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  • Shaan-hsi (province, China)

    Shaanxi, sheng (province) of north-central China. It is bordered by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north, Shanxi province to the east, Henan and Hubei provinces to the southeast, Chongqing municipality and Sichuan province to the south, Gansu province to the west, and the Hui

  • Shaanxi (province, China)

    Shaanxi, sheng (province) of north-central China. It is bordered by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north, Shanxi province to the east, Henan and Hubei provinces to the southeast, Chongqing municipality and Sichuan province to the south, Gansu province to the west, and the Hui

  • Shaanxi province earthquake of 1556 (China)

    Shaanxi province earthquake of 1556, (Jan. 23, 1556), massive earthquake in Shaanxi province in northern China, believed to be the deadliest earthquake ever recorded. The earthquake (estimated at magnitude 8) struck Shaanxi and neighbouring Shanxi province to the east early on Jan. 23, 1556,

  • Shaarawi, Huda (Egyptian feminist and nationalist)

    Huda Sharawi, Egyptian feminist and nationalist who established numerous organizations dedicated to women’s rights and is considered the founder of the women’s movement in Egypt. Sharawi was born into a prosperous family in the Egyptian city of Al-Minyā and was raised in Cairo. Her father, Muhammad

  • Shaba (province, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: Relief: …ridges of the plateaus of Katanga (Shaba) province tower over the region; they include Kundelungu at 5,250 feet (1,600 metres), Mitumba at 4,920 feet (1,500 metres), and Hakansson at 3,610 feet (1,100 metres). The Katanga plateaus reach as far north as the Lukuga River and contain the Manika Plateau, the…

  • Shaba Plateau (historical state, Africa)

    Katanga, historical region in southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, bordering Lake Tanganyika to the east, Zambia to the south, and Angola to the west. The name Shaba, the region’s name during the Zairean period, comes from the Swahili word for copper, and the region’s mines yield most of

  • Shabaab, al- (Somali-based militant group)

    Al-Shabaab, (Somali: “the Youth”) Somali-based Islamist militant group with links to al-Qaeda. Beginning in 2006, the group waged an insurgency against Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government (TFG). Al-Shabaab originated as a militia affiliated with the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a federation of

  • Shabab, al- (Somali-based militant group)

    Al-Shabaab, (Somali: “the Youth”) Somali-based Islamist militant group with links to al-Qaeda. Beginning in 2006, the group waged an insurgency against Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government (TFG). Al-Shabaab originated as a militia affiliated with the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a federation of

  • Shabadarath Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji (work by Teja Singh)

    Sikhism: Devotional and other works: …the fate of the four-volume Shabadarath Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, published between 1936 and 1941. Although published anonymously, it was mainly the work of Teja Singh. Vir Singh published seven volumes of commentary between 1958 and 1962 but left Santhya Sri Guru Granth Sahib unfinished. Another commentator, Sahib Singh,…

  • Shabaka (king of Egypt)

    Shabaka, Kushite king who conquered Egypt and founded its 25th (Kushite) dynasty (see ancient Egypt: The 24th and 25th dynasties). He ruled Egypt from about 719/718 to 703 bce. Succeeding his brother Piye, in Kush (in modern Sudan), Shabaka moved north, captured Bocchoris, the second king of the

  • Shabalala, Joseph (South African musician)

    Ladysmith Black Mambazo: …group founded in 1964 by Joseph Shabalala, a young musician who hoped to bring new interpretations to traditional Zulu music. The a cappella group’s compelling performance style was a unique melding of indigenous Zulu songs and dances with South African isicathamiya, a soft, shuffling style of dance accompanied by ragtime-influenced…

  • Shabānah, ?Abd al-?alīm (Egyptian singer)

    ?Abd al-?alīm ?āfi?, Egyptian singer who was noted for his emotional renditions of romantic and nationalistic songs. Orphaned at an early age, ?āfi? displayed a gift for music as a child and in 1948 graduated from the Academy of Arabic Music. In 1952 he performed a series of public concerts, and he

  • shabandar (Malayan official)

    Shabunder, in the Malay states, the official who supervised merchants, controlled the port, and collected customs duties. Although the title shabunder was of Persian-Arabic origin, the position itself existed on the Malay Peninsula prior to the coming of Islāmic traders. To handle the greatly i

  • Shabani (Zimbabwe)

    Zvishavane, town, south-central Zimbabwe. Its name is derived from shavani, a Sindebele word meaning “finger millet” or “trading together.” Surrounded by low hills, it is on direct rail links to Harare (formerly Salisbury) and Bulawayo in Zimbabwe and to Maputo in Mozambique. The adjacent asbestos

  • Shabara (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The Purva-mimamsa-sutras and Shabara’s commentary: For both Jaimini and Shabara (3rd century), his chief commentator, performance of the Vedic sacrifices is conducive to the attainment of heaven; both emphasize that nothing is a duty unless it is instrumental to happiness in the long run.

