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  • shadow price (economics)

    price system: Noncapitalist price systems: …these implicit exchange ratios “shadow prices,” and they appear in all areas of life in which deliberate choices are made.

  • shadow puppet

    Southeast Asian arts: Shadow-puppet theatre: It is uncertain whether the shadow theatre is indigenous to Java or was brought from India, but the wayang kulit technique of having a single seated puppeteer who manipulates puppets, sings, chants narration, and speaks dialogue seems to be an Indonesian invention. Unlike…

  • Shadow Tag (novel by Erdrich)

    Louise Erdrich: …and their white neighbours, and Shadow Tag (2010), which chronicles the unraveling of a marriage and the effect it has on the children. The Round House (2012), in which an Ojibwa teenager seeks justice after his mother is raped, won the National Book Award. LaRose (2016) investigates tragedy, grief, and…

  • shadow zone (physics)

    seawater: Acoustic properties: Refraction also produces shadow zones that sound waves do not penetrate because of their curvature.

  • Shadow, The (American radio program)

    The Shadow, American radio program that ran from 1937 to 1954. The title character, a caped vigilante who was also featured in The Shadow Magazine, was one of the most enduring and influential creations of the pulp era. The Shadow was originally created as the narrator of the 1930 radio show

  • Shadow, the (fictional character)

    The Shadow, American pulp-magazine vigilante created in 1931 by Walter Gibson for the publishing company Street & Smith. Inspired by the radio character of the same name, the Shadow went on to become one of the most influential and enduring characters of the pulp era. In 1930 Street & Smith began

  • shadow-mask tube (television)

    television: Shadow masks and aperture grilles: The sorting out of the three beams so that they produce images of only the intended primary colour is performed by a thin steel mask that lies directly behind the phosphor screen. This mask contains about 200,000 precisely located holes,…

  • shadowgraph (thermography)

    Nikola Tesla: He experimented with shadowgraphs similar to those that later were to be used by Wilhelm R?ntgen when he discovered X-rays in 1895. Tesla’s countless experiments included work on a carbon button lamp, on the power of electrical resonance, and on various types of lighting.

  • Shadowlands (film by Attenborough [1993])

    Richard Attenborough: …Chaplin biopic Chaplin (1992), and Shadowlands (1993), a depiction of the relationship between American poet Joy Gresham and English writer C.S. Lewis. He also helmed Closing the Ring (2007), a World War II romance told in flashbacks.

  • Shadows (film by Cassavetes [1959])

    John Cassavetes: Early work: Cassavetes’s low-budget directorial debut, Shadows (1959), was financed partly by some $20,000 sent to the fledgling filmmaker after he made an appeal for donations during an appearance on a radio program. Made over a period of about two and a half years and shot on 16-mm film stock, this…

  • Shadows in the Night (album by Dylan)

    Bob Dylan: The resulting albums—Shadows in the Night (2015), Fallen Angels (2016), and the three-disc Triplicate (2017)—earned Dylan praise for his deeply felt interpretations.

  • Shadows of Our Forgotten Ancestors (film by Paradzhanov)

    Sergey Yosifovich Paradzhanov: …was Teni zabytykh predkov (1964; Shadows of Our Forgotten Ancestors), a richly impressionistic fantasy based on a novella by Mykhaylo Kotsyubysky with a Ukrainian setting. Although it won 16 international awards, including the grand prize at the 1965 Mar del Plata Festival in Argentina, his overt rejection of the official…

  • Shadows on our Skin (novel by Johnston)

    Jennifer Johnston: Shadows on Our Skin (1977) and The Railway Station Man (1984) focus on violence in Northern Ireland, and The Old Jest (1979; filmed as The Dawning, 1988) and Fool’s Sanctuary (1987) are set during the emergence of modern Ireland in the 1920s. The protagonist of…

  • Shadows on the Hudson (work by Singer)

    Isaac Bashevis Singer: Shadows on the Hudson, translated into English and published posthumously in 1998, is a novel on a grand scale about Jewish refugees in New York in the late 1940s. The book had been serialized in the Forverts in the 1950s.

