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  • Saguenay River (river, Canada)

    Saguenay River, river in Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region, south central Quebec province, Canada. It drains Lac-Saint-Jean into the St. Lawrence River at Tadoussac, about 120 miles (190 km) northeast of Quebec city. Flowing east-southeast, the Saguenay, in the first third of its 105-mile (170-km)

  • Saguia el-Hamra (region, Western Sahara, Africa)

    Saguia el-Hamra, northern geographic region of Western Sahara, northwest Africa. Stretching between Cape Bojador and the de jure Moroccan border, its area is about 31,660 square miles (82,000 square km). After Spain withdrew from the country in 1976, the region was annexed by Morocco. The chief

  • Saguinus imperator (primate)

    marmoset: The emperor tamarin (S. imperator) of the southwestern Amazon basin, for example, has a long white mustache complementing its long grizzled fur and reddish tail, whereas the mustached tamarin (S. mystax) has a small white upswept mustache. The cotton-top tamarin (S. oedipus), found in Colombia and…

  • Saguinus midas (primate)

    marmoset: The golden-handed tamarin, S. midas, is named for the mythological Greek king.

  • Saguinus mystax (primate)

    marmoset: …and reddish tail, whereas the mustached tamarin (S. mystax) has a small white upswept mustache. The cotton-top tamarin (S. oedipus), found in Colombia and Panama, has a scruffy white crest of hair on the top of its head. The golden-handed tamarin, S. midas, is named for the mythological Greek king.

  • Saguinus oedipus (primate)

    marmoset: The cotton-top tamarin (S. oedipus), found in Colombia and Panama, has a scruffy white crest of hair on the top of its head. The golden-handed tamarin, S. midas, is named for the mythological Greek king.

  • Sagun, Ambika (Indian actress)

    Lalita Pawar, Indian actress whose career of more than 600 films was most notably defined by her roles as a mean, domineering mother-in-law; her performances were enhanced by a permanent squint in one eye, the result of an accident on a film set (b. April 18, 1918, Indore, India--d. Feb. 24, 1998,

  • sagu?a (Hindu concept)

    nirgu?a: …or as possessing qualities (sagu?a).

  • Sagunto (Spain)

    Sagunto, town, Valencia provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, eastern Spain, at the foot of the Pe?as de Pajarito, on the western bank of the Palancia River, just north-northeast of Valencia city. Of Iberian origin, the town is the ancient Saguntum,

  • Saguntum (Spain)

    Sagunto, town, Valencia provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, eastern Spain, at the foot of the Pe?as de Pajarito, on the western bank of the Palancia River, just north-northeast of Valencia city. Of Iberian origin, the town is the ancient Saguntum,

  • SAH (pathology)

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage, bleeding into the space between the two innermost protective coverings surrounding the brain, the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. A subarachnoid hemorrhage most often occurs as the result of significant head trauma and is usually seen in the setting of skull fractures or

  • Saha equation (astronomy)

    Saha equation, mathematical relationship between the observed spectra of stars and their temperatures. The equation was stated first in 1920 by the Indian astrophysicist Meghnad N. Saha. It expresses how the state of ionization of any particular element in a star changes with varying temperatures

  • Saha ionization (astrophysics)

    mass spectrometry: Thermal ionization: Atoms with low ionization potentials can be ionized by contact with the heated surface of a metal, generally a filament, having a high work function (the energy required to remove an electron from its surface) in a process called thermal, or surface, ionization.…

  • Saha Pracha Thai Party (political party, Thailand)

    Thanom Kittikachorn: Thanom’s United Thai People’s Party won a parliamentary majority, and Thanom continued as both prime minister and minister of defense.

