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  • Sep Szarzyński, Miko?aj (Polish poet)

    Miko?aj S?p Szarzyński, Polish religious poet remembered for writing metaphysical sonnets with inverted word orders. A member of a noble Protestant family, S?p Szarzyński studied in Wittenberg and Leipzig, Germany, moving later to the University of Padua in Italy. He returned to Poland in 1567 as a

  • Sepahbād Shahreyār (Persian king)

    Ferdowsī: …at the court of the Sepahbād Shahreyār, whose family claimed descent from the last of the Sāsānians. There Ferdowsī composed a satire of 100 verses on Sultan Ma?mūd that he inserted in the preface of the Shāh-nāmeh and read it to Shahreyār, at the same time offering to dedicate the…

  • sepak takraw (game)

    Malaysia: Sports and recreation: Sepak takraw (“kick ball”) is a uniquely Southeast Asian game (now played in other regions) that is similar to volleyball but is played with a woven rattan ball and without using the hands. The sport is internationally competitive, and Malaysia has fronted winning teams.

  • sepaktakraw (game)

    Malaysia: Sports and recreation: Sepak takraw (“kick ball”) is a uniquely Southeast Asian game (now played in other regions) that is similar to volleyball but is played with a woven rattan ball and without using the hands. The sport is internationally competitive, and Malaysia has fronted winning teams.

  • sepal (flower part)

    angiosperm: General features: …these four organs are the sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. In dicots the organs are generally grouped in multiples of four or five (rarely in threes), and in monocots they are grouped in multiples of three.

  • Separate Baptists (religion)

    Baptist: Colonial period: …of revivalistic Baptists, known as Separate Baptists, who soon coalesced with the older New England Baptist churches. In the South, however, they maintained a separate existence for a longer period of time. Shubael Stearns, a New England Separate Baptist, migrated to Sandy Creek, North Carolina, in 1755 and initiated a…

  • separate but equal (racial doctrine)

    African Americans: The civil rights movement: …the court overturned the “separate but equal” ruling of the Plessy v. Ferguson case and outlawed segregation in the country’s public school systems. White citizens’ councils in the South fought back with legal maneuvers, economic pressure, and even violence. Rioting by white mobs temporarily closed Central High School in…

  • Separate Car Act (Louisiana, United States [1890])

    Plessy v. Ferguson: Background: …as a challenge to Louisiana’s Separate Car Act (1890). The law required that all railroads operating in the state provide “equal but separate accommodations” for white and African American passengers and prohibited passengers from entering accommodations other than those to which they had been assigned on the basis of their…

  • separate condenser (technology)

    James Watt: The Watt engine: …suddenly came upon a solution—the separate condenser, his first and greatest invention. Watt had realized that the loss of latent heat (the heat involved in changing the state of a substance—e.g., solid or liquid) was the worst defect of the Newcomen engine and that therefore condensation must be effected in…

  • Separate Lies (film by Fellowes [2005])

    Julian Fellowes: …scripts for Vanity Fair (2004); Separate Lies (2005), which he also directed; The Young Victoria (2009); The Tourist (2010); Romeo and Juliet (2013); and The Chaperone (2018). He also published the novels Snobs (2004) and Past Imperfect (2008) and publicly acknowledged that he had written “bodice-ripping” romance novels under

  • separate maintenance, decree of (law)

    separation: This is called a decree of separate maintenance. It fixes the obligations of the deserting spouse toward the other. The procedures for obtaining separate maintenance and setting its terms are essentially the same as those involved in alimony. The grounds required for separate maintenance must usually be serious, especially…

  • separate marriage, decree of (law)

    separation: This is called a decree of separate maintenance. It fixes the obligations of the deserting spouse toward the other. The procedures for obtaining separate maintenance and setting its terms are essentially the same as those involved in alimony. The grounds required for separate maintenance must usually be serious, especially…

  • Separate Peace, A (novel by Knowles)

