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  • Shamash-eriba (Babylonian rebel)

    Xerxes I: Accession to the throne: The second, Shamash-eriba, was conquered by Xerxes’ son-in-law, and violent repression ensued: Babylon’s fortresses were torn down, its temples pillaged, and the statue of Marduk destroyed. This latter act had great political significance: Xerxes was no longer able to “take the hand of” (receive the patronage of)…

  • Shamash-mudammiq (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Assyria and Babylonia until Ashurnasirpal II: …campaigns against Babylonia he forced Shamash-mudammiq (c. 930–904) to surrender extensive territories. Shamash-mudammiq was murdered, and a treaty with his successor, Nabu-shum-ukin (c. 904–888), secured peace for many years. Tukulti-Ninurta II (c. 890–884), the son of Adad-nirari II, preferred Nineveh to Ashur. He fought campaigns in southern Armenia. He was…

  • Shamash-shum-ukin (crown prince of Babylonia)

    Shamash-shum-ukin, crown prince of Babylon, son of Esarhaddon and brother of Ashurbanipal, the last of the great kings of Assyria. He led a coalition of Arabic tribes against Ashurbanipal, but, after being starved out by his brother’s siege of Babylon (684 bc), he capitulated. According to

  • shamba (food garden, Kenya)

    Kenya: Daily life and social customs: Many people utilize shambas (vegetable gardens) to supplement purchased foods. In areas inhabited by the Kikuyu, irio, a stew of peas, corn, and potatoes, is common. The Maasai, known for their herds of livestock, avoid killing their cows and instead prefer to use products yielded by the animal…

  • Shamba Bolongongo (Kuba king)

    African art: Kuba cultural area: Shamba Bolongongo (c. 1600), the 93rd king, who introduced weaving and textile manufacture to his people, was also the first Kuba ruler to have his portrait carved in wood. Shamba Bolongongo’s portrait established a tradition of such portraiture among the Kuba people. The kings typically…

  • Shambhala International (religious organization)

    Ch?gyam Trungpa: …of the Tibetan Buddhist organization Shambhala International, which was established in the United States in the second half of the 20th century to disseminate Buddhist teachings, especially the practice of meditation. He is frequently referred to as Ch?gyam Trungpa Rinpoche, the Tibetan word rinpoche (“precious jewel”) being an honorific title…

  • Shame (novel by Rushdie)

    Salman Rushdie: The novel Shame (1983), based on contemporary politics in Pakistan, was also popular, but Rushdie’s fourth novel, The Satanic Verses, encountered a different reception. Some of the adventures in this book depict a character modeled on the Prophet Muhammad and portray both him and his transcription of…

  • Shame (film by Bergman [1968])

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …of the Wolf), Skammen (1968; Shame), and En passion (1969; A Passion, or The Passion of Anna), all dramas of inner conflicts involving a small, closely knit group of characters. With The Touch (1971; Ber?ringen), his first English-language film, Bergman returned to an urban setting and more romantic subject matter,…

  • Shame (film by McQueen [2011])

    Steve McQueen: …released his second commercial movie, Shame, in 2011. Its somewhat transgressive subject was the story of a man’s sex addiction. Again McQueen used Fassbender as his lead actor. In 2013 McQueen’s film 12 Years a Slave was released. It starred Chiwetel Ejiofor in the role of Solomon Northup, who wrote…

  • Shame of the Cities, The (work by Steffens)

    Lincoln Steffens: …influential articles later collected as The Shame of the Cities (1904), a work closer to a documented sociological case study than to a sensational journalistic exposé.