  • Saha, Meghnad N. (Indian astrophysicist)

    Meghnad N. Saha, Indian astrophysicist noted for his development in 1920 of the thermal ionization equation, which, in the form perfected by the British astrophysicist Edward A. Milne, has remained fundamental in all work on stellar atmospheres. This equation has been widely applied to the

  • Sahab, Muhammad (Minangkabau leader)

    Imam Bondjol, Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century. When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a

  • ?a?āba (Islamic history)

    Companions of the Prophet, in Islām, followers of Mu?ammad who had personal contact with him, however slight. In fact, any Muslim who was alive in any part of the Prophet’s lifetime and saw him may be reckoned among the Companions. The first four caliphs, who are the ?a?ābah held in highest esteem

  • ?a?ābah (Islamic history)

    Companions of the Prophet, in Islām, followers of Mu?ammad who had personal contact with him, however slight. In fact, any Muslim who was alive in any part of the Prophet’s lifetime and saw him may be reckoned among the Companions. The first four caliphs, who are the ?a?ābah held in highest esteem

  • Sahagalli (India)

    Sangli, city, southern Maharashtra state, western India. It lies in a upland region along the Krishna River, about 20 miles (32 km) east-northeast of Kolhapur. Sangli is the former capital (1761–1947) of Sangli state. The city’s original name was Sahagalli—from the Marathi terms saha (“six”) and

  • Sahagún de Fox, Martha (Mexican first lady)

    Vicente Fox: In 2004 Fox’s wife, Martha Sahagún de Fox, briefly considered seeking the Mexican presidency (Fox was constitutionally ineligible for a second term), but her potential candidacy aroused considerable hostility in the public as well as among political leaders. In 2006 Fox left office, succeeded by Felipe Calderón of the…

  • Sahagún, Bernardino de (Spanish historian)

    encyclopaedia: Special interests: …the 16th-century Spanish Franciscan Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, who spent much of his life in missionary work in Mexico. Sahagún was ordered to write in Nahuatl the information needed by his colleagues for the conversion of the indigenous peoples of the region. The result, the Historia general de las cosas…

  • Sahaif-ül-Ahbar (work by Müneccimba??)

    Ahmed Dede Müneccimba??: Sahaif-ül-Ahbar . . . (“The Pages of the Chronicle”), a Turkish summary translation made by the poet Ahmed Nedin, is the only published version. The work is a universal history that starts with Adam and ends in the year 1672. It covers in detail the…

  • Sahaj-Dhari (Sikh religious group)

    Sikhism: Other groups: The Sahaj-Dharis are one of two groups of Sikhs that do not wear uncut hair. They also reject other injunctions of the Rahit, and they do not adopt typical Sikh personal names. Tat Khalsa scholars once believed that sahaj-dhari meant “slow-adopter” and was used to designate…

  • sahaja (Hinduism)

    Vaishnava-Sahajiya: Sahaja (Sanskrit: “easy” or “natural”) as a system of worship was prevalent in the Tantric traditions common to both Hinduism and Buddhism in Bengal as early as the 8th–9th centuries. The divine romance of Krishna and Radha was celebrated by the poets Jayadeva (12th century),…

  • Sahajayāna (Tantrism)

    Hinduism: The rise of devotional Hinduism (4th–11th century): This system, known as Sahajayana (“Vehicle of the Natural” or “Easy Vehicle”), influenced both Bengali devotional Vaishnavism, which produced a sect called Vaishnava-Sahajiya with similar doctrines, and the Natha yogis (mentioned below), whose teachings influenced Kabir and other later bhakti masters.