    A Separate Peace, novel by John Knowles, published in 1959. It recalls with psychological insight the maturing of a 16-year-old student at a New England preparatory school during World War II. Looking back to his youth, the adult Gene Forrester reflects on his life as a student at Devon School in

  • separate spheres (gender studies)

    Victorian era: Gender and class in Victorian society: …premised on the “doctrine of separate spheres.” This stated that men and women were different and meant for different things. Men were physically strong, while women were weak. For men sex was central, and for women reproduction was central. Men were independent, while women were dependent. Men belonged in the…

  • separate system (penology)

    Pennsylvania system, penal method based on the principle that solitary confinement fosters penitence and encourages reformation. The idea was advocated by the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, whose most active members were Quakers. In 1829 the Eastern State

  • Separate Tables (film by Mann [1958])

    Delbert Mann: Feature films: Separate Tables (1958)—adapted by Terence Rattigan from his play—was better, a potent drama that examined adultery, divorce, and spinsterhood among visitors at a British hotel. The film received an Academy Award nomination for best picture, and David Niven and Wendy Hiller won Oscars. Deborah Kerr,…

  • Separate Tables (play by Rattigan)

    Sir Terence Rattigan: Separate Tables (performed 1945), perhaps his best known work, took as its theme the isolation and frustration that result from rigidly imposed social conventions. Ross (performed 1960) explored the life of T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) and was less traditional in its structure. A Bequest to…

  • separate-loading ammunition (artillery)

    ammunition: In separate-loading ammunition, a complete round consists of three components: the fuzed projectile, the propellant (in several combustile cloth bags), and the primer. This type of round is used in the largest-calibre guns because its separated components are easier to handle.

  • separated oscillatory fields method (physics)

    Norman Foster Ramsey: ) Ramsey’s innovation, called the separated oscillatory fields method, found application in the precise measurement of time and frequency.

  • separately excited motor (motor)

    electric motor: Direct-current commutator motors: …field current are known as shunt motors, or separately excited motors. Normally, the available speed range is less than 2 to 1, but special motors can provide a speed range of up to 10 to 1.

  • separately-excited DC generator (machine)

    electric generator: Direct-current generators: …the generator is classed as separately excited. Alternatively, it may be noted that the output of the DC generator is unidirectional and therefore may be used as a source to supply its own field current, as shown in Figure 7B. In this case, the generator is referred to as shunt-excited.…

  • separation (religion)

    fundamentalism: Christian fundamentalism in the United States: …years, was the doctrine of separation: real Christians must remain separate from the impure and corrupt world of those who have not been born again.

  • separation (mining)

    coal mining: Separation: In the separation step, the liberated particles are classified into the appropriate groups of coal, impurities, and middlings. Since impurities are generally heavier than middlings and middlings heavier than coal, the methods most commonly used to separate the input stream into the three product…

  • separation (marriage)

    Separation, in law, mutual agreement by a husband and a wife to discontinue living together. A legal separation does not dissolve the marriage contract but merely adjusts the couple’s obligations under it in light of their desire to live separately. Practically, however, separation is often a

  • separation and purification (chemistry)

    Separation and purification, in chemistry, separation of a substance into its components and the removal of impurities. There are a large number of important applications in fields such as medicine and manufacturing. Since ancient times, people have used methods of separating and purifying chemical

  • separation anxiety (emotion)

    human behaviour: Emotional development: …place; this phenomenon is called separation anxiety. It is no accident that both stranger and separation anxiety first appear about the time the child becomes able to recall past events. If an infant is unable to remember that his mother had been present after she leaves the room, he will…

  • separation factor (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Separations based on equilibria: …coefficients, α (sometimes called the separation factor):

  • separation of church and state

    Church and state, the concept, largely Christian, that the religious and political powers in society are clearly distinct, though both claim the people’s loyalty. A brief treatment of church and state follows. For full treatment, see Christianity: Church and state. Before the advent of