  • Shame of the States, The (work by Deutsch)

    mental hygiene: National agencies: …United States, notably Albert Deutsch’s The Shame of the States in 1948. Published in 1946, Mary Jane Ward’s book The Snake Pit became a Hollywood film success and was followed by many more honestly realistic portrayals of mental problems on screen and television. A psychodynamic approach to the understanding and…

  • Shamela (novel by Fielding)

    Shamela, novel by Henry Fielding, published under the pseudonym Conny Keyber in 1741. In this parody of Samuel Richardson’s epistolary novel Pamela, Fielding transforms Richardson’s virtuous servant girl into a predatory fortune hunter who cold-bloodedly lures her lustful wealthy master into

  • Shamerim (Judaism)

    Samaritan, member of a community of Jews, now nearly extinct, that claims to be related by blood to those Jews of ancient Samaria who were not deported by the Assyrian conquerors of the kingdom of Israel in 722 bce. The Samaritans call themselves Bene-Yisrael (“Children of Israel”), or Shamerim

  • Shamforoff, Irwin Gilbert (American author)

    Irwin Shaw, prolific American playwright, screenwriter, and author of critically acclaimed short stories and best-selling novels. Shaw studied at Brooklyn College (B.A., 1934) and at age 21 began his career by writing the scripts of the popular Andy Gump and Dick Tracy radio shows. He wrote his

  • Shāmil (Muslim leader)

    Shāmil, leader of Muslim Dagestan and Chechen mountaineers, whose fierce resistance delayed Russia’s conquest of the Caucasus for 25 years. The son of a free landlord, Shāmil studied grammar, logic, rhetoric, and Arabic, acquired prestige as a learned man, and in 1830 joined the Murīdīs, a ?ūfī

  • shamir (mineral)

    abrasive: History: …Bible mentions a stone called shamir that was very probably emery, a natural abrasive still in use today. Ancient Egyptian drawings show abrasives being used to polish jewelry and vases. A statue of a Scythian slave, called “The Grinder,” in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, shows an irregularly shaped natural…

  • Shamir Yuhar?ish (king of Saba?)

    Saba?: …ad, a powerful king named Shamir Yuhar?ish (who seems incidentally to be the first really historical personage whose fame has survived in the Islamic traditions) assumed the title “king of Saba? and the Dhū Raydān and of ?a?ramawt and Yamanāt.” By this time, therefore, the political independence of ?a?ramawt had…

  • Shamir, Adi (Israeli cryptographer)

    Adi Shamir, Israeli cryptographer and computer scientist and cowinner, with American computer scientists Leonard M. Adleman and Ronald L. Rivest, of the 2002 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for their “ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in

  • Shamir, Moshe (Israeli writer)

    Moshe Shamir, Israeli novelist and politician (born Sept. 15, 1921, Zefat, British Palestine—died Aug. 20, 2004, Rishon LeZiyyon, Israel), championed the socialist ideals of kibbutz life in his novels; in the 1960s he launched a political career as a member of the conservative Likud Party, but a

  • Shamir, Yitz?ak (prime minister of Israel)

    Yitz?ak Shamir, Polish-born Zionist leader and prime minister of Israel in 1983–84 and 1986–90 (in alliance with Shimon Peres of the Labour Party) and in 1990–92. Shamir joined the Beitar Zionist youth movement as a young man and studied law in Warsaw. He immigrated to Palestine in 1935 and

  • shamisen (Japanese musical instrument)

    Samisen, long-necked fretless Japanese lute. The instrument has a small square body with a catskin front and back, three twisted-silk strings, and a curved-back pegbox with side pegs. It is played with a large plectrum; different types of plectrums produce distinct tone colours for specific types

  • Shamlu, Ahmad (Iranian poet)

    Ahmad Shamlu, Iranian poet (born Dec. 12, 1925, Tehran, Iran—died July 24, 2000, Tehran), defied the conventional restrictions of formal Persian poetry in favour of heartfelt free-flowing verse that displayed his secular nationalism and his passion for political freedom and social justice. A f

  • Shammai ha-Zaken (Jewish sage)

    Shammai ha-Zaken (“the Elder”), one of the leading Jewish sages of Palestine in his time. With the sage Hillel, he was the last of the zugot (“pairs”), the scholars that headed the Great Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court and executive body. Little is known about Shammai’s life. He became av-bet-din