  • Sahajiya (Hindu movement)

    Vaishnava-Sahajiya, member of an esoteric Hindu movement centred in Bengal that sought religious experience through the world of the senses, specifically human sexual love. Sahaja (Sanskrit: “easy” or “natural”) as a system of worship was prevalent in the Tantric traditions common to both Hinduism

  • Sahak the Great, Saint (Armenian religious leader)

    Saint Isaac the Great, feast days two weeks before Lent and early in July; celebrated catholicos, or spiritual head, of the Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church, principal advocate of Armenian cultural and ecclesiastical independence and collaborator in the first translation of the Bible and varied

  • Sahand, Mount (mountain, Iran)

    Iran: Volcanic and tectonic activity: … (15,787 feet [4,812 metres]) and Mount Sahand (12,172 feet [3,710 metres]) in the northwest. The Sahand-Bazman Belt, formed by Eocene volcanism, extends some 1,200 miles (1,900 km) from the border with Azerbaijan in the northwest to Baluchistan in the southeast and includes volcanic peaks such as Mount Sahand, Mount Karkas…

  • Sahand-Bazman Belt (volcanic belt, Iran)

    Iran: Volcanic and tectonic activity: The Sahand-Bazman Belt, formed by Eocene volcanism, extends some 1,200 miles (1,900 km) from the border with Azerbaijan in the northwest to Baluchistan in the southeast and includes volcanic peaks such as Mount Sahand, Mount Karkas in E?fahān province, Mount Lalahezar in Kermān province, and Bazman…

  • Sahaptian (people)

    Sahaptin, linguistic grouping of North American Indian tribes speaking related languages within the Penutian family. They traditionally resided in what are now southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and west-central Idaho, U.S., in the basin of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Major

  • Sahaptian languages

    Penutian languages: …plus three extinct Costanoan languages), Sahaptin (two languages), Yakonan (two extinct languages), Yokutsan (three languages), and Maiduan (four languages)—plus Klamath-Modoc, Cayuse (extinct), Molale (extinct), Coos, Takelma (extinct), Kalapuya

  • Sahaptin (people)

    Sahaptin, linguistic grouping of North American Indian tribes speaking related languages within the Penutian family. They traditionally resided in what are now southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and west-central Idaho, U.S., in the basin of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Major

  • Sahaptin languages

    Penutian languages: …plus three extinct Costanoan languages), Sahaptin (two languages), Yakonan (two extinct languages), Yokutsan (three languages), and Maiduan (four languages)—plus Klamath-Modoc, Cayuse (extinct), Molale (extinct), Coos, Takelma (extinct), Kalapuya

  • Sahara (film by Korda [1943])

    Zoltan Korda: Sahara (1943) is probably Korda’s best-known film, a classic World War II adventure that was written by Korda and John Howard Lawson—who would pay for the film’s socialist subtext when tried before the House Un-American Activities Committee a few years later. Humphrey Bogart starred as…

  • Sahara (desert, Africa)

    Sahara, (from Arabic ?a?rā?, “desert”) largest desert in the world. Filling nearly all of northern Africa, it measures approximately 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from east to west and between 800 and 1,200 miles from north to south and has a total area of some 3,320,000 square miles (8,600,000 square

  • Sahara desert ant (insect)

    Sahara desert ant, any of several species of ant in the genus Cataglyphis that dwell in the Sahara, particularly C. fortis and C. bicolor. The navigational capabilities of these ants have been the subject of numerous scientific investigations. Well adapted to the extreme conditions of their

  • Sahara sand viper (snake)

    Cerastes: …above each eye, and the common, or Sahara, sand viper (C. vipera), which lacks these scales. Both species are small (seldom more than 60 cm [about 2 feet] long), stocky, and broad-headed and are found in northern Africa and the Middle East.

  • Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (self-declared state)

    Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), self-declared state claiming authority over the disputed territory of Western Sahara, which is presently occupied by Morocco. The independence of the SADR has been recognized at various points by some 80 countries, although, beginning in the mid-1990s, a

  • Saharan Atlas (mountains, Africa)

    Saharan Atlas, part of the chain of Atlas Mountains, extending across northern Africa from Algeria into Tunisia. The principal ranges from west to east are the Ksour, Amour, Ouled-Na?l, Zab, Aurès, and Tébessa (Tabassah). Mount Chélia (7,638 feet [2,328 m]) is the highest point in northern A