  • separation of isotopes by laser excitation (physics)

    nuclear reactor: Enrichment: …known generically as MLIS (molecular laser isotope separation)—or commercially as SILEX (separation of isotopes by laser excitation)—gaseous UF6 is exposed to high-powered lasers tuned to the correct frequencies to cause the molecules containing 235U (but not 238U) to lose electrons. In this (ionized) form, the 235U-containing molecules are separated…

  • separation of variables (mathematics)

    Separation of variables, one of the oldest and most widely used techniques for solving some types of partial differential equations. A partial differential equation is called linear if the unknown function and its derivatives have no exponent greater than one and there are no cross-terms—i.e.,

  • Separation, A (film by Farhadi [2011])

    Asghar Farhadi: …Jodāi-e Nāder az Simin (2011; A Separation) and Forushande (2016; The Salesman), both of which won an Academy Award for best foreign-language film.

  • separation, axiom of (set theory)

    Russell's paradox: The comprehension principle is the statement that, given any condition expressible by a formula ?(x), it is possible to form the set of all sets x meeting that condition, denoted {x | ?(x)}. For example, the set of all sets—the universal set—would be {x | x…

  • separation, axiom schema of (set theory)

    Russell's paradox: The comprehension principle is the statement that, given any condition expressible by a formula ?(x), it is possible to form the set of all sets x meeting that condition, denoted {x | ?(x)}. For example, the set of all sets—the universal set—would be {x | x…

  • separation, chemical (chemistry)

    Separation and purification, in chemistry, separation of a substance into its components and the removal of impurities. There are a large number of important applications in fields such as medicine and manufacturing. Since ancient times, people have used methods of separating and purifying chemical

  • separation, isotope (chemistry)

    Isotopic fractionation, enrichment of one isotope relative to another in a chemical or physical process. Two isotopes of an element are different in weight but not in gross chemical properties, which are determined by the number of electrons. However, subtle chemical effects do result from the

  • separatism (ideology)

    Christian fundamentalism: The late 19th to the mid-20th century: …of a second divisive issue: separatism. He argued that fundamentalists must not only denounce modernist deviations from traditional Christian beliefs but also separate themselves from all heresy and apostasy. This position entailed the condemnation of conservatives who chose to remain in fellowship with more liberal members of their denominations. In…

  • separatist movement (Canadian history)

    Stephen Harper: Minority government: …extreme one planned by the separatist Bloc Québécois.

  • Separatists (religion)

    Separatist, any of the English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the perceived corruption of the Church of England and form independent local churches. Separatists were most influential politically in England during the time of the Commonwealth (1649–60) under

  • separator sludge

    dairy product: Separation: …on the side of the separator. This material, known as “separator sludge,” is discharged periodically and sometimes automatically when buildup is sensed.

  • Sepedon (insect)

    Marsh fly, (family Sciomyzidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, in which the parasitic larvae are known to prey on slugs, snails, and other mollusks. These medium-sized flies occur worldwide. There are about 600 known species, each associated with certain types of

  • Seper, Franjo (Croatian prelate)

    Franjo Seper, Croatian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who was prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith from 1968 to 1980. He was ordained a priest in 1930 and became a bishop in 1954, acting as secretary to Aloysius Cardinal Stepinac, archbishop of Zagreb, and

  • Sephar (ancient site, Yemen)

    ?afār, ancient Arabian site located southwest of Yarīm in southern Yemen. It was the capital of the ?imyarites, a tribe that ruled much of southern Arabia from about 115 bc to about ad 525. Up until the Persian conquest (c. ad 575), ?afār was one of the most important and celebrated towns in

  • Sephardi (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sephardi Torah Guardians (political party, Israel)

    Shas, ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi- (Jews of European descent) dominated Agudat Israel, another ultrareligious party, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic (Middle Eastern) Jews. The

  • Sephardi ultra-Orthodox (Jewish group)

    fundamentalism: The Haredim: …the Ashkenazi ultra-Orthodox and the Sephardi ultra-Orthodox. The term Ashkenazi (plural Ashkenazim) originally referred to Jews from Germany, and Sephardi (plural Sephardim) originally referred to Jews from Spain and Portugal. But in Israel the terms are often used to designate Jews of northern European origin on the one hand and…