  • Shammai the Elder (Jewish sage)

    Shammai ha-Zaken (“the Elder”), one of the leading Jewish sages of Palestine in his time. With the sage Hillel, he was the last of the zugot (“pairs”), the scholars that headed the Great Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court and executive body. Little is known about Shammai’s life. He became av-bet-din

  • Shammar Yuhar?ish (?imyarite ruler)

    history of Arabia: ?imyarites: …ce, a ?imyarite ruler named Shammar Yuhar?ish ended the independent existence of both Saba? and Hadhramaut, and, inasmuch as Qatabān had already disappeared from the political map, the whole of Yemen was united under his rule. Thereafter, the royal style was “King of Saba? and the Raydān and Hadhramaut and…

  • shammas (Judaism)

    Shammash, salaried sexton in a Jewish synagogue whose duties now generally include secretarial work and assistance to the cantor, or hazan, who directs the public service. The ninth light of the candelabrum (menorah) used on ?anukka is also called shammash, because its flame is used to light the

  • shammash (Judaism)

    Shammash, salaried sexton in a Jewish synagogue whose duties now generally include secretarial work and assistance to the cantor, or hazan, who directs the public service. The ninth light of the candelabrum (menorah) used on ?anukka is also called shammash, because its flame is used to light the

  • Shamokin (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Shamokin, city, Northumberland county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along Shamokin Creek. Founded in 1835 by the coal speculators John C. Boyd and Ziba Bird, it was early known as Boyd’s Stone-coal Quarry, Boydtown, and New Town. The present name, selected by Boyd, is a derivation of one

  • Shamokin Dam (dam, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Sunbury: Fabridam, an inflated fabric-tube dam barrage impounding the Susquehanna River, has created the 3,000-acre (1,214-hectare) Augusta Lake for recreation. Inc. borough, 1797; city, 1922. Pop. (2000) 10,610; (2010) 9,905.

  • shampoo

    cosmetic: Other cosmetics: Hair preparations include soapless shampoos (soap leaves a film on the hair) that are actually scented detergents; products that are intended to give gloss and body to the hair, such as resin-based sprays, brilliantines, and pomades, as well as alcohol-based lotions; and hair conditioners that are designed to treat…

  • Shampoo (film by Ashby [1975])

    Hal Ashby: The 1970s: …1975’s biggest—and most controversial—hits was Shampoo, a satire of Los Angeles society in 1968 with charismatic starring performances by Warren Beatty, Julie Christie, and Goldie Hawn, great supporting work by Lee Grant (who won an Oscar) and Jack Warden, and a clever, bold screenplay by Towne and Beatty. Ashby’s next…

  • shamrock (plant)

    Shamrock, any of several similar-appearing trifoliate plants—i.e., plants each of whose leaves is divided into three leaflets. Plants called shamrock include the wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) of the family Oxalidaceae, or any of various plants of the pea family (Fabaceae), including white clover

  • shamrock pea (plant)

    shamrock: The shamrock pea (Parochetus communis), a creeping legume with bicoloured blue and pink flowers, is grown in pots and in hanging baskets.

  • Shamroy, Leon (American cinematographer)
  • Shams (Arabian goddess)

    Arabian religion: South Arabia: The sun goddess Shams was the national deity of the kingdom of ?imyar. She appears also, in a minor role, in Saba?. Other aspects of Shams are certainly concealed in some of the many and still obscure South Arabian female divine epithets.