  • Saharan languages

    Saharan languages, group of languages that constitutes one of the major divisions of Nilo-Saharan languages. Saharan languages are spoken mainly around Lake Chad—which is located at the conjunction of Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger—but also in Libya and Sudan. Subdivided into eastern and

  • Saharan Taouratine Series (rock unit, Africa)

    Africa: Continental formations: The Saharan Taouratine Series, containing fossils of vegetation and of great reptiles, was laid down during the Jurassic. In the upper Karoo System of subequatorial Africa, formed during the early Triassic Period, the Beaufort Series contains fossils of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The final stages of…

  • Saharanpur (India)

    Saharanpur, city, northwestern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is situated at the northern end of the Upper Ganges-Yamuna Doab, about 35 miles (56 km) west-northwest of Haridwar, Uttarakhand. Saharanpur was founded about 1340 and is named for Shah Haran Chishti, a Muslim saint. It is a

  • Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (self-declared state)

    Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), self-declared state claiming authority over the disputed territory of Western Sahara, which is presently occupied by Morocco. The independence of the SADR has been recognized at various points by some 80 countries, although, beginning in the mid-1990s, a

  • ?a?ārā? (desert, Africa)

    Sahara, (from Arabic ?a?rā?, “desert”) largest desert in the world. Filling nearly all of northern Africa, it measures approximately 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from east to west and between 800 and 1,200 miles from north to south and has a total area of some 3,320,000 square miles (8,600,000 square

  • Sahariya (people)

    Rajasthan: Population composition: Sahariya communities are found in the southeast, and the Rabari, who traditionally are cattle breeders, live to the west of the Aravallis in west-central Rajasthan.

  • Saharsa (India)

    Saharsa, city, east-central Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated just east of the Kosi River. The city is a major rail and road hub and has an electric power station. It was constituted a municipality in 1961. The surrounding region consists of fertile alluvial plains irrigated by the

  • Sahbā?, Wadi al- (river, Arabia)

    Arabian Desert: Physiography: …by such wadis as Al-Rimah–Al-Bā?in, Al-Sahbā?, and Dawāsir-Jawb, which carried vast loads of sediment from the interior toward the Persian Gulf. The Al-Dibdibah region once was the delta of Wadi Al-Rimah–Al-Bā?in, and Al-Budū? Plain was the delta of Wadi Al-Sahbā?. The gravel plains of Raydā? and Abū Ba?r, and adjacent…

  • Sahdol (India)

    Shahdol, town, eastern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies along the Murna River (a tributary of the Son River) about 110 miles (177 km) northwest of Bilaspur. The town is an agricultural market and a rail and road junction. It has a government college and a law school affiliated with

  • Sahel (plain, Tunisia)

    Al-Sā?il, coastal plain in the eastern Mediterranean littoral of Tunisia that includes a sandy coast with large bays and lagoons of the Mediterranean and is situated between the sea and the steppe country of central Tunisia. The region extends from the town of Al-Nafīdah on the central coast of the

  • Sahel (region, Africa)

    Sahel, semiarid region of western and north-central Africa extending from Senegal eastward to Sudan. It forms a transitional zone between the arid Sahara (desert) to the north and the belt of humid savannas to the south. The Sahel stretches from the Atlantic Ocean eastward through northern Senegal,

  • Sahel: Man in Distress (work by Salgado)

    Sebasti?o Salgado: This was followed by Sahel: Man in Distress (1986), a book on the 1984–85 famine in the Sahel region of Africa, and An Uncertain Grace (1990), which included a remarkable group of photographs of mud-covered workers at the Serra Pelada gold mine in Brazil.

  • Sahelanthropus tchadensis (fossil hominin)

    Australopithecus: …the human lineage (hominins) include Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7–6 mya), Orrorin tugenensis (6 mya), Ardipithecus kadabba (5.8–5.2 mya), and Ar. ramidus (5.8–4.4 mya)—that is, pre-Australopithecus species that are considered to be ancient humans—and one additional species of early human, Kenyanthropus platyops (3.5 mya). The first undisputed

  • Saheth-Maheth (India)

    Gonda: Saheth-Maheth, northwest, was the site of Shravasti, an ancient Buddhist monastic estate. Pop. (2001) 120,301; (2011) 114,046.