  • Shadows on the Rock (novel by Cather)

    Shadows on the Rock, novel by Willa Cather, published in 1931. The novel is a detailed study of the lives of French colonists in the late 1600s on the “rock” that is Quebec city, Quebec, Canada. Like many of Cather’s novels, Shadows on the Rock evokes the pioneer spirit and emphasizes the

  • Shadows, The (British rock group)

    The Shadows, London-based instrumental rock group whose distinctive sound exerted a strong influence on other young British musicians in the 1960s and beyond. The original members were lead guitarist Hank B. Marvin (original name Brian Robson Rankin; b. October 28, 1941, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne

  • Shadowstory (novel by Johnston)

    Jennifer Johnston: Shadowstory (2011) chronicles an Irish family’s struggles, and A Sixpenny Song (2013) centres on a woman who uncovers family secrets after inheriting her estranged father’s house following his death. She also wrote short stories and plays, such as Three Monologues: Twinkletoes; Mustn’t Forget High Noon;…

  • Shadrafa (Semitic deity)

    Shadrafa, ancient West Semitic benevolent deity. His name may possibly be translated as “Spirit of Healing.” He was often represented as a youthful, beardless male, standing on a lion above mountains, wearing a long, trailing garment and a pointed headdress, and holding a small lion in one hand

  • Shadrinsk (Russia)

    Shadrinsk, city and centre of Shadrinsk rayon (sector) of Kurgan oblast (region), west-central Russia, on the Iset River and the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Founded in 1662, it was chartered in 1781 and today is a manufacturing and agricultural centre, with transport functions. Light engineering,

  • shaduf (irrigation device)

    Shaduf, hand-operated device for lifting water, invented in ancient times and still used in India, Egypt, and some other countries to irrigate land. Typically it consists of a long, tapering, nearly horizontal pole mounted like a seesaw. A skin or bucket is hung on a rope from the long end, and a

  • Shadwell, Thomas (English author)

    Thomas Shadwell, English dramatist and poet laureate, known for his broad comedies of manners and as the butt of John Dryden’s satire. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, and at the Middle Temple, London, after the Restoration (1660) Shadwell became one of the court wits and an acquaintance of

  • SHAEF (military organization)

    Anglo-American Chain of Command in Western Europe, June 1944: Eisenhower’s Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) had authority over all the branches (air, sea, and land) of the armed forces of all countries whose contribution was necessary to the success of Operation Overlord (the planned Normandy invasion). These were grouped for the invasion under the…

  • Shafer, Helen Almira (American educator)

    Helen Almira Shafer, American educator, noted for the improvements she made in the curriculum of Wellesley College both as mathematics chair and as school president. Shafer graduated in 1863 from Oberlin (Ohio) College. After two years of teaching in New Jersey she joined the faculty of St. Louis

  • Shafer, Robert (linguist)

    Tibeto-Burman languages: History of scholarship: …until the late 1930s, when Robert Shafer headed a project called Sino-Tibetan Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. This project assembled all the lexical material then available on TB languages, enabling Shafer to venture a detailed subgrouping of the family at different taxonomic levels, called (from higher to lower)…

  • Shaffer, Anthony Joshua (British writer)

    Anthony Joshua Shaffer, British playwright and screenwriter (born May 15, 1926, Liverpool, Eng.—died Nov. 6, 2001, London, Eng.), delighted audiences with his ingenious comic thriller Sleuth, which played 2,359 performances in London’s West End and more than 2,000 performances on Broadway, where i

  • Shaffer, Jim G. (American scholar)

    India: The appearance of Indo-Aryan speakers: …by such scholars as American Jim G. Shaffer and Indian B.B. Lal suggests that Aryan civilization did not migrate to the subcontinent but was an original ethnic and linguistic element of pre-Vedic India. This theory would explain the dearth of physical signs of any putative Aryan conquest and is supported…

  • Shaffer, Paul (Canadian musician)

    David Letterman: …and his comic foil, bandleader Paul Shaffer; nonsensical skits, notably “Stupid Pet Tricks”; and roving cameras that captured ordinary people and placed them in the limelight. Letterman also became known for antagonizing some notable guests; Cher, for example, was moved to curse him on camera. If his behaviour turned off…

  • Shaffer, Sir Peter (British writer)

    Sir Peter Shaffer, British playwright of considerable range who moved easily from farce to the portrayal of human anguish. Shaffer was educated at St. Paul’s School in London and Trinity College, Cambridge. He initially worked at the New York Public Library and for a music publisher. His first

  • Shaffer, Sir Peter Levin (British writer)