  • Shams ad-Dīn Abū al-?Abbās A?mad ibn Mu?ammad ibn Khallikān (Muslim jurist)

    Ibn Khallikān, Muslim judge and author of a classic Arabic biographical dictionary. Ibn Khallikān studied in Irbīl, Aleppo, and Damascus. Ibn Khallikān was an assistant to the chief judge of Egypt until 1261, when he became qā?ī al-qu?āt (chief judge) of Damascus. He adhered to the Shāfi?ī branch o

  • Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (Turkish ruler)

    Eldegüzid dynasty: …founder of the dynasty was Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (reigned c. 1137–75), originally a Turkish slave of the Seljuq minister Kamāl al-Mulk Simīrumī. In 1137 the Seljuq sultan Mas?ūd I appointed Eldegüz ruler of the Seljuq provinces of Arrān and Azerbaijan. In 1161, shortly after he had married the widow of…

  • Shams al-Dīn (Persian mystic)

    Rūmī: The influence of Shams al-Dīn: …met the wandering dervish—holy man—Shams al-Dīn (Sun of Religion) of Tabrīz, whom he may have first encountered in Syria. Shams al-Dīn cannot be connected with any of the traditional mystical fraternities; his overwhelming personality, however, revealed to Jalāl al-Dīn the mysteries of divine majesty and beauty. For months the…

  • Shams al-Dīn (Muslim painter)

    A?mad Mūsā: …Mūsā’s most famous pupil was Shams al-Dīn, who painted at the court of the Jalāyir sultans of Baghdad in the latter part of the 14th century.

  • Shams ud-Dīn Mu?ammad Atgah Khān (Mughal minister)

    India: The early years: Second, he appointed Shams al-Dīn Mu?ammad Atgah Khan as prime minister (November 1561). Third, at about the same time, he took possession of Chunar, which had always defied Humāyūn.

  • Shams-al-Dīn Iltutmish (Delhi sultan)

    Iltutmish, third and greatest Delhi sultan of the so-called Slave dynasty. Iltutmish was sold into slavery but married the daughter of his master, Qu?b al-Dīn Aibak, whom he succeeded in 1211. He strengthened and expanded the Muslim empire in northern India and moved the capital to Delhi, where he

  • Shamshi-Adad I (king of Assyria)

    Ashur: …of these was ascribed to Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1813–c. 1781) and was later used as a burial ground. Many of the private houses found in the northwestern quarter of the site were spaciously laid out and had family vaults beneath their floors, where dozens of archives and libraries were uncovered…

  • Shamshi-Adad IV (king of Assyria)

    Ashurnasirpal I: His father, Shamshi-Adad IV, a son of Tiglath-pileser I, was placed on the throne of Assyria by the Babylonian king Adad-apal-iddina. The few inscriptions of Ashurnasirpal I that survive reflect the unhappy situation in Assyria during his reign.

  • Shamshi-Adad V (king of Assyria)

    Sammu-ramat: …the death of her husband, Shamshi-Adad V (823–811 bc). Sammu-ramat was mentioned by Herodotus, and the later historian Diodorus Siculus elaborated a whole legend about her. According to him, she was born of a goddess, and, after being married to an Assyrian officer, she captivated the king Ninus by her…

  • Shamu (whale)

    SeaWorld: …invertebrates, and marine mammals, including Shamu, a killer whale that is the company mascot and star attraction. Displays of California sea otters and Antarctic penguins are featured at all parks.

  • Shamva (Zimbabwe)

    Shamva, town, northeastern Zimbabwe. It was originally called Abercorn, and its present name was derived from a Shona word meaning “to become friendly.” Located at the site of a sandstone reef that once yielded large quantities of gold, the town is overshadowed by giant mine dumps at the foot of

  • Shamvaian Group (geological feature, Africa)

    Precambrian: Age and occurrence of greenstone-granite belts: Belingwean, and Bulawayan-Shamvaian belts of Zimbabwe; the Yellowknife belts in the Slave province of Canada; the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon, and Quetico belts of the Superior province of Canada; the Dharwar belts in India; and the Warrawoona and Yilgarn belts in Australia.