  • Sahgal, Nayantara (Indian journalist and author)

    Nayantara Sahgal, Indian journalist and novelist whose fiction presents the personal crises of India’s elite amid settings of political upheaval. Sahgal was educated in the United States at Wellesley College (B.A., 1947). Well acquainted with Indian aristocracy—her uncle was Jawaharlal Nehru, her

  • Sahgal, Nayantara Pandit (Indian journalist and author)

    Nayantara Sahgal, Indian journalist and novelist whose fiction presents the personal crises of India’s elite amid settings of political upheaval. Sahgal was educated in the United States at Wellesley College (B.A., 1947). Well acquainted with Indian aristocracy—her uncle was Jawaharlal Nehru, her

  • Sahib al-Fath (Somalian Muslim leader)

    A?mad Grā?, leader of a Muslim movement that all but subjugated Ethiopia. At the height of his conquest, he held more than three-quarters of the kingdom, and, according to the chronicles, the majority of men in these conquered areas had converted to Islam. Once A?mad Grā? had gained control of the

  • Sāhibdīn (Indian painter)

    Sāhibdīn, an outstanding Indian artist of the Mewār school of Rājasthanī painting (see Mewār painting). He is one of the few Rājasthanī artists whose name is known, and his work dominated the Mewār school during the first half of the 17th century. Though he was a Muslim, Sāhibdīn was fully at ease

  • Sahid Minar (building, Kolkata, India)

    Kolkata: Architecture: The beautiful column of the Sahid Minar (Ochterlony Monument) is 165 feet (50 metres) high—its base is Egyptian, its column Syrian, and its cupola in the Turkish style. Victoria Memorial Hall represents an attempt to combine classical Western influence with Mughal architecture; the Nakhoda Mosque is modeled on the tomb…

  • Sahidic (dialect)

    Coptic language: Sahidic (from Arabic, a?-?a?īd [Upper Egypt]) was originally the dialect spoken around Thebes; after the 5th century it was the standard Coptic of all of Upper Egypt. It is one of the best-documented and well-known dialects.

  • ?a?ī? (work by Muslim ibn al-?ajjāj)

    Muslim ibn al-?ajjāj: …widely; his great work, the ?a?ī? (“The Genuine”), is said to have been compiled from about 300,000 traditions, which he collected in Arabia, Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. The ?a?ī? has been unanimously acclaimed as authoritative and is one of the six canonical collections of ?adīth. Muslim was careful to give…

  • Sā?il (region, Africa)

    Sahel, semiarid region of western and north-central Africa extending from Senegal eastward to Sudan. It forms a transitional zone between the arid Sahara (desert) to the north and the belt of humid savannas to the south. The Sahel stretches from the Atlantic Ocean eastward through northern Senegal,

  • Sā?il, Al- (plain, Tunisia)

    Al-Sā?il, coastal plain in the eastern Mediterranean littoral of Tunisia that includes a sandy coast with large bays and lagoons of the Mediterranean and is situated between the sea and the steppe country of central Tunisia. The region extends from the town of Al-Nafīdah on the central coast of the

  • Sahiwal (Pakistan)

    Sahiwal, city, east-central Punjab province, eastern Pakistan. It lies on the vast Indus River plain in the densely populated region between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. The city was founded in 1865 and was named for Sir Robert Montgomery, then lieutenant governor of the Punjab in British-controlled

  • Sahl at-Tustarī (Muslim scholar and mystic)

    Sālimīyah: …the Muslim scholar and mystic Sahl at-Tustarī (d. ad 896). The school was named after one of his disciples, Mu?ammad ibn Sālim (d. ad 909). Even though the Sālimīyah were not a ?ūfī (mystic) group in the strict sense of the word, they utilized many ?ūfī terms and ideas in…

  • Sahl ?Akkār (region, Middle East)

    Syria: Relief: It then widens into the ?Akkār Plain, which continues south across the Lebanon border.