    Sir Peter Shaffer, British playwright of considerable range who moved easily from farce to the portrayal of human anguish. Shaffer was educated at St. Paul’s School in London and Trinity College, Cambridge. He initially worked at the New York Public Library and for a music publisher. His first

  • Shafiite school (Islamic law)

    Shāfi?ī, in Islam, one of the four Sunni schools of religious law, derived from the teachings of Mu?ammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfi?ī (767–820). This legal school (madhhab) stabilized the bases of Islamic legal theory, affirming the authority of both divine law-giving and human speculation regarding the

  • Shafik, Doria (Egyptian author and reformer)

    Durriyyah Shafīq, Egyptian educator, journalist, and reformer who campaigned for women’s rights in Egypt and founded (1948) the Egyptian women’s organization Bint al-Nīl (“Daughter of the Nile”). Shafīq was born in Lower Egypt and received a Western-style education in French and Italian schools.

  • Shafiq Zaki, Ahmed Mohammed (prime minister of Egypt)

    Ahmed Shafiq, Egyptian politician and military officer who served as prime minister from January to March 2011 and stood as an independent in Egypt’s 2012 presidential election. Shafiq was born into a politically well-connected family, with a father who served in Egypt’s Ministry of Irrigation.

  • Shafiq, Ahmed (prime minister of Egypt)

    Ahmed Shafiq, Egyptian politician and military officer who served as prime minister from January to March 2011 and stood as an independent in Egypt’s 2012 presidential election. Shafiq was born into a politically well-connected family, with a father who served in Egypt’s Ministry of Irrigation.

  • Shafīq, Durriyyah (Egyptian author and reformer)

    Durriyyah Shafīq, Egyptian educator, journalist, and reformer who campaigned for women’s rights in Egypt and founded (1948) the Egyptian women’s organization Bint al-Nīl (“Daughter of the Nile”). Shafīq was born in Lower Egypt and received a Western-style education in French and Italian schools.

  • Shāfi?ī (Islamic law)

    Shāfi?ī, in Islam, one of the four Sunni schools of religious law, derived from the teachings of Mu?ammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfi?ī (767–820). This legal school (madhhab) stabilized the bases of Islamic legal theory, affirming the authority of both divine law-giving and human speculation regarding the

  • Shāfi?ī, Abū ?Abd Allāh ash- (Muslim legist)

    Abū ?Abd Allāh ash-Shāfi?ī, Muslim legal scholar who played an important role in the formation of Islāmic legal thought and was the founder of the Shāfi?īyah school of law. He also made a basic contribution to religious and legal methodology with respect to the use of traditions. Little is known

  • Shāfi?īyah school (Islamic law)

    Shāfi?ī, in Islam, one of the four Sunni schools of religious law, derived from the teachings of Mu?ammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfi?ī (767–820). This legal school (madhhab) stabilized the bases of Islamic legal theory, affirming the authority of both divine law-giving and human speculation regarding the

  • Shafshawan (Morocco)

    Chefchaouene, town, northern Morocco, situated in the Rif mountain range. Founded as a holy city in 1471 by the warrior Abū Youma and later moved by Sīdī ?Alī ibn Rashīd to its present site at the base of Mount El-Chaouene, it became a refuge for Moors expelled from Spain. A site long closed to

  • Shaft (film by Parks [1971])

    blaxploitation movies: …the most-popular subgenre, action (Shaft, 1971). But from the outset, African American critics found the stereotypes made possible by the behaviours of the heroes and heroines of the films—which often included drug dealing, violence, and easy sex—to be the most-pervasive and damaging effect of the movies; also damaging was…

  • Shaft (film by Singleton [2000])

    John Singleton: …of the landmark blaxploitation film Shaft (2000); the action film 2 Fast 2 Furious (2003); and Four Brothers (2005), starring Mark Wahlberg and Tyrese Gibson.