  • Shāmyl (Muslim leader)

    Shāmil, leader of Muslim Dagestan and Chechen mountaineers, whose fierce resistance delayed Russia’s conquest of the Caucasus for 25 years. The son of a free landlord, Shāmil studied grammar, logic, rhetoric, and Arabic, acquired prestige as a learned man, and in 1830 joined the Murīdīs, a ?ūfī

  • Sham?un, Camille Nemir (president of Lebanon)

    Camille Chamoun, political leader who served as president of Lebanon in 1952–58. Chamoun spent his early political years as a member of a political faction known as the Constitutional Bloc, a predominantly Christian group that emphasized its Arabic heritage in an attempt to establish a rapport with

  • Shan (people)

    Shan, Southeast Asian people who live primarily in eastern and northwestern Myanmar (Burma) and also in Yunnan province, China. The Shan are the largest minority group in Myanmar, making up nearly one-tenth of the nation’s total population. In the late 20th century they numbered more than 4

  • Shan language

    Shan language, language spoken in the northern and eastern states of Myanmar (Burma) and belonging to the Southwestern group of the Tai language family of Southeast Asia. Its speakers, known as the Shan people to outsiders, call themselves and their language Tai, often adding a modifier such as a

  • Shan Plateau (plateau, Myanmar)

    Shan Plateau, crystalline massif forming the eastern part of Myanmar (Burma) and forming part of the Indo-Malayan mountain system. The plateau is crossed by the deep trench of the Salween River in the east and is bordered by the upper course of the Irrawaddy River to the west. The average

  • Shan State (state, Myanmar)

    Ava: …chosen in 1364 by the Shans who succeeded the Pagan dynasty. The location allowed the Shans to control the rice supply from the Kyaukse irrigated area to the south, which became vital after the traditional rice-growing area in southern Myanmar had been lost to a Mon kingdom. Ava flourished until…

  • Shan-hai-kuan (former town, Qinhuangdao, China)

    Shanhaiguan, former town, eastern Hebei sheng (province), northeastern China. It lies on the coast of the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) just northeast of Qinhuangdao, into which it was incorporated in 1954. Until the 17th century the area was a strategic site that played a major role in the defense of

  • Shan-hsi (province, China)

    Shanxi, sheng (province) of northern China. Roughly rectangular in shape, Shanxi is bounded by the provinces of Hebei to the east, Henan to the south and southeast, and Shaanxi to the west and by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north. The name Shanxi (“West of the Mountains”—i.e., west

  • shan-shu (Chinese literature)

    Shanshu, (Chinese: “morality books”; literally “good books”) in Chinese religion, popular texts devoted to a moral accounting of actions leading to positive and negative merit. These works often combine traditional Confucian notions of filial piety (xiao) and reciprocity, Daoist ideas of taking no

  • Shan-t’ou (China)

    Shantou, city in eastern Guangdong sheng (province), southern China. It lies on the coast of the South China Sea a short distance west of the mouth of the Han River, which, with its tributary, the Mei River, drains most of eastern Guangdong. The Han forms a delta, and Shantou is on an inlet that

  • Shan-tung (province, China)

    Shandong, northern coastal sheng (province) of China, lying across the Yellow Sea from the Korean peninsula. Shandong is China’s second most populous province, its population exceeded only by that of Henan. The name Shandong, which means “East of Mountains,” was first officially used during the Jin

  • Shan-tung Pan-tao (peninsula, China)

    Shandong Peninsula, peninsula in eastern China, forming the eastern section of Shandong province and jutting northeastward between the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) and the Yellow Sea toward the Korean peninsula. The terrain, composed of ancient granites and metamorphic rocks and partly covered by

  • Shan-tung question (Chinese history)

    Shandong question, at the Versailles Peace Conference ending World War I, in 1919, the problem of whether to transfer to Japan the special privileges formerly held by imperial Germany in the eastern Chinese province of Shandong. The final decision to validate the transfer produced a tremendous

  • shan-yü (Chinese ruler)

    Xiongnu: …a ruler known as the chanyu, the rough equivalent of the Chinese emperor’s designation as the tianzi (“son of heaven”). They ruled over a territory that extended from western Manchuria (Northeast Provinces) to the Pamirs and covered much of present Siberia and Mongolia. The Xiongnu were fierce mounted warriors who…