  • Shabarimalai (pilgrimage site, India)

    Ayyappan: His most-prominent shrine is at Shabarimalai, in the southern Indian state of Kerala, where he is most popular, though the neighbouring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka also house many Ayyappan temples. Ayyappan may bear a historical relationship to the tutelary deity Aiyanar of Tamil Nadu.

  • Shabazz, Betty (American educator and activist)

    Betty Shabazz, American educator and civil rights activist, who is perhaps best known as the wife of slain black nationalist leader Malcolm X. Sanders was raised in Detroit by adoptive parents in a comfortable middle-class home and was active in a Methodist church. Upon high school graduation, she

  • Shabazz, el-Hajj Malik el- (American Muslim leader)

    Malcolm X, African American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s. After his assassination, the widespread distribution of his life story—The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)—made him an ideological hero,

  • Shabbat (Judaism)

    Sabbath, (from shavat, “cease,” or “desist”), day of holiness and rest observed by Jews from sunset on Friday to nightfall of the following day. The time division follows the biblical story of creation: “And there was evening and there was morning, one day” (Genesis 1:5). The sacredness of the S

  • Shabbat Bereshit (Judaism)

    Sabbath: Finally, there are Shabbat Bereshit (“Sabbath of the beginning”), when the annual cycle of Torah readings recommences with Genesis 1; Shabbat Shira (“Sabbath song”), when the triumphal song of Moses is read from Exodus 15; and the two Sabbaths of ?ol ha-mo?ed (“intermediate days”), falling between the initial…

  • Shabbat ?azon (Judaism)

    Sabbath: …Haf?ara chanted on that day: Shabbat ?azon (Isaiah 1:1), preceding the 9th day of Av (Tisha be-Av)—a fast day; Shabbat Na?amu (Isaiah 40:1) following the 9th of Av; and Shabbat Shuva (Hosea 14:2), immediately preceding Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

  • Shabbat Na?amu (Judaism)

    Sabbath: …Av (Tisha be-Av)—a fast day; Shabbat Na?amu (Isaiah 40:1) following the 9th of Av; and Shabbat Shuva (Hosea 14:2), immediately preceding Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

  • Shabbat Shira (Judaism)

    Sabbath: …readings recommences with Genesis 1; Shabbat Shira (“Sabbath song”), when the triumphal song of Moses is read from Exodus 15; and the two Sabbaths of ?ol ha-mo?ed (“intermediate days”), falling between the initial and final days of the Passover and Sukkot festivals.

  • Shabbat Shuva (Judaism)

    Sabbath: …the 9th of Av; and Shabbat Shuva (Hosea 14:2), immediately preceding Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

  • Shabbetai Tzevi (Jewish pseudo-messiah)

    Shabbetai Tzevi, a false messiah who developed a mass following and threatened rabbinical authority in Europe and the Middle East. As a young man, Shabbetai steeped himself in the influential body of Jewish mystical writings known as the Kabbala. His extended periods of ecstasy and his strong

  • Shabbetaianism (Judaism)

    Shabbetaianism, in Judaism, a 17th-century messianic movement that, in its extreme form, espoused the sacredness of sin. The leader of the movement was Shabbetai Tzevi, a self-proclaimed messiah and charismatic mystic. Coerced by the sultan of Constantinople to accept Islam, Shabbetai Tzevi shocked

  • shabda (Indian philosophy)

    Shabda, (Sanskrit: “sound”) in Indian philosophy, verbal testimony as a means of obtaining knowledge. In the philosophical systems (darshans), shabda is equated with the authority of the Vedas (the most-ancient sacred scriptures) as the only infallible testimony, since the Vedas are deemed to be

  • shabdadvaita (Hindu philosophy)

    Bhartrihari: …of language according to the shabdadvaita (“word nondualism”) school of Indian philosophy.