  • shaft (machine component)

    hydraulic transmission: …device that links two rotatable shafts. It consists of a vaned impeller on the drive shaft facing a similarly vaned runner on the driven shaft, both impeller and runner being enclosed in a casing containing a liquid, usually oil (see figure). If there is no resistance to the turning of…

  • shaft (excavation)

    tunnels and underground excavations: …opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting water and sewage. Underground chambers, often associated with a complex of connecting tunnels and shafts, increasingly are being used for such things as underground hydroelectric-power plants, ore-processing…

  • Shaft (film by Story [2019])

    Samuel L. Jackson: …supernatural thriller Unbreakable, and in Shaft he resumed the role of John Shaft. That year he also starred in The Last Full Measure, about a U.S. soldier’s bravery during the Vietnam War and the conspiracy that delayed his being awarded the Medal of Honor. Jackson’s credits from 2020 included The…

  • shaft (anatomy)

    bone disease: Deficient blood supply to bone: …may involve the shaft (diaphysis) or the ends (epiphyses) of the long bones. Sometimes the bone marrow of the diaphysis is primarily involved, and in osteomyelitis it is usually the compact (cortical) bone of the shaft that undergoes necrosis. For mechanical reasons, and because there is a poorer blood…

  • shaft (architecture)

    order: The shaft, which rests upon the base, is a long, narrow, vertical cylinder that in some orders is articulated with fluting (vertical grooves). The shaft may also taper inward slightly so that it is wider at the bottom than at the top.

  • shaft coupling (machine part)

    Shaft coupling, in machinery, a device for providing a connection, readily broken and restored, between two adjacent rotating shafts. A coupling may provide either a rigid or a flexible connection; the flexibility may permit misalignment of the connected shafts or provide a torsionally flexible

  • shaft furnace (metallurgy)

    iron processing: History: Stone-built shaft furnaces, on the other hand, relied on natural draft, although they too sometimes used tuyeres. In both cases, smelting involved creating a bed of red-hot charcoal to which iron ore mixed with more charcoal was added. Chemical reduction of the ore then occurred, but,…

  • shaft graves (burial sites, ancient Greece)

    Shaft graves, late Bronze Age (c. 1600–1450 bc) burial sites from the era in which the Greek mainland came under the cultural influence of Crete. The graves were those of royal or leading Greek families, unplundered and undisturbed until found by modern archaeologists at Mycenae. The graves, c

  • shaft horsepower (engineering)

    horsepower: …turbine, or motor is termed brake horsepower or shaft horsepower, depending on what kind of instrument is used to measure it. Horsepower of reciprocating engines, particularly in the larger sizes, is often expressed as indicated horsepower, which is determined from the pressure in the cylinders. Brake or shaft horsepower is…

  • shaft loom (weaving)

    textile: Horizontal frame looms: …between bars and called a shaft. The advantages of this type of loom were many. First, in the two-bar loom, though more than two heddle rods could be used, the number of groupings of warp threads was limited. Although highly complex patterns could be woven, it was not practical to…

  • shaft mine (excavation)

    tunnels and underground excavations: …opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting water and sewage. Underground chambers, often associated with a complex of connecting tunnels and shafts, increasingly are being used for such things as underground hydroelectric-power plants, ore-processing…

  • shaft mining

    mining: Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the…

  • shaft raising (excavation)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Shaft raising: Handling cuttings is simplified when the shaft can be raised from an existing tunnel, since the cuttings then merely fall to the tunnel, where they are easily loaded into mine cars or trucks. This advantage has long been recognized in mining; where once…

  • shaft seal (mechanics)

    Shaft seal, in machinery, a device that prevents the passage of fluids along a rotating shaft. Seals are necessary when a shaft extends from a housing (enclosure) containing oil, such as a pump or a gear box. A common type of shaft seal consists of an elastomer (elastic rubberlike) ring bonded to a

  • shaft sinking (excavation)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Shaft sinking and drilling: Mining downward, generally from the surface, although occasionally from an underground chamber, is called shaft sinking. In soil, shallow shafts are frequently supported with interlocking steel sheetpiling held by ring beams (circular rib sets); or a concrete caisson may be built…

  • Shafter, William (United States general)

    Spanish-American War: Fighting in the Philippines and Cuba: William R. Shafter, considered withdrawing to await reinforcements. This idea was abandoned on July 3 when Cervera, under orders from Havana, led his squadron out of Santiago harbour and tried to escape westward along the coast. In the ensuing battle, all of Cervera’s ships, under…

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of (English politician [1621–1683])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, a member of the Council of State (1653–54; 1659) during the Commonwealth, and a member of Charles II’s “Cabinet Council” and lord chancellor (1672–73). Seeking to exclude the Roman Catholic duke of York (the future James II) from