  • Shanahan, Eileen (American journalist)

    Eileen Shanahan, American journalist (born Feb. 29, 1924, Washington, D.C.—died Nov. 2, 2001, Washington), was a pioneering journalist at the New York Times and, from 1977 to 1979, a spokeswoman for the administration of U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter. Shanahan was hired to work in the Washington bureau o

  • Shanahan, Mike (American football coach)

    Denver Broncos: Denver’s former offensive coordinator Mike Shanahan was hired as the team’s head coach in 1995. With a talented roster including running back Terrell Davis, wide receiver Rod Smith, and tight end Shannon Sharpe, the Broncos were one of the premier offenses in the NFL during Shanahan’s first seasons with…

  • Shand, Camilla Rosemary (British duchess)

    Camilla, duchess of Cornwall, consort (2005– ) of Charles, prince of Wales. Camilla’s great-grandmother was Alice Keppel, the mistress of Charles’s great-great-grandfather King Edward VII, and Camilla was brought up to be familiar with the world of royalty and Britain’s upper classes. She met

  • Shandilya (Hindu writer)

    Pancharatra: …doctrine was first systematized by Shandilya (c. 100 ce?), who composed several devotional verses about the deity Narayana; that the Pancharatra system was also known in South India is evident from 2nd-century-ce inscriptions. By the 10th century the sect had acquired sufficient popularity to leave its influence on other groups,…

  • Shandling, Garry (American actor, writer, and comedian)

    Garry Shandling, American actor, writer, and comedian who often incorporated his real life into his work, both as a stand-up comic and as the creator and star of the television series It’s Garry Shandling’s Show (1986–90) and The Larry Sanders Show (1992–98). Shandling grew up in Tucson, Arizona,

  • Shandling, Garry Emmanuel (American actor, writer, and comedian)

    Garry Shandling, American actor, writer, and comedian who often incorporated his real life into his work, both as a stand-up comic and as the creator and star of the television series It’s Garry Shandling’s Show (1986–90) and The Larry Sanders Show (1992–98). Shandling grew up in Tucson, Arizona,

  • Shandong (province, China)

    Shandong, northern coastal sheng (province) of China, lying across the Yellow Sea from the Korean peninsula. Shandong is China’s second most populous province, its population exceeded only by that of Henan. The name Shandong, which means “East of Mountains,” was first officially used during the Jin

  • shandong (fabric)

    Shandong: Agriculture and fishing: …has been carried out in Shandong for hundreds of years. The popular fabric known as shantung was originally a rough-textured tussah, or wild-silk cloth, made in the province. Silkworm raising is most common in the central hills near Yishui, Linqu, Zichuan, and Laiwu, and most of the raw silk is…

  • Shandong Bandao (peninsula, China)

    Shandong Peninsula, peninsula in eastern China, forming the eastern section of Shandong province and jutting northeastward between the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) and the Yellow Sea toward the Korean peninsula. The terrain, composed of ancient granites and metamorphic rocks and partly covered by

  • Shandong brown soil (geology)

    Shandong: Soils: The so-called Shandong brown soils are found over most of the two major hill masses and include a variety of brown forest and cinnamon-coloured soils formed through clay accumulations and sod processes.

  • Shandong Peninsula (peninsula, China)

    Shandong Peninsula, peninsula in eastern China, forming the eastern section of Shandong province and jutting northeastward between the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) and the Yellow Sea toward the Korean peninsula. The terrain, composed of ancient granites and metamorphic rocks and partly covered by

  • Shandong question (Chinese history)

    Shandong question, at the Versailles Peace Conference ending World War I, in 1919, the problem of whether to transfer to Japan the special privileges formerly held by imperial Germany in the eastern Chinese province of Shandong. The final decision to validate the transfer produced a tremendous

  • Shane (film by Stevens [1953])