  • Shabeellaha River (river, Africa)

    Shebeli River, river in eastern Africa, rising in the Ethiopian Highlands and flowing southeast through the arid Ogaden Plateau. The Shebeli River crosses into Somalia north of Beledweyne (Beletwene) and continues south to Balcad, about 20 miles (32 km) from the Indian Ocean, turning southwest

  • Shabelle River (river, Africa)

    Shebeli River, river in eastern Africa, rising in the Ethiopian Highlands and flowing southeast through the arid Ogaden Plateau. The Shebeli River crosses into Somalia north of Beledweyne (Beletwene) and continues south to Balcad, about 20 miles (32 km) from the Indian Ocean, turning southwest

  • Shabestarī, Sa?d od-Dīn Ma?mūd (Islamic mystic)

    Sa?d od-Dīn Ma?mūd Shabestarī, Persian mystic whose poetic work Golshan-e rāz (The Mystic Rose Garden) became a classic document of ?ūfism (Islāmic mysticism). The details of Shabestarī’s life are obscure; apparently he spent most of it in Tabrīz. He grew up in an age of spiritual confusion,

  • Shabonee (Potawatomi chief)

    Shabonee, Potawatomi Indian chief, hero of a Paul Revere-style ride through northern Illinois in 1832, the purpose of which was to warn white settlers of an imminent Indian raid during the Black Hawk War. By birth an Ottawa Indian, Shabonee married the daughter of a Potawatomi chief and succeeded h

  • Shabtai, Ya?akov (Israeli author)

    Hebrew literature: Israeli literature: Yehoshua, Ya?akov Shabtai, and Amos Oz—made attempts in their early work to distance themselves from preoccupations with Israeli reality. In Yehoshua’s stories the narrator’s tone is remote and the people are drained of emotion. Occasionally, an act of feeling or meaning breaks the mood of boredom…

  • shabti figure (statuette)

    Ushabti figure, any of the small statuettes made of wood, stone, or faience that are often found in large numbers in ancient Egyptian tombs. The figures range in height from approximately 4 to 20 inches (10 to 50 cm) and often hold hoes in their arms. Their purpose was to act as a magical

  • shabu-shabu (food)

    sukiyaki: >shabu-shabu, became popular after World War II. Vegetables are placed into a pot of boiling water, and strips of thin beef are swirled in the water (the word shabu-shabu is an onomatopoeia for this swirling action), removed, dipped in a sauce, and eaten. The vegetables…

  • Shabuhragan (book by Mani)

    ancient Iran: Manichaeism: …with his first book, the Shāpuragān (Shabuhragan), a summary of his teachings (“dedicated to Shāpūr”) written in the Middle Persian language, which provides further evidence of a degree of royal favour. During Shāpūr’s reign the religion of Mani was thus propagated in and beyond Iran. The heir to the throne,…

  • shabunder (Malayan official)

    Shabunder, in the Malay states, the official who supervised merchants, controlled the port, and collected customs duties. Although the title shabunder was of Persian-Arabic origin, the position itself existed on the Malay Peninsula prior to the coming of Islāmic traders. To handle the greatly i

  • Shabuot (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Shabuoth (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Shabwah (ancient city, Arabia)

    history of Arabia: Hadramites: …collected at the Hadramite capital, Shabwah, on the eastern fringe of the ?ayhad sands, and taxed there before being handed over to the caravans that carried it to the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia. In addition, Hadhramaut was an entrep?t for Indian goods brought by sea and then forwarded by land. The…

  • shacharit (Judaism)

    Shaharith, (“dawn”), in Judaism, the first of three periods of daily prayer; the other daily services are minhah and maarib. They are all ideally recited in the synagogue so that a quorum (minyan) can be formed to pray as a corporate body representing “Israel.” Shaharith is considered a substitute

  • shacharith (Judaism)

    Shaharith, (“dawn”), in Judaism, the first of three periods of daily prayer; the other daily services are minhah and maarib. They are all ideally recited in the synagogue so that a quorum (minyan) can be formed to pray as a corporate body representing “Israel.” Shaharith is considered a substitute

  • Shachaur, Mount (mountain, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …Langar (23,162 feet [7,060 metres]), Shachaur (23,346 feet [7,116 metres]), Udrem Zom (23,376 feet [7,125 metres]), and Nādīr Shāh Zhāra (23,376 feet [7,125 metres]), leads to the three giant mountains of the Hindu Kush, which are Mounts Noshaq (Nowshāk; 24,557 feet [7,485 metres]), Istoro Nal (24,242 feet [7,389 metres]), and…