  • Sephardic Judaism (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sephardic language

    Ladino language, Romance language spoken by Sephardic Jews living mostly in Israel, the Balkans, North Africa, Greece, and Turkey. Ladino is very nearly extinct in many of these areas. A very archaic form of Castilian Spanish mixed somewhat with Hebrew elements (as well as Aramaic, Arabic, Turkish,

  • Sephardim (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sephardim Shomrei Torah (political party, Israel)

    Shas, ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi- (Jews of European descent) dominated Agudat Israel, another ultrareligious party, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic (Middle Eastern) Jews. The

  • Sepher ?asidim (Hebrew religious work)

    Sefer ?asidim, (Hebrew: “Book of the Pious”), a highly valuable account of the day-to-day religious life of medieval German Jews known as ?asidim (“Pious Ones”). The authentic ?asid is described in terms of asceticism, humility, serenity, altruism, and strict ethical behaviour. Though the work is n

  • Sepher Torah (Judaism)

    Sefer Torah, (Hebrew: “Book of the Law”), in Judaism, the first five books of the Old Testament written in Hebrew by a qualified calligrapher (sofer) on vellum or parchment and enshrined in the ark of the Law (aron ha-qodesh) in synagogues. The Sefer Torah is used for public readings during

  • Sepheriades, Yeoryios Stilianou (Greek writer)

    George Seferis, Greek poet, essayist, and diplomat who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1963. After studying law in Paris, Seferis joined the Greek diplomatic service and served in London and Albania prior to World War II, during which time he was in exile with the free Greek government.

  • sephira (Judaism)

    Sefirot, in the speculations of esoteric Jewish mysticism (Kabbala), the 10 emanations, or powers, by which God the Creator was said to become manifest. The concept first appeared in the Sefer Yetzira (“Book of Creation”), as the 10 ideal numbers. In the development of Kabbalistic literature, the

  • sephiroth (Judaism)

    Sefirot, in the speculations of esoteric Jewish mysticism (Kabbala), the 10 emanations, or powers, by which God the Creator was said to become manifest. The concept first appeared in the Sefer Yetzira (“Book of Creation”), as the 10 ideal numbers. In the development of Kabbalistic literature, the

  • Sepia (mollusk genus)

    cephalopod: Reproduction and life cycles: In the cuttlefish (Sepia), according to the Dutch zoologist L. Tinbergen, the pair swims side by side, the male indulging in some courtship behaviour with its arms. Eventually, mating takes place by the pair intertwining their arms and remaining together while the spermatophores are placed on the inner…

  • sepia (cephalopod secretion)

    octopus: When endangered they eject an inky substance, which is used as a screen; the substance produced by some species paralyzes the sensory organs of the attacker.

  • sepia (drawing medium)

    Sepia, dyestuff, coloured brown with a trace of violet, that is obtained from a pigment protectively secreted by cuttlefish or squid. Sepia is obtained from the ink sacs of these invertebrates. The sacs are speedily extracted from the bodies and are dried to prevent putrefaction. The sacs are then

  • Sepik River (river, New Guinea)

    Sepik River, one of the largest rivers on the island of New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. It rises in the Victor Emanuel Range of the central highlands of Papua New Guinea, near Telefomin. The Sepik flows northwestward (crossing just over the border into the Indonesian portion of the island)

  • Sepioidea (cephalopod order)

    cephalopod: Annotated classification: Order Sepioidea (cuttlefishes and bottle-tailed squids) Early Cenozoic to present; worldwide with family exceptions; shell coiled and chambered (Spirulidae), straight with vestigial chambering (Sepiidae), vestigial, or lacking; eyes covered with transparent membrane; 8 sucker-bearing arms and 2 tentacles retractile into pockets; total length 2.5–90 cm.