  • Sahl, Mort (American comedian)

    stand-up comedy: The new wave: The groundbreaker was Mort Sahl, who appeared onstage sitting on a stool with a rolled-up newspaper in his hand and talked in normal conversational tones—delivering not gag lines but caustic commentary on the political leaders, popular culture, and pillars of respectability of American society during the conservative 1950s.…

  • Sahlé Mariam (emperor of Ethiopia)

    Menilek II, king of Shewa (or Shoa; 1865–89), and emperor of Ethiopia (1889–1913). One of Ethiopia’s greatest rulers, he expanded the empire almost to its present-day borders, repelled an Italian invasion in 1896, and carried out a wide-ranging program of modernization. Menilek’s father was Haile M

  • Sahle Miriam (emperor of Ethiopia)

    Menilek II, king of Shewa (or Shoa; 1865–89), and emperor of Ethiopia (1889–1913). One of Ethiopia’s greatest rulers, he expanded the empire almost to its present-day borders, repelled an Italian invasion in 1896, and carried out a wide-ranging program of modernization. Menilek’s father was Haile M

  • Sahle Selassie (king of Ethiopia)

    Sahle Selassie, ruler (1813–47) of the kingdom of Shewa (Shoa), Ethiopia. He was the grandfather of Emperor Menilek II (reigned 1889–1913) and the great-grandfather of Emperor Haile Selassie I. His name means “Clemency of the Trinity.” A member of the Amhara royal family, Sahle Selassie ruled the

  • Sahlins, Bernard George (American producer, director, and teacher)

    Bernard George Sahlins, (Bernie), American producer, director, and teacher (born Aug. 20, 1922, Chicago, Ill.—died June 16, 2013, Chicago), cofounded (1959), with Howard Alk and Paul Sills, the Second City improvisation theatre company in Chicago, which he later produced and directed. Unlike other

  • Sahlins, Marshall (American anthropologist)

    Marshall Sahlins, American anthropologist, educator, activist, and author who through his study of the people and culture of the South Pacific—primarily Hawaii and Fiji—made monumental contributions to his field. Though his work is widely respected, a number of his theories placed him at the crux

  • ?ahnāī (musical instrument)

    Shehnai, double-reed conical oboe of North India. The shehnai is made of wood, except for a flaring metal bell attached to the bottom of the instrument, and measures about 12–20 inches (30–50 cm) in length, with six to eight keyless finger holes along its body. Possessing a two-octave range, the

  • Sahni, Bhisham (Hindi writer, actor, teacher, and translator)

    Bhisham Sahni, Hindi writer, actor, teacher, translator, and polyglot who was especially known for his poignant and realistic work Tamas (1974; Darkness), depicting the aftermath of the 1947 partition of India. In 1986 filmmaker Govind Nihalani adapted the work into a made-for-television

  • Saho (people)

    Saho, people of the coastal plains of southern Eritrea. Traditional Saho culture involved considerable mobility, because people needed to move their herds of camels, sheep, goats, and, more recently, cattle from summer pasture to winter pasture each year. However, the Saho have become increasingly

  • saho no mai (Japanese dance)

    bugaku: …dances comprise two basic forms: sahō no mai (“dances of the left”), accompanied by tōgaku (music derived mainly from Chinese forms); and uhō samai no mai (“dances of the right”), accompanied primarily by komagaku (music introduced from Korea). The two forms are also differentiated by the colour of the dancers’…

  • Saho-Afar languages

    Saho-Afar languages, related but distinct languages spoken by several peoples, most of whom inhabit the coastal plains of southern Eritrea and Djibouti. Saho and Afar are generally classified as Eastern Cushitic languages of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. The Saho peoples are bordered to the

