You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Shaoshuai (Chinese warlord)

    Zhang Xueliang, Chinese warlord who, together with Yang Hucheng, in the Xi’an Incident (1936), compelled the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) to form a wartime alliance with the Chinese communists against Japan. Zhang Xueliang was the oldest son of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who

  • Shaowu (river, China)

    Fujian: Drainage: …stream of the Min, the Futun, is also called the Shaowu, for the chief city of the region; it flows down the eastern slopes of the Wuyi Mountains. The third source, the Sha, flows from the south and southwest, arising on the eastern slopes of another section of the Wuyi…

  • Shaowu (China)

    Shaowu, city in northwestern Fujian sheng (province), China. It is situated on the upper course of the Futun River, some 30 miles (50 km) from the border of Jiangxi province. Shaowu is an important communication centre, located on the railway line from Jiangxi to the coastal ports of Xiamen (Amoy)

  • Shaoxing (China)

    Shaoxing, city, northeastern Zhejiang sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated in the centre of the eastern half of the coastal plain south of Hangzhou Bay. Shaoxing lies along the Hang-Yong Canal (the local section is also called the Zhedong Canal)—which joins Ningbo to the east with

  • Shaoyang (China)

    Shaoyang, city, central Hunan sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies in the middle basin of the Zi River. A county named Zhaoling was established at the site of Shaoyang in the 2nd century bce. In the mid-3rd century ce it became the seat of a commandery called Zhaoling. In 280 the name was

  • Shaozhou (China)

    Shaoguan, city, northern Guangdong sheng (province), southern China. It lies along the Bei River at the point where it is formed by the junction of the Wu River, flowing southeast from the borders of Hunan, and the Zhen River, flowing southwest from the borders of Jiangxi province. Shaoguan thus

  • Shapash (ancient Mesopotamian deity)

    Shapash, (“Light of the Gods”), in ancient Mesopotamian religion, sun goddess. In the cycle of myths recovered from Ugarit, Shapash helps Anath in her retrieval of the dead Baal and intervenes in the final conflict between Baal and

  • shape (dice)

    dice: Cheating with dice: …odds and is called a shape, a brick, or a flat. For example, a cube that has been shaved down on one or more sides so that it is slightly brick-shaped will tend to settle down most often on its larger surfaces, whereas a cube with bevels, on which one…

  • shape (art)

    painting: Shape and mass: Shape and mass, as elements of design, include all areas of different colour, tone, and texture, as well as individual and grouped images.

  • shape (metallurgy)

    steel: Shapes: These are long products with irregular cross sections, such as beams, channels, angles, and rails. Rolling starts with blooms that may be 150 millimetres by 200 millimetres by 5 metres long. The blooms are received, either cold or hot, directly from the blooming mill…

  • shape note (music)

    shape-note singing: Shape notes are a variant system of Western musical notation whereby the note heads are printed in distinct shapes to indicate their scale degree and solmization syllable (fa, sol, la, etc.). Since 1801 shape notes have been associated with American sacred music, specifically with singing…

  • Shape of Jazz to Come, The (album by Coleman)

    Ornette Coleman: …the quartet’s classic recordings included The Shape of Jazz to Come (1959) and Change of the Century (1960). Coleman moved to New York City, where his radical conception of structure and the urgent emotionality of his improvisations aroused widespread controversy. His recordings Free Jazz (1960), which used two simultaneously improvising…

  • Shape of Things to Come, The (work by Wells)

    H.G. Wells: Middle and late works: …version of a film script, The Shape of Things to Come. (Produced by Alexander Korda, the film Things to Come [1936] remains, on account of its special effects, one of the outstanding British films of the 20th century.) Wells’s version reverts to the utopianism of some earlier books, but as…

  • Shape of Water, The (film by del Toro [2017])

    Guillermo del Toro: However, the bewitching fantasy romance The Shape of Water (2017), for which del Toro wrote the story and cowrote the screenplay, was nominated for 13 Academy Awards and won 4, including for best picture. In addition, del Toro garnered the Oscar, the Golden Globe Award, and the BAFTA for best…

  • shape trope (philosophy)

    universal: Trope nominalism: …tropes are “abstract particulars”: the shape trope, for example, is not coloured (it has no colour trope as a part), so one notices it by looking at the disk and “abstracting away” the colour. But the shape trope is still a particular in the sense that it is not freely…