  • Shache (China)

    Yarkand, oasis city, southwestern Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, far western China. It is situated in an oasis watered by the Yarkand River at the western end of the Tarim River basin, southeast of Kashgar (Kashi), at the junction of roads to Aksu to the northwest and to Hotan (Khotan) to the

  • Shachtman, Max (American Marxist theorist)

    Michael Harrington: Shift to Trotskyism and The Other America: …Party that was controlled by Max Shachtman, the leading Trotskyist organizer. At that time the Trotskyists were preoccupied with proving that the Soviet Union was no longer a revolutionary workers’ state but had become a “bureaucratic collectivist” parody of socialism. Deeply anti-Stalinist yet committed to socialism, Harrington became a key…

  • Shackleford, Harvey (American author)

    baseball: Baseball and the arts: …Stratemeyer (as Lester Chadwick), and Harvey Shackleford (as Hal Standish) created all-American baseball heroes like Frank Merriwell, Baseball Joe, and Fred Fearnot to inspire and delight their readers. This tradition reached its height of popularity in the 1940s with the adolescent novels of John R. Tunis that featured the Brooklyn…

  • Shackleton Ice Shelf (ice shelf, Antarctica)

    Shackleton Ice Shelf, sheet of floating ice bordering Queen Mary Coast, Antarctica, on the Indian Ocean. It was discovered and named for Ernest Shackleton, the British explorer, by Douglas Mawson’s expedition, 1911–14. It lies between the main Russian Antarctic station Mirnyy and the Polish

  • Shackleton, Derek (English cricketer)

    Derek Shackleton, (“Shack”), English cricketer(born Aug. 12, 1924, Todmorden, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Sept. 27, 2007, Canford Magna, Dorset, Eng.), was one of the most accurate, consistent, and effective bowlers of the post-World War II era. He took 2,857 career wickets (average 18.65) in 647

  • Shackleton, Ernest (Anglo-Irish explorer)

    Ernest Shackleton, Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who attempted to reach the South Pole. Educated at Dulwich College (1887–90), Shackleton entered the mercantile marine service in 1890 and became a sublieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve in 1901. He joined Capt. Robert Falcon Scott’s British

  • Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry (Anglo-Irish explorer)

    Ernest Shackleton, Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who attempted to reach the South Pole. Educated at Dulwich College (1887–90), Shackleton entered the mercantile marine service in 1890 and became a sublieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve in 1901. He joined Capt. Robert Falcon Scott’s British

  • Shackleton, Sir Nicholas John (British geologist)

    Sir Nicholas John Shackleton, British geologist (born June 23, 1937, London, Eng.—died Jan. 24, 2006, Cambridge, Eng.), was a pioneer in the study of paleoclimatology and in the understanding of the mechanisms behind global warming. Shackleton was an expert in paleoceanography, the analysis of t

  • shad (fish, Clupeidae family)

    Shad, any of several saltwater food fishes of the herring family (Clupeidae) that swim up rivers to spawn. Shad of the genus Alosa are rather deep bodied and have a notch in the upper jaw into which the tip of the lower fits. Young shad have small teeth, but the adults are toothless. The flesh of

  • shad (fish)

    whitefish: …by such other names as Lake Superior whitefish, whiting, and shad. It averages about 2 kg (4.5 pounds) in weight.

  • Shad Shāhpūr (Iran)

    Qazvīn, city, capital of Qazvīn province, north-central Iran. The city sits in a wide, fertile plain at the southern foot of the Elburz Mountains. Originally called Shad Shāhpūr, it was founded by the Sāsānian king Shāpūr I about 250 ce. It flourished in early Muslim times (7th century), serving as

  • Shadary, Emmanuel Ramazani (Congolese politician)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Democratic Republic of the Congo: …and Democracy; PPRD) would be Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, a former government minister and provincial governor. Shadary was one of 21 approved presidential candidates. Notable opposition figures Jean-Pierre Bemba and Mo?se Katumbi were not part of that group, as Bemba had been disqualified by the electoral commission over International Criminal Court…