    Shane, American western film, released in 1953, that is a classic of the genre, noted for exploiting the elegiac myths of the Old West via a unique juxtaposition of gritty realism and painstakingly composed visual symmetry. Joe Starrett (played by Van Heflin) is a hardworking farmer who lives with

  • Shane An-Diomais (Irish patriot)

    Shane O’Neill, Irish patriot, among the most famous of all the O’Neills. Shane, the eldest legitimate son of Conn O’Neill, was a chieftain whose support the English considered worth gaining; but he rejected overtures from the Earl of Sussex, the lord deputy, and refused to help the English against

  • Shane the Proud (Irish patriot)

    Shane O’Neill, Irish patriot, among the most famous of all the O’Neills. Shane, the eldest legitimate son of Conn O’Neill, was a chieftain whose support the English considered worth gaining; but he rejected overtures from the Earl of Sussex, the lord deputy, and refused to help the English against

  • Shane, Bob (American musician)

    the Kingston Trio: …22, 1991, Rollinsford, New Hampshire), Bob Shane (b. February 1, 1934, Hilo, Hawaii—d. January 26, 2020, Phoenix, Arizona), and Nick Reynolds (b. July 27, 1933, San Diego, California—d. October 1, 2008, San Diego). John Stewart (b. September 5, 1939, San Diego—d. January 19, 2008, San Diego) later replaced Guard.

  • Shanewis (opera by Cadman)

    Charles Wakefield Cadman: His 1918 opera Shanewis (The Robin Woman) was the first American opera to play two seasons at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera. Other works include the operatic cantata The Sunset Trail (1925) and the operas A Witch of Salem (1926) and The Willow Tree (1931), the first American…

  • Shanfarā, al- (Arab poet)

    Arabic literature: Poetry: …Evil in His Armpit”) and al-Shanfarā are among the best known of the ?u?lūk poets.

  • Shang (Chinese submarine class)

    submarine: Attack submarines: They were followed by the Type 093 class (NATO designation Shang), the first of which was commissioned in 2006. The Type 093 boats displace some 6,000 tons submerged and are about 110 metres (360 feet) long. Reflecting China’s strategic goal of asserting its presence against other navies in waters adjacent…

  • Shang dynasty (Chinese history)

    Shang dynasty, the first recorded Chinese dynasty for which there is both documentary and archaeological evidence. The Shang dynasty was the reputed successor to the quasi-legendary first dynasty, the Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 bce). The dates given for the founding of the Shang dynasty vary from about

  • Shang han za bing lun (work by Zhang Zhongjing)

    Zhang Zhongjing: …han za bing lun (Treatise on Febrile and Other Diseases), which greatly influenced the practice of traditional Chinese medicine. The original work was later edited and divided into two books, Shang han lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases) and Jin gui yao lue (Jingui Collection of Prescriptions). Today, Zhang’s work…

  • Shang K’o-hsi (Chinese general)

    Shang Kexi, Chinese general whose attempt to retire in 1673 resulted in large-scale rebellion. Originally a Ming dynasty general, Shang transferred his loyalty in 1634 to the Manchu kingdom of Manchuria, which was encroaching on China from the northeast. By 1644, when the Manchus conquered China

  • Shang Kexi (Chinese general)

    Shang Kexi, Chinese general whose attempt to retire in 1673 resulted in large-scale rebellion. Originally a Ming dynasty general, Shang transferred his loyalty in 1634 to the Manchu kingdom of Manchuria, which was encroaching on China from the northeast. By 1644, when the Manchus conquered China

  • Shang shu ku-wen shu-cheng (work by Yan Ruoqu)

    Yan Ruoqu: …work and then published his Shangshu guwen shuzheng (“Inquiry into the Authenticity of the Ancient Text of the Shangshu”), which used historical and philological reasoning to prove that the so-called “ancient script” chapters of the Shujing had been forged. Yan’s book helped bring about a new critical reexamination of the…

  • Shang Yang (Chinese statesman)