  • shape, molecular

    coordination compound: History of coordination compounds: Werner also established the configuration (the spatial arrangement of ligands around the metal ion) of complexes by comparing the number and type of isomers (see below Isomerism) that he actually prepared for various series of compounds with the number and type theoretically predicted for various configurations. In this way…

  • shape-note hymnal (music)

    Shape-note hymnal, American hymnal incorporating many folk hymns and utilizing a special musical notation. The seven-note scale was sung not to the syllables do–re–mi–fa–sol–la–ti but to a four-syllable system carried with them by early English colonists: fa–sol–la–fa–sol–la–mi. Differently s

  • shape-note singing (music)

    Shape-note singing, a musical practice and tradition of social singing from music books printed in shape notes. Shape notes are a variant system of Western musical notation whereby the note heads are printed in distinct shapes to indicate their scale degree and solmization syllable (fa, sol, la,

  • shaped charge (explosive)

    antitank weapon: …guns used the shaped or hollow charge shell, which was designed to explode on impact and channel the explosive energy forward, enhancing penetrating force. Recoilless rifles were also specially developed for use against tanks.

  • shaped poetry (poetic form)

    Pattern poetry, verse in which the typography or lines are arranged in an unusual configuration, usually to convey or extend the emotional content of the words. Of ancient (probably Eastern) origin, pattern poems are found in the Greek Anthology, which includes work composed between the 7th century

  • shaped verse (poetic form)

    Pattern poetry, verse in which the typography or lines are arranged in an unusual configuration, usually to convey or extend the emotional content of the words. Of ancient (probably Eastern) origin, pattern poems are found in the Greek Anthology, which includes work composed between the 7th century

  • shapeless agglomerate (settlement form)

    India: Rural settlement: …settlement form described as a shapeless agglomerate. Such settlements, though unplanned, are divided by caste into distinct wards and grow outward from a recognizable core area. The dominant and higher castes tend to live in the core area, while the lower artisan and service castes, as well as Muslim groups,…

  • shaper (machine tool)

    Shaper, metal-cutting machine in which the workpiece is usually held in a vise or similar device that is clamped to a table and can be manually operated or power driven at right angles to the path of a chisellike cutting tool with only one cutting edge held on the end of a reciprocating ram. A

  • Shapey, Ralph (American composer)

    Ralph Shapey, American composer and conductor noted for his lyrical, often contrapuntal and serial compositions for orchestral and chamber group. He was called a “radical traditionalist” for his unusual juxtaposition of modern musical language with a somewhat spiritual and dramatic approach. Shapey

  • shaping (technology)

    rubber: Shaping: Shaping of the mixture into the desired form takes place in several ways. Extruders are used to produce long continuous products such as tubing, tire treads, and wire coverings. They are also used to produce various profiles that can later be cut to length.…

  • shaping machine (machine tool)

    Shaper, metal-cutting machine in which the workpiece is usually held in a vise or similar device that is clamped to a table and can be manually operated or power driven at right angles to the path of a chisellike cutting tool with only one cutting edge held on the end of a reciprocating ram. A

  • Shapingba (district, Chongqing, China)

    Chongqing: Suburban and outlying districts: including Jiangbei, Nan’an, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, and Dadukou. These districts have developed into major shopping and commercial centres. Shapingba also has emerged as a regional cultural centre, home to several of the municipality’s major institutions of higher learning. Jiangbei district is a centre of automobile and machinery production, as…

  • Shapiro, David (American comedian)

    David Frye, (David Shapiro), American comedian (born June 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Jan. 24, 2011, Las Vegas, Nev.), emerged from obscurity as a struggling comic in New York City’s Greenwich Village after finding his niche as an impressionist and gaining national exposure on such television

  • Shapiro, Greg (American film producer)
  • Shapiro, Israel (American screenwriter)

    Paul Jarrico, American screenwriter who was blacklisted in the 1950s after being labeled "subversive" by the House Committee on Un-American Activities; his credits include Salt of the Earth (1953) and Tom, Dick, and Harry (1941), nominated for an Academy Award (b. Jan. 12, 1915--d. Oct. 28,

  • Shapiro, Karl (American poet)

    Karl Shapiro, American poet and critic whose verse ranges from passionately physical love lyrics to sharp social satire. Educated at the University of Virginia and Johns Hopkins University, Shapiro first came to critical attention in 1942 with Person, Place and Thing, a celebration of his world.