  • shadblow serviceberry (plant)

    serviceberry: Common species: …(10 feet); the Canadian, or shadblow, serviceberry (A. canadensis), which reaches up to about 8 metres (26 feet); and the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis), which is similar to A. canadensis but is taller and has more nodding flower clusters. The downy serviceberry (A. arborea) is also similar to A. canadensis…

  • Shadbolt, Maurice (New Zealand author)

    Maurice Shadbolt, New Zealand author of novels and short stories set in his native land, which he called “a last frontier for the human race, and a paradise lost.” As a young man, Shadbolt worked as a documentary-film scriptwriter and a director and then turned to journalism. He became a full-time

  • Shadbolt, Maurice Francis Richard (New Zealand author)

    Maurice Shadbolt, New Zealand author of novels and short stories set in his native land, which he called “a last frontier for the human race, and a paradise lost.” As a young man, Shadbolt worked as a documentary-film scriptwriter and a director and then turned to journalism. He became a full-time

  • shadbush (plant)

    Serviceberry, (genus Amelanchier), genus of some 20 species of flowering shrubs and small trees of the rose family (Rosaceae). Most species are North American; exceptions include the snowy mespilus (Amelanchier ovalis), which ranges over Europe, and the Asian serviceberry, or Korean juneberry (A.

  • Shadd, Mary Ann (American educator, publisher, and abolitionist)

    Mary Ann Shadd, American educator, publisher, and abolitionist who was the first black female newspaper publisher in North America. She founded The Provincial Freeman in Canada in 1853. Mary Ann Shadd was born to free parents in Delaware, a slave state, and was the eldest of 13 children. She was

  • Shaddai, El (Judaism)

    phylactery: …together form the divine name Shaddai. The hand phylactery (tefillin shel yad) has one compartment with the texts written on a single parchment; the head phylactery (tefillin shel rosh) has four compartments, each with one text. The extracts are Exodus 13:1–10, 11–16; and Deuteronomy 6:4–9, 11:13–21. Reform Jews interpret the…

  • shaddock (plant and fruit)

    Pummelo, (Citrus maxima), citrus tree of the family Rutaceae, grown for its large sweet fruits. It is native to mainland Southeast Asia and the Malaysian portion of the island of Borneo. It is sometimes called shaddock, a name that is said to have derived from that of a captain who introduced the

  • Shaddock (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: …of 25 miles, and the SS-N-3 Shaddock, a much larger system resembling a swept-wing fighter aircraft with a range of 280 miles. The SS-N-12 Sandbox, introduced in the 1970s on the Kiev-class antisubmarine carriers, was apparently an improved Shaddock. The SS-N-19 Shipwreck, a small, vertically launched, flip-out wing supersonic missile…

  • shade (colour)

    painting: Colour: …or of black, producing the shades, or earth colours, such as mustard and moss green; or of both white and black, creating the neutralized hues, or colour-tinged grays, such as oatmeal and charcoal.

  • shade house (horticulture)

    horticulture: Structures: Shade houses are usually walk-in structures with shading provided by lath or screening. Summer propagation is often located in shade houses to reduce excessive water loss by transpiration.

  • Shade-Seller, The (work by Jacobsen)

    Josephine Jacobsen: The Shade-Seller (1974) and In the Crevice of Time (1995) were both nominated for a National Book Award. In her verse Jacobsen often examined the relationship between the physical and spiritual and explored universal themes such as fear and hope, love and death. In addition…

  • shaded-pole motor (motor)

    electric motor: Shaded-pole motors: The shaded-pole motor is provided with a main winding connected to the single-phase electric supply. In addition, it has a permanently short-circuited winding located ahead of the main winding in the direction of rotation. This second winding is known as a shading coil…

  • Shadehill Dam (dam, South Dakota, United States)

    Grand River: Shadehill Dam (1950) impounds a reservoir in the Grand’s upper course.