  • sepiolid (cephalopod)

    cephalopod: Annotated classification: (cuttlefishes and bottle-tailed squids) Early Cenozoic to present; worldwide with family exceptions; shell coiled and chambered (Spirulidae), straight with vestigial chambering (Sepiidae), vestigial, or lacking; eyes covered with transparent membrane; 8 sucker-bearing arms and 2 tentacles retractile into pockets; total length 2.5–90 cm. Order Teuthoidea (squids)

  • sepiolite (mineral)

    Sepiolite, (German: “sea-foam”), a fibrous hydrated magnesium silicate, Mg4Si6O15(OH)2·6H2O, that is opaque and white, grey, or cream in colour. It may resemble the bones of the cuttlefish Sepia, from which the name derives. In the Black Sea region, where the light, porous clay mineral is

  • Sepioteuthis sepioidea (squid)

    cephalopod: Reproduction and life cycles: …in a loliginid squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea), likewise raised from the egg, sexual maturity and full growth were also attained in five months. It thus appears that the smaller inshore species may have a life span of no more than one year or, exceptionally, two or three. Nothing is known…

  • sepoy (Indian soldier)

    Nana Sahib: …he assumed leadership of the sepoys (British-employed Indian soldiers).

  • Sepoy Mutiny (Indian history)

    Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857–59. Begun in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British East India Company, it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. In India it is often called the First War of Independence and

  • SEPP (American organization)

    Muriel Siebert: In 1990 Siebert established the Siebert Entrepreneurial Philanthropic Plan (SEPP), which donated to charity half of the net profits from new securities underwriting at Muriel Siebert & Co., Inc. Siebert was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1994. In 1999 she developed the Personal Finance Program, a…

  • seppuku (suicide)

    Seppuku, (Japanese: “self-disembowelment”) the honourable method of taking one’s own life practiced by men of the samurai (military) class in feudal Japan. The word hara-kiri (literally, “belly-cutting”), though widely known to foreigners, is rarely used by Japanese, who prefer the term seppuku

  • sepsis (medical condition)

    Sepsis, systemic inflammatory condition that occurs as a complication of infection and in severe cases may be associated with acute and life-threatening organ dysfunction. Worldwide, sepsis has long been a common cause of illness and mortality in hospitals, intensive care units, and emergency

  • Sepsiszentgy?rgy (Romania)

    Sfantu Gheorghe, town, capital of Covasna jude? (county), east-central Romania, on the Olt River. Occupied in the Middle Ages by Szekler settlers brought in to guard the eastern frontier of Transylvania, the town has a strong Hungarian tradition. The regional museum contains examples of local

  • Sept-?les (Quebec, Canada)

    Sept-?les, (English: “Seven Islands”) city, regional county municipality (RCM) of C?te-Nord (North Shore) region, eastern Quebec province, Canada. It lies on the north shore of the estuary of the St. Lawrence River and is situated on an almost circular bay at the entrance of which are six steep,

  • septa (tissue)

    aggressive behaviour: Neuroendocrine influences: …of the limbic system—specifically the septum, which lies above the hypothalamus and has an inhibitory effect on aggression, and the amygdala, found deep in the temporal lobes and having the opposite effect.

  • September (film by Allen [1987])

    Woody Allen: The 1980s: While September (1987) was an unwieldy return to the psychodramatic territory of Interiors, Allen fared better when he took a Bergmanesque approach with Another Woman (1988), in which Gena Rowlands was superb as a philosophy professor who undergoes a life-changing epiphany. Much of the credit for…

  • September (month)

    September, ninth month of the Gregorian calendar. Its name is derived from septem, Latin for “seven,” an indication of its position in the early Roman

  • September 1, 1939 (poem by Auden)

    September 1, 1939, poem by W.H. Auden, published in the collection Another Time (1940). The poem conveys the poet’s emotional response to the outbreak of World War II. The title of the work refers to the date of the German invasion of Poland, which precipitated the war. Even though “September 1,