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of, Baron Cooper of Pawlett, Baron Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles (English politician [1621–1683])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, a member of the Council of State (1653–54; 1659) during the Commonwealth, and a member of Charles II’s “Cabinet Council” and lord chancellor (1672–73). Seeking to exclude the Roman Catholic duke of York (the future James II) from

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of (English politician and philosopher [1671-1713])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher, grandson of the famous 1st earl and one of the principal English Deists. His early education was directed by John Locke, and he attended Winchester College. He entered Parliament in 1695 and, succeeding as 3rd Earl

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of, Baron Cooper of Pawlett, Baron Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles (English politician and philosopher [1671-1713])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher, grandson of the famous 1st earl and one of the principal English Deists. His early education was directed by John Locke, and he attended Winchester College. He entered Parliament in 1695 and, succeeding as 3rd Earl

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th earl of (British industrial reformer [1801–1885])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most effective social and industrial reformers in 19th-century England. He was also the acknowledged leader of the evangelical movement within the Church of England. He was the eldest son of Cropley Cooper (a younger brother of the 5th earl

  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th earl of, Baron Cooper of Pawlett, Baron Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles (British industrial reformer [1801–1885])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most effective social and industrial reformers in 19th-century England. He was also the acknowledged leader of the evangelical movement within the Church of England. He was the eldest son of Cropley Cooper (a younger brother of the 5th earl

  • shag (bird)

    Cormorant, any member of about 26 to 30 species of water birds constituting the family Phalacrocoracidae (order Pelecaniformes or Suliformes). In the Orient and elsewhere these glossy black underwater swimmers have been tamed for fishing. Cormorants dive for and feed mainly on fish of little value

  • Shagamu (Nigeria)

    Shagamu, town, Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies along the Ibu River and the Eruwuru Stream, between Lagos and Ibadan. Founded in the mid-19th century by members of the Remo branch of the Yoruba people, it soon became a major market centre of the Remo (Ijebu-Remo) kingdom. Following the

  • Shagari, Alhaji Shehu Usman Aliyu (president of Nigeria)

    Shehu Shagari, Nigerian politician, president of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983. Shagari’s great-grandfather founded the village from which the family took its name. Shagari was educated at Kaduna College and taught school briefly. As one of the few northerners to show an interest in national politics,

  • Shagari, Shehu (president of Nigeria)

    Shehu Shagari, Nigerian politician, president of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983. Shagari’s great-grandfather founded the village from which the family took its name. Shagari was educated at Kaduna College and taught school briefly. As one of the few northerners to show an interest in national politics,

  • shagbark hickory (plant)

    tree: Tree bark: …rough shinglelike outer covering of shagbark hickory (Carya ovata).

  • Shaggy (Jamaican-born singer)

    Sting: Later work and assessment: …he collaborated with reggae star Shaggy for his first duets album, 44/876 (2018). For My Songs (2019), Sting reinterpreted a number of his classics, including some originally recorded with the Police.

  • shaggy cap (fungus)

    inky cap: comatus (shaggy mane, or shaggy cap) are edible when young, before the gills turn black.

  • Shaggy D.A., The (film by Stevenson [1976])

    Robert Stevenson: Films for Disney: His last film was The Shaggy D.A. (1976), a follow-up to the popular The Shaggy Dog (1959).

  • shaggy mane (fungus)

    inky cap: comatus (shaggy mane, or shaggy cap) are edible when young, before the gills turn black.

  • shagreen (shark leather)

    chondrichthyan: Other shark products: …value, as a leather called shagreen, for polishing hard wood. When heated and polished, shagreen is used for decorating ornaments and, in Japan, for covering sword hilts.

  • shāh (Iranian title)

    Shāh, title of the kings of Iran, or Persia. When compounded as shāhanshāh, it denotes “king of kings,” or emperor, a title adopted by the 20th-century Pahlavi dynasty in evocation of the ancient Persian “king of kings,” Cyrus II the Great (reigned 559–c. 529 bc). Another related title or form of

  • Shāh ’Abd-ul-La?īf (?ūfi poet)

    Sindhi literature: …greatest poet in Sindhi is Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit (1690–1752), known for his collection of poems Risalo. Latif criticized all forms of religious orthodoxies and preached the oneness of God and the universal brotherhood in a language charged with Sufi emotionalism. He was followed by another poet, also a…

  • Shah Abdul Latif (?ūfi poet)