  • Shapiro, Karl Jay (American poet)

    Karl Shapiro, American poet and critic whose verse ranges from passionately physical love lyrics to sharp social satire. Educated at the University of Virginia and Johns Hopkins University, Shapiro first came to critical attention in 1942 with Person, Place and Thing, a celebration of his world.

  • Shapiro, Lamed (American author)

    Yiddish literature: The classic writers: L. Shapiro was an important prose stylist, born in the Kiev region, who came in contact with Peretz’s circle in Warsaw. He met Peretz in 1896, moved to Warsaw in 1903, and began publishing short fiction in 1904. Following the pogroms of 1905, Shapiro immigrated…

  • Shapiro, Levi Yeshue (American author)

    Yiddish literature: The classic writers: L. Shapiro was an important prose stylist, born in the Kiev region, who came in contact with Peretz’s circle in Warsaw. He met Peretz in 1896, moved to Warsaw in 1903, and began publishing short fiction in 1904. Following the pogroms of 1905, Shapiro immigrated…

  • Shapiro, Robert (American lawyer)

    O.J. Simpson trial: …Robert Blasier, Shawn Chapman Holley, Robert Shapiro, and Alan Dershowitz; Johnnie Cochran later became the defense team’s lead attorney. The Simpson defense was based largely on the grounds that evidence had been mishandled and that many members of the Los Angeles police department were racist, particularly Mark Fuhrman, a detective…

  • Shapiro, Robert Y. (scholar)

    public opinion: Public opinion and government: Jacobs and Robert Y. Shapiro, who argued in Politicians Don’t Pander: Political Manipulation and the Loss of Democratic Responsiveness (2000) that politicians do not actually do this. They found instead that by the early 1970s the accusation of pandering was being used deliberately by prominent journalists, politicians,…

  • Shapiro, Stewart (American philosopher)

    philosophy of mathematics: Nontraditional versions: …Platonism developed by Resnik and Shapiro is known as structuralism. The essential ideas here are that the real objects of study in mathematics are structures, or patterns—things such as infinite series, geometric spaces, and set-theoretic hierarchies—and that individual mathematical objects (such as the number 4) are not really objects at…

  • Shaplen, Robert Modell (American journalist)

    Robert Modell Shaplen, American journalist whose incisive reporting made him one of the most-respected Asia correspondents. Over a 50-year career in which he reported for the New York Herald-Tribune (1937–43), Newsweek (1945–47), Fortune (1948–50), Collier’s (1950–51), and The New Yorker (1952–88),

  • Shapley value (game theory)

    Lloyd Shapley: …to game theory was the Shapley value, which he devised in 1953. In a cooperative game (that is, one in which players communicate and, most important, make binding agreements) in which the payoff must be distributed among players who have made unequal contributions, the Shapley value determines the fairest distribution…

  • Shapley, Harlow (American astronomer)

    Harlow Shapley, American astronomer who deduced that the Sun lies near the central plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and was not at the centre but some 30,000 light-years away. In 1911 Shapley, working with results given by Henry Norris Russell, began finding the dimensions of stars in a number of

  • Shapley, Lloyd (American mathematician)

    Lloyd Shapley, American mathematician who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Economics. He was recognized for his work in game theory on the theory of stable allocations. He shared the prize with American economist Alvin E. Roth. Shapley’s father was American astronomer Harlow Shapley. Lloyd

  • Shapley, Lloyd Stowell (American mathematician)

    Lloyd Shapley, American mathematician who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Economics. He was recognized for his work in game theory on the theory of stable allocations. He shared the prize with American economist Alvin E. Roth. Shapley’s father was American astronomer Harlow Shapley. Lloyd

  • Shapley-Scarf model (economics)

    Lloyd Shapley: The Shapley-Scarf model has been implemented in quickly and efficiently matching patients in need of an organ transplant with biologically compatible donors.