  • Sahpo Muxika (Blackfoot chief)

    Crowfoot, head chief of the Blackfoot people and a strong advocate of peace and subservience to whites. Crowfoot was only 13 years old when he took part in his first raid. He became a noted warrior and was appointed head chief of the Blackfoot. He tried to discourage tribal warfare, and he refused

  • ?ahr (Turkey)

    Comana, ancient city of Cappadocia, on the upper course of the Seyhan (Sarus) River, in southern Turkey. Often called Chryse to distinguish it from Comana in Pontus, it was the place where the cult of Ma-Enyo, a variant of the great west Asian mother goddess, was celebrated with orgiastic rites.

  • Sahra (work by Hamid)

    Islamic arts: Turkish literatures: …1879 he published his epoch-making Sahra (“The Country”), a collection of 10 Turkish poems that were the first to be composed in Western verse forms and style. Later he turned to unusual and often morbid subject matter in his poetic dramas. He, like his colleagues, had to endure political restrictions…

  • Sahrāwardī Mosque (mosque, Baghdad, Iraq)

    Baghdad: Architecture and monuments: …restored as museums, and the Sahrāwardī Mosque (1234). The Was?ānī Gate, the only remnant of the medieval wall, has been converted into the Arms Museum.

  • Sahrawi (people)

    Western Sahara: History: …Sahara’s indigenous inhabitants, the nomadic Sahrawis, sprang up in the early 1970s, calling itself the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro (Polisario Front). The insurgency led Spain to declare in 1975 that it would withdraw from the area. Faced with consistent pressure from Morocco…

  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (self-declared state)

    Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), self-declared state claiming authority over the disputed territory of Western Sahara, which is presently occupied by Morocco. The independence of the SADR has been recognized at various points by some 80 countries, although, beginning in the mid-1990s, a

  • ?a?rāwī, Abū Ya?yā Yūnus al- (Libyan al-Qaeda strategist)

    Abū Ya?yā al-Lībī, Libyan al-Qaeda strategist who emerged as one of the organization’s top leaders in the early 21st century. Al-Lībī was considered one of al-Qaeda’s main theologians, because the top two al-Qaeda leaders—Osama bin Laden (an engineer) and Ayman al-?awāhirī (a physician)—did not

  • ?a?rā? al-Gharbīyah, As- (desert, Egypt)

    Egypt: Relief: …flows into two unequal sections—the Western Desert, between the river and the Libyan frontier, and the Eastern Desert, extending to the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Suez, and the Red Sea. Each of the two has a distinctive character, as does the third and smallest of the Egyptian deserts, the…

  • ?a?rā? al-Gharbiyyah, Al- (region, Africa)

    Western Sahara, territory occupying an extensive desert Atlantic-coastal area (97,344 square miles [252,120 square km]) of northwest Africa. It is composed of the geographic regions of Río de Oro (“River of Gold”), occupying the southern two-thirds of the region (between Cape Blanco and Cape

  • ?a?rā? Al-Lībīyah, Al- (desert, North Africa)

    Libyan Desert, northeastern portion of the Sahara, extending from eastern Libya through southwestern Egypt into the extreme northwest of Sudan. The desert’s bare rocky plateaus and stony or sandy plains are harsh, arid, and inhospitable. The highest point is Mount Al-?Uwaynāt (6,345 feet [1,934

  • Sa?rā? Al-Sharqīyah, Al- (desert, Egypt)

    Eastern Desert, large desert in eastern Egypt. Originating just southeast of the Nile River delta, it extends southeastward into northeastern Sudan and from the Nile River valley eastward to the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. It covers an area of about 85,690 square miles (221,940 square km). The

  • ?a?rā? an-Nūbiya, A?- (desert, Sudan)