    Sindhi literature: …greatest poet in Sindhi is Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit (1690–1752), known for his collection of poems Risalo. Latif criticized all forms of religious orthodoxies and preached the oneness of God and the universal brotherhood in a language charged with Sufi emotionalism. He was followed by another poet, also a…

  • Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    Shah Alam, city, western Peninsular (West) Malaysia. Shah Alam lies about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Kuala Lumpur and just east of Klang (Kelang). The city has an industrial estate where food and tobacco products are processed and electrical machinery, cement, chemical, and textile products are

  • Shah Diamond (gem)

    Shah diamond, yellow-tinged stone of about 89 carats that bears three ancient Persian inscriptions, indicating it was discovered before 1591, probably in the Golconda mines in India. The inscriptions are to Ne?ām Shāh Borhān II, 1591; Shāh Jahān, son of Shāh Jahāngīr, 1641; and Fat? ?Alī Shāh,

  • Shah dynasty (Nepali dynasty)

    Nepal: Modern period: The Shah (or Sah) rulers faced tremendous and persistent problems in trying to centralize an area long characterized by extreme diversity and ethnic and regional parochialism. They established a centralized political system by absorbing dominant regional and local elites into the central administration at Kathmandu. This…

  • Shah Jahān (Mughal emperor)

    Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58) who built the Taj Mahal. He was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. In 1612 he married Arjūmand Bānū Begum, niece of Jahāngīr’s wife Nūr Jahān, and became, as Prince Khurram, a member of the influential Nūr

  • Shāh Jahān II (Mughal emperor)

    India: Struggle for a new power centre: …al-Darajāt and Rafī? al-Dawlah (Shah Jahān II), died of consumption. The third, who assumed the title Mu?ammad Shah, exhibited sufficient vigour to set about freeing himself from the brothers’ control.

  • Shāh Jahān III (Mughal emperor)

    India: The Afghan-Maratha struggle for northern India: …vizier, who now proclaimed Prince Mu?ī al-Millat, a grandson of Kām Bakhsh, as emperor under the title of Shah Jahān III (November 1759); he was soon replaced by ?ālamgīr II’s son Shah ?ālam II. In one way or another, the Marathas played a role in all these accessions. Maratha power…

  • Shah Jahān period architecture

    Shah Jahān period architecture, Indian building style that flourished under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (reigned 1628–58), its crowning achievement being the magnificent mausoleum at Agra, the Taj Mahal. Among the other landmarks of the style are several mosques at the emperor’s

  • Shah Jehan (Mughal emperor)

    Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58) who built the Taj Mahal. He was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. In 1612 he married Arjūmand Bānū Begum, niece of Jahāngīr’s wife Nūr Jahān, and became, as Prince Khurram, a member of the influential Nūr

  • Shāh Ma?mūd (king of Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Zamān Shah (1793–1800): The shah went a step further by helping Ma?mūd, governor of Herāt and a brother of Zamān, with men and money and encouraging him to advance on Kandahār. Ma?mūd, assisted by his vizier, Fat? Khan Bārakzay, eldest son of Sardār Pāyenda Khan, and by Fat? ?Alī…

  • Shah Mahmud (prime minister of Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933–73): Shah Mahmud, prime minister from 1946 to 1953, sanctioned free elections and a relatively free press, and the so-called “liberal parliament” functioned from 1949 to 1952. Conservatives in government, however, encouraged by religious leaders, supported the seizure of power in 1953 by Lieutenant General Mohammad…

  • Shah Murad (Uzbek ruler)

    Uzbekistan: The early Uzbeks: …fortunes under the leadership of Emir Ma?sum (also known as Shah Murād; reigned 1785–1800), a remarkable dervish emir who forwent wealth, comfort, and pomp. In the khanate of Khiva, the Qonghirat tribe succeeded the Ashtarkhanid dynasty and prevailed until 1920, leaving Khiva a museum capital of architectural, cultural, and literary…

  • Shah Mushk Nafā (Muslim saint)

    Munger: …tomb of the Muslim saint Shah Mushk Nafā (died 1497). In 1763 Mīr Qasīm, nawab of Bengal, made Munger his capital and built an arsenal and several palaces. It was constituted a municipality in 1864.

  • Shāh Qūlī (Persian painter)

    āqā Mīrak: …also was the teacher of Shāh Qūlī, a Persian painter later active at the court of the Ottoman sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.