  • Shades of Blue (American television series)

    Jennifer Lopez: …role in the law-enforcement procedural Shades of Blue (2016–18), portraying a conflicted police officer. In Second Act (2018) she took a comedic turn as a woman who lands a covetable position at a Manhattan firm after her friends embellish her résumé. Lopez then joined a largely female cast in Hustlers…

  • shadfly (insect)

    Mayfly, (order Ephemeroptera), any member of a group of insects known for their extremely short life spans and emergence in large numbers in the summer months. Other common names for the winged stages are shadfly, sandfly, dayfly, fishfly, and drake. The aquatic immature stage, called a nymph or

  • Shādhilī, al- (Muslim mystic)

    Al-Shādhilī, Sufi Muslim theologian who was the founder of the order of the Shādhilīyah. The details of al-Shādhilī’s life are clouded by legend. He is said to have been a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and to have gone blind in his youth because of excessive study. In 1218/19 he

  • Shādhilī, Shaykh (Muslim holy man)

    Mocha: …with the Muslim holy man Shaykh Shādhilī, who is supposed to have introduced coffee drinking to Arabia. An important trade centre through the 17th century, it was regularly visited by Indian traders, who traded finished metal products for Yemeni coffee and myrrh. It also dealt with Egyptian merchants, who sailed…

  • Shādhilīyah (Sufi order)

    Shādhilīyah, widespread brotherhood of Muslim mystics (?ūfīs), founded on the teachings of Abū al-?asan ash-Shādhilī (d. 1258) in Alexandria. Shādhilī teachings stress five points: fear of God, living the sunna (practices) of the Prophet, disdain of mankind, fatalism, and turning to God in times o

  • Shādhiliyyah (Sufi order)

    Shādhilīyah, widespread brotherhood of Muslim mystics (?ūfīs), founded on the teachings of Abū al-?asan ash-Shādhilī (d. 1258) in Alexandria. Shādhilī teachings stress five points: fear of God, living the sunna (practices) of the Prophet, disdain of mankind, fatalism, and turning to God in times o

  • Shadid, Anthony (American journalist)

    Anthony Shadid, American journalist (born Sept. 26, 1968, Oklahoma City, Okla.—died Feb. 16, 2012, eastern Syria), spent his career as a foreign correspondent covering developments in the Middle East for the Boston Globe (2001–03), the Washington Post (2003–09), and the New York Times (2009–12)

  • shading (art)

    computer graphics: Shading and texturing: Visual appearance includes more than just shape and colour; texture and surface finish (e.g., matte, satin, glossy) also must be accurately modeled. The effects that these attributes have on an object’s appearance depend in turn on the illumination, which may be diffuse,…

  • shading coil (motor part)

    electric motor: Shaded-pole motors: …winding is known as a shading coil and consists of one or more shorted turns. The shading coil delays the establishment of magnetic flux in the region that it encircles and thus produces a small component of rotating field at standstill.

  • shadkhan (Judaism)

    Shadkhan, (Hebrew: “marriage broker,” or “matchmaker”, ) one who undertakes to arrange a Jewish marriage. Such service was virtually indispensible during the Middle Ages when custom frowned on courtships and numerous Jewish families lived in semi-isolation in small communities. Shadkhanim were thus

  • shadoof (irrigation device)

    Shaduf, hand-operated device for lifting water, invented in ancient times and still used in India, Egypt, and some other countries to irrigate land. Typically it consists of a long, tapering, nearly horizontal pole mounted like a seesaw. A skin or bucket is hung on a rope from the long end, and a

  • Shadow (film by Zhang [2018])

    Zhang Yimou: Ying (2018; Shadow) is an action drama inspired by China’s Three Kingdoms.

  • Shadow and Act (essays by Ellison)

    Ralph Ellison: …only two collections of essays: Shadow and Act (1964) and Going to the Territory (1986). He lectured widely on black culture, folklore, and creative writing and taught at various American colleges and universities. Flying Home, and Other Stories was published posthumously in 1996. He left a second novel unfinished at…

  • shadow band (astronomy)

    eclipse: Solar eclipse phenomena: …of the Sun remains, so-called shadow bands can often be seen on plain light-coloured surfaces, such as floors and walls. These are striations of light and shade, moving and undulating, several centimetres wide. Their speed and direction depend on air currents at various heights, because they are caused by refraction…

  • shadow biosphere

    Shadow biosphere, hypothetical life-supporting system on Earth, consisting of microorganisms of unique or unusual molecular structure and biochemical properties and representing the possibility that life on Earth originated more than once. The unusual biochemical nature of theoretical shadow

  • shadow box (art)

    Joseph Cornell: …(Soap Bubble Set), his first shadow box of the type for which he became best known. Cornell’s shadow boxes—or “memory boxes” or “poetic theatres,” as he called them—took the form of glass-fronted boxes containing found objects and collaged elements arranged in enigmatic, often poetic, juxtaposition. Recurrent themes and motifs included…

  • Shadow Box, The (television film by Newman [1980])

    Paul Newman: Directing: The potent The Shadow Box (1980) was a made-for-TV movie about the interaction among three terminally ill patients and their visiting families; it starred Woodward, Valerie Harper, and Christopher Plummer.