  • Shapoorji Pallonji Group (Indian company)

    Cyrus Mistry: …Pallonji Mistry, head of the Shapoorji Pallonji Group, a diversified conglomerate that had begun with a construction company started by Pallonji Mistry’s grandfather in the 19th century. The Mistrys were members of Mumbai’s Parsi community, followers of the Zoroastrian religion who had grown prosperous as merchants and industrialists since the…

  • Shāpūr I (king of Persia)

    Shāpūr I, Persian king of the Sāsānian dynasty who consolidated and expanded the empire founded by his father, Ardashīr I. Shāpūr continued his father’s wars with Rome, conquering Nisibis (modern Nusaybin, Tur.) and Carrhae (Harran, Tur.) and advancing deep into Syria. Defeated at Resaina (now in T

  • Shāpūr I, Palace of (palace, Ctesiphon, Iraq)

    Iranian art and architecture: Sāsānian period: The Sāsānian palace at Ctesiphon was built (probably in the 4th century ce) of baked brick. The facades on either side of its famous vaulted iwan hall (82 feet [25 metres] wide and 121 feet [37 metres] high) have blind arcading with freely simplified classical detail.…

  • Shāpūr II (king of Persia)

    Shāpūr II, 10th king of the Sāsānian Empire of Persia, who withstood Roman strength by astute military strategy and diplomacy and brought the empire to the zenith of its power. The name Shāpūr, meaning “son of a king,” was common in the Sāsānian period and was often given to sons other than

  • Shāpūr III (king of Persia)

    ancient Iran: Intermittent conflicts from Yazdegerd I to Khosrow I: …of disturbed reigns (Ardashīr II, Shāpūr III, Bahrām IV), Yazdegerd I came to the throne in 399. His reign is viewed differently by Christian and Zoroastrian sources. The former praise his clemency; the latter refer to him as “Yazdegerd the Sinful.” His initial inclination toward tolerance of Christianity and Judaism…

  • Shāpūr the Great (king of Persia)

    Shāpūr II, 10th king of the Sāsānian Empire of Persia, who withstood Roman strength by astute military strategy and diplomacy and brought the empire to the zenith of its power. The name Shāpūr, meaning “son of a king,” was common in the Sāsānian period and was often given to sons other than

  • Shāpuragān (book by Mani)

    ancient Iran: Manichaeism: …with his first book, the Shāpuragān (Shabuhragan), a summary of his teachings (“dedicated to Shāpūr”) written in the Middle Persian language, which provides further evidence of a degree of royal favour. During Shāpūr’s reign the religion of Mani was thus propagated in and beyond Iran. The heir to the throne,…

  • Shapurakan (book by Mani)

    ancient Iran: Manichaeism: …with his first book, the Shāpuragān (Shabuhragan), a summary of his teachings (“dedicated to Shāpūr”) written in the Middle Persian language, which provides further evidence of a degree of royal favour. During Shāpūr’s reign the religion of Mani was thus propagated in and beyond Iran. The heir to the throne,…

  • Shaq (American basketball player)

    Shaquille O’Neal, American basketball player, named in 1996 to the National Basketball Association (NBA) list of its 50 greatest players of all time. As a high-school senior in San Antonio, Texas, O’Neal attracted the attention of college recruiters when his team won the state championship. He

  • Shaqīq al-Balkhī (Muslim ascetic)

    zuhd: …to his student and disciple Shaqīq al-Balkhī (d. 810) as the real founders of zuhd, as it became known in later periods. Ibn Adham stressed poverty and self-denial; indeed, he abandoned the wealth of his father and became a poor wanderer.

  • Shar-kali-sharri (king of Akkad)

    history of Mesopotamia: Sargon’s reign: left by Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri speak time and again of rebellions and victorious battles and since Rimush, Manishtusu, and Shar-kali-sharri are themselves said to have died violent deaths, the problem of what remained of Akkad’s greatness obtrudes. Wars and disturbances, the victory of one and the defeat of another,…

  • Shar-Kushukh (king of Carchemish)

    Mursilis II: …Carchemish (controlled by his brother Shar-Kushukh) and the kingdom of Amurru; he also conducted a successful campaign against the western kingdom of Arzawa, one of the main threats to the Hittite realm. Chronic trouble with the Kaska in the north necessitated almost annual pacification operations (10 in all), and the…

  • shar-pei (breed of dog)

    Chinese shar-pei, breed of dog noted for its loose skin and wrinkles. Once considered one of the rarest dog breeds, the Chinese shar-pei has enjoyed great popularity beginning in the late 20th century, and its numbers have grown significantly. Of medium size, the Chinese shar-pei stands 18 to 20

  • Shara (film by Kawase [2003])

    Naomi Kawase: Her motion picture Sharasojyu (2003; Shara), about the family of a young boy who disappeared without a trace, was selected to compete at Cannes in 2003.