  • September 11 (United States [2001])

    September 11 attacks, series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in 2001 by 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda against targets in the United States, the deadliest terrorist attacks on American soil in U.S. history. The attacks against New York City and

  • September 11 attacks (United States [2001])

    September 11 attacks, series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in 2001 by 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda against targets in the United States, the deadliest terrorist attacks on American soil in U.S. history. The attacks against New York City and

  • September 11 commission (United States commission)

    9-11 Commission, bipartisan study group created by U.S. Pres. George W. Bush and the United States Congress on November 27, 2002, to examine the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States. The commission’s report served as the basis for a major reform of the U.S. intelligence

  • September 30, 1955 (film by Bridges [1978])

    James Bridges: Bridges next wrote and directed 9/30/55 (1978; also known as September 30, 1955), a dramatization of a fan (Richard Thomas) struggling to come to grips with the death of idol James Dean in 1955. However, it was the suspenseful The China Syndrome (1979) that became Bridges’s first breakout hit. Jane…

  • September 30th Movement (Indonesian history)

    September 30th Movement, group of Indonesian military personnel who captured and murdered six generals in 1965, marking the commencement of the abortive coup that led to the fall from power of Sukarno, Indonesia’s first president. Late in the evening on Sept. 30, 1965, a group of army conspirators

  • September 4, Revolution of (French history)

    France: The Franco-German War: …up no serious resistance; the revolution of September 4 was the most bloodless in French history.

  • September Affair (film by Dieterle [1950])

    William Dieterle: Later films: …the release of the popular September Affair, which featured an unabashedly soapy romance between a businessman (Cotten) and a pianist (Joan Fontaine) who are thought to have died in a plane crash. In 1951 Dieterle directed Peking Express, a remake of Shanghai Express (1932), and Red Mountain, a two-fisted account…

  • September Convention (Italy [1864])

    Italy: Condition of the Italian kingdom: …Minghetti, another moderate, negotiated the September Convention, a compromise that required French troops to withdraw from Rome in exchange for an Italian pledge to respect the pope’s temporal sovereignty and to remain out of Rome. A secret clause in the agreement also bound Italy to transfer its capital from Turin…

  • September Gurls (song by Big Star)

    Alex Chilton: …from Radio City was “September Gurls,” now widely acclaimed as a Chilton masterpiece that anticipated the work of artists such as Tom Petty and Cheap Trick. Big Star’s final album, Third (also released as Sister Lovers; 1978), was a dark, meandering affair that lacked the focus of its predecessors.…

  • September Massacres (French history [1792])

    September Massacres, mass killing of prisoners that took place in Paris from September 2 to September 6 in 1792—a major event of what is sometimes called the “First Terror” of the French Revolution. The massacres were an expression of the collective mentality in Paris in the days after the

  • September of My Years (album by Sinatra)

    Frank Sinatra: The Reprise years: …two 1960s masterpieces, the Jenkins-arranged September of My Years (1965) and the partnership with Brazilian songwriter Ant?nio Carlos Jobim, Francis Albert Sinatra and Antonio Carlos Jobim (1967), rank among Sinatra’s greatest albums. He also had chart success during the decade with the hit singles “Strangers in the Night” (1966), “That’s…

  • September Program (German history)

    20th-century international relations: War aims of the belligerents: …shape at once in the September Program of Bethmann. While debate exists over how much this document reflected Bethmann’s real views, it did come to represent the prevailing view of the military, which in turn came to speak increasingly for Germany as a whole. The dream of world power seemed…

  • September Song (song by Weill and Anderson)

    Kurt Weill: …from Die Dreigroschenoper and “September Song” from Knickerbocker Holiday, have remained popular. Weill’s Concerto for violin, woodwinds, double bass, and percussion (1924), Symphony No. 1 (1921; “Berliner Sinfonie”), and Symphony No. 2 (1934; “Pariser Symphonie”), works praised for their qualities of invention and compositional skill, were revived after his…

  • September Uprising (Bulgarian history)

    Bulgaria: Communist uprising: The communists’ September Uprising was ruthlessly suppressed and provided Tsankov with a pretext for outlawing the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1924, though the party would surface briefly again under another name and continued to operate underground for two decades.