    Shang Yang, Chinese statesman and thinker whose successful reorganization of the state of Qin paved the way for the eventual unification of the Chinese empire by the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce). Shang Yang believed that the integrity of a state could be maintained only with power and that power

  • Shang-ch’ing (Daoism)

    Shangqing, (Chinese: “Highest Purity” or “Supreme Clarity”) important early sectarian movement associated with the emergence of Daoism during the southern Six Dynasties period (220–589 ce). The origins of the sect go back to the revelations made to Yang Xi in the 4th century, which were gathered

  • Shang-ch’iu (China)

    Shangqiu, city, eastern Henan sheng (province), east-central China. Situated in the middle of the North China Plain, it lies at the junction of the north-south route from Jinan in Shandong province to the central section of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and the routes from Zhengzhou and

  • shang-dril (flower)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …that grow at high elevations), shang-drils (bell-shaped flowers, either white, yellow, or maroon, that also grow at high elevations), and ogchu (red flowers that grow in sandy regions).

  • Shang-hai (China)

    Shanghai, city and province-level shi (municipality), east-central China. It is one of the world’s largest seaports and a major industrial and commercial centre of China. The city is located on the coast of the East China Sea between the mouth of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) to the north and the

  • Shang-jao (China)

    Shangrao, city, northeastern Jiangxi sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies along the Xin River, about 110 miles (180 km) east of Nanchang, the provincial capital, and is on the main rail and highway route from Nanchang to the coastal ports of Hangzhou and Shanghai. Shangrao has been an

  • Shang-lo (China)

    Shangluo, city, southeastern Shaansi sheng (province), China. It is situated some 70 miles (110 km) southeast of Xi’an (Sian) at the southern end of one of the few passes across the Qin (Tsinling) Mountains, on the headwaters of the Dan River, which is a tributary of the Han River. Since ancient

  • Shang-shu guwen shuzheng (work by Yan Ruoqu)

    Yan Ruoqu: …work and then published his Shangshu guwen shuzheng (“Inquiry into the Authenticity of the Ancient Text of the Shangshu”), which used historical and philological reasoning to prove that the so-called “ancient script” chapters of the Shujing had been forged. Yan’s book helped bring about a new critical reexamination of the…

  • Shang-ti (Chinese deity)

    Shangdi, (Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals.

  • Shang-tu (Mongolia)

    Duolun: It was the site of Shangdu (the Xanadu of Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s poetic fragment “Kubla Khan”) under the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368), 15 miles (25 km) northwest of the present-day town. It was founded by the Mongolian leader Kublai Khan in 1256 and became the summer capital of the Mongol emperors…

  • Shangaan (people)

    Gazankulu: …South Africa, designated for the Shangaan and Tsonga people. It was made up of four detached portions of low veld, two of which adjoined Kruger National Park. The Tsonga people, the traditional inhabitants of the area, were joined by 19th-century Shangaan migrants from what is now Mozambique, culminating in a…

  • shangam literature (Indian literature)

    Sangam literature, the earliest writings in the Tamil language, thought to have been produced in three chankams, or literary academies, in Madurai, India, from the 1st to the 4th century ce. The Tolkappiyam, a book of grammar and rhetoric, and eight anthologies (Ettuttokai) of poetry were

  • Shangdi (Chinese deity)

    Shangdi, (Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals.

  • Shangdu (Mongolia)

    Duolun: It was the site of Shangdu (the Xanadu of Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s poetic fragment “Kubla Khan”) under the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368), 15 miles (25 km) northwest of the present-day town. It was founded by the Mongolian leader Kublai Khan in 1256 and became the summer capital of the Mongol emperors…

  • Shange, Ntozake (American author)

    Ntozake Shange, American author of plays, poetry, and fiction noted for their feminist themes and racial and sexual anger. Shange attended Barnard College (B.A., 1970) and the University of Southern California (M.A., 1973). From 1972 to 1975 she taught humanities, women’s studies, and Afro-American

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