    Nubian Desert, desert in northeastern Sudan. It is separated from the Libyan Desert by the Nile River valley to the west, while to the north is Egypt; eastward, the Red Sea; and southward, the Nile again. Unlike the Libyan Desert, the Nubian Desert is rocky and rugged, though there are some d

  • Sahsaram (India)

    Sasaram, city, southwestern Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated about 10 miles (16 km) west of Dehri. Located at a major road and rail junction, Sasaram is an agricultural trade centre. Carpet and pottery manufacture are important. The red sandstone mausoleum of the emperor Shēr Shah of

  • ?āhū (Marā?hā ruler)

    India: Rise of the peshwas: …respect is the reign of Shahu, who succeeded Rajaram in 1708 with some acrimony from his widow, Tara Bai.

  • sahuaro (plant)

    Saguaro, (Carnegiea gigantea), large cactus species (family Cactaceae), native to Mexico and to Arizona and California in the United States. The fruits are an important food of American Indians, who also use the woody saguaro skeletons. Ecologically, the plants provide protective nesting sites for

  • Sahuayo (Mexico)

    Sahuayo, city, northwestern Michoacán estado (state), west-central Mexico. It lies on the central plateau at 5,085 feet (1,550 metres) above sea level, south of Lake Chapala. Although the climate is temperate, rainfall is only moderate. Irrigation has opened up land for the cultivation of corn

  • Sahuayo de José María Morelos (Mexico)

    Sahuayo, city, northwestern Michoacán estado (state), west-central Mexico. It lies on the central plateau at 5,085 feet (1,550 metres) above sea level, south of Lake Chapala. Although the climate is temperate, rainfall is only moderate. Irrigation has opened up land for the cultivation of corn

  • Sahul Shelf (continental shelf, Pacific Ocean)

    Sahul Shelf, stable structural shelf or platform of the ocean floor, extending from the northern coast of Australia to the island of New Guinea. A continental shelf, it was once above sea level, and its surface still bears erosional features formed when streams crossed it to the oceans. The shelf

  • Sahure (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 5th dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce): …the 5th dynasty, Userkaf and Sahure, were sons of Khentkaues, who was a member of the 4th-dynasty royal family. The third king, Neferirkare, may also have been her son. A story from the Middle Kingdom that makes them all sons of a priest of Re may derive from a tradition…

  • ?ahw (?ūfism)

    ?āl: ?ahw (“sobriety”) immediately follows sukr, but the memories of the previous experience remain vivid and become a source of immense spiritual joy. (5) The ?āl of wudd (“intimacy”) is characterized by “the removal of nervousness, together with the persistence of awe.” The ?ūfī becomes calm,…

  • Sahyādri (mountains, India)

    Anai Peak: Located in the Western Ghats range, it rises to 8,842 feet (2,695 metres) and is peninsular India’s highest peak. From this point radiate three ranges—the Anaimalai to the north, the Palni to the northeast, and the Cardamom Hills to the south. Several rivers, including the Periyar and Amaravati,…

  • Sahyādri Hills (mountains, India)

    Anai Peak: Located in the Western Ghats range, it rises to 8,842 feet (2,695 metres) and is peninsular India’s highest peak. From this point radiate three ranges—the Anaimalai to the north, the Palni to the northeast, and the Cardamom Hills to the south. Several rivers, including the Periyar and Amaravati,…

  • Sai (ancient city, Egypt)

    Sais, ancient Egyptian city (Sai) in the Nile River delta on the Canopic (Rosetta) Branch of the Nile River, in Al-Gharbīyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate). From prehistoric times Sais was the location of the chief shrine of Neith, the goddess of war and of the loom. The city became politically important

  • Sai Baba of Shirdi (spiritual leader)

    Shirdi Sai Baba, spiritual leader dear to Hindu and Muslim devotees throughout India and in diaspora communities as far flung as the United States and the Caribbean. The name Sai Baba comes from sai, a Persian word used by Muslims to denote a holy person, and baba, Hindi for father. Sai Baba’s

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