  • Shah Rokh (Afshārid ruler)

    Mashhad: Cultural life: …Shād—wife of the Timurid ruler, Shāh Rokh (ruled 1405–47). The city maintains parks, a zoo, museums, and libraries. Just outside Mashhad is the mausoleum of Abū Qāsim Ferdowsī (c. 935–c. 1020–26), the incomparable poet and author of the Shāh-nāmeh (“Book of Kings”).

  • Shāh Rokh (Timurid ruler of Iran and Turkistan)

    Shāh Rokh, Timurid ruler of much of Central Asia, best known as a patron of the arts. Shāh Rokh was the fourth son of Timur (Tamerlane), founder of the Timurid dynasty. At Timur’s death in 1405, a struggle for control of his empire broke out among members of his family. Shāh Rokh gained control of

  • Shāh Rokh Mīrzā (Timurid ruler of Iran and Turkistan)

    Shāh Rokh, Timurid ruler of much of Central Asia, best known as a patron of the arts. Shāh Rokh was the fourth son of Timur (Tamerlane), founder of the Timurid dynasty. At Timur’s death in 1405, a struggle for control of his empire broke out among members of his family. Shāh Rokh gained control of

  • Shāh Rukh (Timurid ruler of Iran and Turkistan)

    Shāh Rokh, Timurid ruler of much of Central Asia, best known as a patron of the arts. Shāh Rokh was the fourth son of Timur (Tamerlane), founder of the Timurid dynasty. At Timur’s death in 1405, a struggle for control of his empire broke out among members of his family. Shāh Rokh gained control of

  • Shāh Shojā? (king of Afghanistan)

    Shāh Shojā?, shāh, or king, of Afghanistan (1803–10; 1839–42) whose alliance with the British led to his death. Shojā? ascended the throne in 1803 after a long fratricidal war. In 1809 he concluded an alliance with the British against an expected Franco-Russian invasion of India but, the following

  • Shāh Shujā? (king of Afghanistan)

    Shāh Shojā?, shāh, or king, of Afghanistan (1803–10; 1839–42) whose alliance with the British led to his death. Shojā? ascended the throne in 1803 after a long fratricidal war. In 1809 he concluded an alliance with the British against an expected Franco-Russian invasion of India but, the following

  • Shāh Sul?ān ?usayn (?afavid ruler)

    ?usayn I, shah of Iran from 1694 to 1722, last independent ruler of the ?afavid dynasty, whose unfitness led to its disintegration. ?usayn was reared in the harem and had no knowledge of state affairs. He depleted the treasury for personal expenses and allowed the mullahs (clergy) to control the

  • Shāh ?Abbās carpet (decorative arts)

    Vase carpet, any of the most widely known group of floor coverings among the “classic” Kermāns of the 16th and 17th centuries. At their best these carpets are extremely handsome, combining an elaborate overall repeat pattern of ogival lozenges with a profusion of extravagantly styled blossoms of

  • Shāh ?ālam (Mughal emperor)

    Bahādur Shah I, Mughal emperor of India from 1707–12. As Prince Mu?a??am, the second son of the emperor Aurangzeb, he was the prospective heir after his elder brother defected to join their father’s brother and rival, Shah Shujā?. Prince Mu?a??am was sent in 1663 to represent his father in the

  • Shah ?ālam II (Mughal emperor)

    Shah ?ālam II, nominal Mughal emperor of India from 1759 to 1806. Son of the emperor ?ālamgīr II, he was forced to flee Delhi in 1758 by the minister ?Imād al-Mulk, who kept the emperor a virtual prisoner. He took refuge with Shujā? al-Dawlah, nawab of Oudh (Ayodhya), and after his father’s

  • Shah, Eddie (British publisher)

    history of publishing: The emergence of national newspapers: …launched in 1986 by publisher Eddie Shah. Entitled Today, it was the first national British paper produced entirely with the new technology and without cooperation from the traditional print unions. The paper was purchased in 1987 by Rupert Murdoch, who closed it in 1995. Before the end of the 20th…

  • Shah, Naseeruddin (Indian actor)

    Naseeruddin Shah, Indian film and stage actor whose sensitive and subtle performances earned him critical acclaim and several prestigious awards. Shah was trained at the National School of Drama and became one of the most-visible faces of the movement known as the New Indian cinema, or parallel

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