  • shadow clock (timekeeping device)

    sundial: The shadow clock consists of a straight base with a raised crosspiece at one end. The base, on which is inscribed a scale of six time divisions, is placed in an east-west direction with the crosspiece at the east end in the morning and at the…

  • Shadow Country (painting by Tanguy)

    Yves Tanguy: In works such as Shadow Country (1927), he depicted groups of imaginary objects that resemble marine invertebrates or sculpturesque rock formations. He painted these ambiguous forms with painstaking detail and set them in barren, brightly lit landscapes that have an infinite horizon.

  • Shadow Country (novel by Matthiessen)

    Peter Matthiessen: …volumes into a single novel, Shadow Country (2008), which won the National Book Award for fiction. In Paradise (2014) details the reflections of a Holocaust scholar on a meditative retreat at Auschwitz.

  • shadow economy

    Underground economy, transaction of goods or services not reported to the government and therefore beyond the reach of tax collectors and regulators. The term may refer either to illegal activities or to ordinarily legal activities performed without the securing of required licenses and payment of

  • shadow factory (British industry)

    automotive industry: The automotive industry in World War II: The British government built “shadow factories” adjacent to their automotive plants, equipped to go into military production (principally aircraft) when war came, with managerial and technical personnel drawn from the automotive industry. France attempted conversion, but belatedly and inefficiently. The German automotive industry, which built the military vehicles needed…

  • Shadow Kill (film by Gopalakrishnan [2002])

    Adoor Gopalakrishnan: In Shadow Kill, a hangman grapples with the knowledge that he executed an innocent man.

  • Shadow Lines, The (novel by Ghosh)

    Amitav Ghosh: The Shadow Lines (1988) is a sweeping history of two families (one Indian and the other English) that are deeply shaped by events following the departure of the British from India in 1947. The Circle of Reason and The Shadow Lines, both written in English,…

  • Shadow Mountain fan (alluvial fan, Death Valley, California, United States)

    river: Size, morphology, and surface characteristics: For example, on the Shadow Mountain fan in Death Valley, California, washes of various types make up almost 70 percent of the surface area, but only a few of them are occupied by present-day streamflow. These are modern washes and represent the primary areas of deposition on the fan…

  • Shadow of a Doubt (film by Hitchcock [1943])

    Shadow of a Doubt, American thriller film, released in 1943, that Alfred Hitchcock reportedly ranked as his personal favourite of the movies he directed. “Young Charlie” (played by Teresa Wright) is bored with her small town. Her charismatic Uncle Charlie (Joseph Cotten), for whom she is named,

  • Shadow of a Gunman, The (play by O’Casey)

    The Shadow of a Gunman, drama in two acts by Sean O’Casey, performed at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in 1923 and published in 1925. Originally titled “On the Run,” it was the fifth play O’Casey wrote but the first to be produced. The comic-tragic play is set in the tenement slums of Dublin in 1920

  • Shadow of Sirius, The (work by Merwin)

    W.S. Merwin: …universal themes as mortality in The Shadow of Sirius (2008), which earned a Pulitzer Prize. Much of his oeuvre was published by the Library of America (LOA) as the two-volume The Collected Poems of W.S. Merwin (2013). Merwin was only the second living writer to be so surveyed by the…

  • Shadow of the Vampire (film by Erhige [2000])

    Willem Dafoe: …role as Max Schreck in Shadow of the Vampire (2000), a fictionalized account of the making of the classic vampire film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (1922; “Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror”).

  • Shadow of Your Smile, The (song by Mandel and Webster)
  • Shadow Play (work by Bianco)

    José Bianco: Shadow Play is a fantastic tale in the manner of Borges and Bioy Casares, written in a classic, unobtrusive style that allows for the unsettling of reality to occur almost unnoticed by the reader. The novella was included in the Antología de la literatura fantástica…

  • shadow play

    Shadow play, type of theatrical entertainment performed with puppets, probably originating in China and on the Indonesian islands of Java and Bali. Flat images are manipulated by the puppeteers between a bright light and a translucent screen, on the other side of which sits the audience. Shadow

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