  • Septemberfrost (novel by Hauge)

    Alfred Hauge: Septemberfrost (1941; “September Frost”), his first novel, focuses on the miserable conditions in Norway before it achieved its independence in 1814. Ropet (1946; “The Call”) depicts the hostility of small-town pietism to art, a conflict that continued to inspire Hauge in several of his subsequent…

  • Septembrists (political group, Portugal)

    Portugal: Further political strife: …1836 the latter, thenceforth called Septembrists, seized power. The chartist leaders rebelled and were exiled, but by 1842 the Septembrist front was no longer united, and António Bernardo da Costa Cabral restored the charter.

  • septenarius (prosody)

    Septenarius, (Latin: “consisting of seven of something”) in classical Latin prosody, iambic or trochaic lines of seven feet (equal to Greek tetrameter catalectic verse). The septenarius was commonly used for dialogue in

  • Septennat (German history)

    German Empire: The making of the empire: …agree to a compromise, the Septennat, by which military credits were to be voted for seven years—hence, the political crises which occurred every seven years, when artificial alarm had to be created in order to renew the army grant.

  • Septennial Act (Great Britain [1716])

    United Kingdom: The supremacy of the Whigs: …secure, the Whigs passed the Septennial Act in 1716. It allowed general elections to occur at seven-year intervals instead of every three years, as mandated by the Triennial Act of 1694. The intention was to tame the electorate, which during Anne’s reign had shown itself to be volatile and far…

  • Septentriones (constellation)

    Ursa Major, (Latin: “Greater Bear”) in astronomy, a constellation of the northern sky, at about 10 hours 40 minutes right ascension and 56° north declination. It was referred to in the Old Testament (Job 9:9; 38:32) and mentioned by Homer in the Iliad (xviii, 487). The Greeks identified this

  • septibranch ctenidium (gill)

    bivalve: Food and feeding: …bivalve ctenidium into a septum—the “septibranch” ctenidium—that creates pressure changes within the mantle cavity and produces sudden inrushes of water, carrying prey into a funnellike inhalant siphon (Cuspidaria). Food is then pushed into the mouth by the palps and foot. Others evert the inhalant siphon, like a hood, over the…

  • Septibranchoida (mollusk order)

    bivalve: Critical appraisal: …into their own order, the Septibranchoida.

  • septic arthritis (pathology)

    Septic arthritis, acute inflammation of one or more joints caused by infection. In septic arthritis the joints are swollen, hot, sore, and pus-filled; the condition may occur following infection by such bacteria as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, Gonococcus, or Meningococcus. Pus

  • septic shock (pathology)

    diagnosis: Emergency: …function, and neurogenic shock and septic shock are caused by malfunction of the vascular system. This malfunction, which can be caused by severe allergic reaction such as anaphylaxis or by drug overdose, results in severely reduced peripheral vascular tone, in vasodilation, and in pooling of the blood. Signs of shock…

  • septic tank (plumbing)

    Septic tank, sewage treatment and disposal unit used principally for single residences not connected to municipal sewerage systems. It consists ordinarily of either a single- or double-compartment concrete or fibreglass tank buried in the ground. Solids settle to the bottom of the tank and are

  • septicemia (infection)

    Septicemia, infection resulting from the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacteremia). The onset of septicemia is signaled by a high fever, chills, weakness, and excessive sweating, followed by a decrease in blood pressure. The typical microorganisms that produce septicemia, usually gram-negative

  • septicemic plague (pathology)

    plague: Nature of the disease: forms: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic. Bubonic plague is the best-known form in popular lore, and indeed it constitutes about three-fourths of plague cases. It is also the least dangerous form of plague, accounting today for virtually no deaths and in the past killing only half of its victims (at…

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