captain general, Mem de Sá (1557–72), workable policies for the colony were formed and implemented, and vigorous attempts were made to gather the Indians into settlements. There were eight captaincies by 1580, and Brazil had become an economically viable, though not a wealthy, colony. Its capital was…

  • SA-1 Guild (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: Beginning with the SA-1 Guild, developed in the immediate postwar period, the Soviets steadily fielded SAMs of growing sophistication. These fell into two categories: systems such as the Guild, the SA-3 Goa, the SA-5 Gammon, and the SA-10 Grumble, which were deployed in defense of fixed installations; and…

  • SA-10 Grumble (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: These included the SA-10 Grumble, a Mach-6 mobile system with a 60-mile range deployed in both strategic and tactical versions; the SA-11 Gadfly, a Mach-3 semiactive radar homing system with a range of 17 miles; the SA-12 Gladiator, a track-mobile replacement of Ganef; the SA-13 Gopher, a replacement…

  • SA-11 Gadfly (missile)

    Malaysia Airlines flight 17: …from a Buk (also called SA-11) surface-to-air system that was more than capable of reaching the cruising altitude of flight 17. The missile never struck the aircraft directly. Instead, as intended, its warhead exploded a few feet away from the cockpit, propelling hundreds of shrapnel fragments through the fuselage. The…

  • SA-12 Gladiator (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: …range of 17 miles; the SA-12 Gladiator, a track-mobile replacement of Ganef; the SA-13 Gopher, a replacement for Gaskin; and the SA-14, a shoulder-fired Grail replacement. Both Grumble and Gadfly had naval equivalents, the SA-N-6 and SA-N-7. The Gladiator might have been designed with an antimissile capability, making it an…

  • SA-13 Gopher (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: …track-mobile replacement of Ganef; the SA-13 Gopher, a replacement for Gaskin; and the SA-14, a shoulder-fired Grail replacement. Both Grumble and Gadfly had naval equivalents, the SA-N-6 and SA-N-7. The Gladiator might have been designed with an antimissile capability, making it an element of the antiballistic missile defense around Moscow.

  • SA-14 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: …replacement for Gaskin; and the SA-14, a shoulder-fired Grail replacement. Both Grumble and Gadfly had naval equivalents, the SA-N-6 and SA-N-7. The Gladiator might have been designed with an antimissile capability, making it an element of the antiballistic missile defense around Moscow.

  • SA-2 Guideline (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-2 Guideline, introduced in 1958, was the most widely deployed of the early SAMs and was the first surface-to-air guided-missile system used in combat. This two-stage missile with a solid booster and a liquid-propellant (kerosene and nitric acid) sustainer, could engage targets at ranges of…

  • SA-3 Goa (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-3 Goa, derived from the Guideline but modified for use against low-altitude targets, was first deployed in 1963—primarily in defense of fixed installations. The SA-N-1 was a similar naval missile.

  • SA-4 Ganef (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-4 Ganef was a long-range mobile system first deployed in the mid-1960s; the missiles, carried in pairs on a tracked launcher, used drop-off solid-fuel boosters and a ramjet sustainer motor. Employing a combination of radar command guidance and active radar homing, and supported by an…

  • SA-4-1BBL (molecule)

    cancer: Milestones in cancer science: One such molecule was SA-4-1BBL, which prevented the development of tumours in mice exposed to different types of tumour cells.

  • SA-5 Gammon (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-5 Gammon was a high- and medium-altitude strategic missile system with a range of 185 miles; it was exported to Syria and Libya. The SA-6 Gainful was a mobile tactical system with a range of two to 35 miles and a ceiling of 50,000 feet.…

  • SA-6 Gainful (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Semiactive: Hawk and Soviet SA-6 Gainful antiaircraft systems, for example, the missile homed in on radar emissions transmitted from the launch site and reflected off the target, measuring the Doppler shift in the reflected emissions to assist in computing the intercept trajectory. (SA-6 Gainful is a designation given by…

  • SA-7 Grail (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Passive: …Vietnam War, with the Soviet SA-7 Grail playing a major role in neutralizing the South Vietnamese Air Force in the final communist offensive in 1975. Ten years later the U.S. Stinger and British Blowpipe proved effective against Soviet aircraft and helicopters in Afghanistan, as did the U.S. Redeye in Central…

  • SA-8 Gecko (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-8 Gecko, first deployed in the mid-1970s, was a fully mobile system mounted on a novel six-wheeled amphibious vehicle. Each vehicle carried four canister-launched, semiactive radar homing missiles, with a range of about 7.5 miles, plus guidance and tracking equipment in a rotating turret. It…

  • SA-9 Gaskin (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-9 Gaskin carried four infrared-homing missiles on a turreted mount atop a four-wheeled vehicle. Its missiles were larger than the SA-7 and had more sophisticated seeker and guidance systems.

  • Sá-Carneiro, Mário de (Portuguese author)

    Mário de Sá-Carneiro, poet and novelist, one of the most original and complex figures of the Portuguese Modernist movement. Sá-Carneiro studied in Paris at the Sorbonne. His first poems, Dispers?o (“Dispersion”), were written in Paris and published in 1914. In the same year he published a novel, A

  • Sa-ga zla-ba (Tibetan festival)

    Tibet: Festivals: …fasting, and charitable donations mark Sa-ga zla-ba (or Saga dawa), the celebration of the anniversary of Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, and death—three events that all occurred on the 15th day of the fourth month of the Tibetan calendar.

  • Sa-in (Japanese government)

    Dajōkan: …1871, into three chambers: a Left Chamber (Sa-in), the legislative body; a Right Chamber (U-in), which directed the various ministries; and a Central Chamber (Sei-in), which subsumed the powers of the other two chambers.

  • SA-N-1 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-N-1 was a similar naval missile.

  • SA-N-3 Goblet (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: (The SA-N-3 Goblet was a similar naval system.) Gainful, the first truly mobile land-based SAM system, was first used in combat during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and was highly effective at first against Israeli fighters. The Mach-3 missile proved virtually impossible to outmaneuver, forcing the fighters…

  • Sa-skya (monastery, Tibet, China)

    Sa-skya-pa: …its name from the great Sa-skya (Sakya) monastery founded in 1073, 50 miles (80 km) north of Mount Everest. The sect follows the teachings of the noted traveler and scholar ’Brog-mi (992–1072). He translated into Tibetan the important Tantric work Hevajra Tantra, which remains one of the basic texts of…

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