  • Sharad Navratri (Hindu festival)

    Navratri, (Sanskrit: “nine nights”) in Hinduism, major festival held in honour of the divine feminine. Navratri occurs over 9 days during the month of Ashvin, or Ashvina (in the Gregorian calendar, usually September–October). It often ends with the Dussehra (also called Vijayadashami) celebration

  • sharaf (Arabic title)

    Sharif, Arabic title of respect, restricted, after the advent of Islam, to members of Muhammad’s clan of Hāshim—in particular, to descendants of his uncles al-?Abbās and Abū ?ālib and of the latter’s son ?Alī by Muhammad’s daughter Fā?imah. In the Hejaz (western coast of Arabia), the title of

  • Sharaf ad-Dīn ?Alī Yazdī (Persian historian)

    Sharaf ad-Dīn ?Alī Yazdī, Persian historian, one of the greatest of 15th-century Iran. Little about his early life is known. As a young man he was a teacher in his native Yazd and a close companion of the Timurid ruler Shāh Rokh (1405–47) and his son Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Sul?ān. In 1442/43 he became the

  • Sharaf al-Dīn Abū ?af? ?Umar ibn al-Fāri? (Arab poet)

    Ibn al-Fāri?, Arab poet whose expression of Sufi mysticism is regarded as the finest in the Arabic language. Son of a Syrian-born inheritance-law functionary, Ibn al-Fāri? studied for a legal career but abandoned law for a solitary religious life in the Muqa??am hills near Cairo. He spent some

  • Sharaf al-Dīn Abū Sa?d ?Abd Allāh ibn Mu?ammad ibn Hibat Allāh ibn Mu?ahhar al-Tamīmī al-Maw?ilī ibn Abī ?A?rūn (Islamic theologian)

    Ibn Abī ?A?rūn, scholar who became a leading Shāfi?ī (one of the four schools of Islamic law) theologian and the chief judicial officer of the Ayyūbid caliphate. After completing his theological training, Ibn Abī ?A?rūn held various religious and judicial posts in Iraq. In 1154 he was invited to

  • Sharaf al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sa?īd al-Bū?īrī al-?anhājī (Arabian poet)

    Al-Bū?īrī, Arabic poet of Berber descent who won fame for his poem Al-Burdah (The Poem of the Scarf). In this poem al-Bū?īrī said that he had devoted his life to poetry. He also worked as a copyist, being known for his calligraphy, and held various official posts under the Mamlūks. It was said that

  • Sharaf od-Dīn Mo?affar (Mo?affarid ruler)

    Mo?affarid Dynasty: …founder of the dynasty was Sharaf od-Dīn Mo?affar, a vassal of the Il-Khanid rulers of Iran, who was governor of Meybod, a city lying between E?fahān and Yazd. In 1314 his son Mobārez od-Dīn Mo?ammad was made governor of Fārs and Yazd by Abū Sa?īd, the Il-Khanid ruler. After Abū…

  • Sharaff, Irene (American costume designer)

    Irene Sharaff, U.S. costume designer (born 1910, Boston, Mass.—died Aug. 16, 1993, New York, N.Y.), created stylish and sumptuous fashion designs for some 60 stage productions, 40 motion pictures, and such ballet companies as the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo, American Ballet Theatre, and the New Y

  • Sharafkandi, Sadeqh (Iranian politician)

    Iran: Foreign affairs since 1989: continuing tension abroad: In 1992 Sadeqh Sharafkandi, a prominent member of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, and three of his aides were gunned downed in Berlin. The case against those held responsible for the attack was tried in German courts for four years, and in 1997 German authorities indirectly…

  • Sharakan (hymns)

    Armenian chant: …also wrote a number of sharakan (hymns). The final form of the collection of Sharakan, containing nearly 1,200 hymns, was obtained about 1300 and has apparently remained unchanged.

  • Sharaku (Japanese artist)

    Tōshūsai Sharaku, one of the most original Japanese artists of the Ukiyo-e movement (paintings and prints of the “floating world”). Tōshūsai is said to have been a nō actor in Awa province (now Tokushima prefecture). His extant works consist of fewer than 160 prints, chiefly of actors. These prints

  • Sharansky, Natan (Soviet-Israeli human-rights activist)

    Anatoly Shcharansky, Soviet dissident, a human-rights advocate imprisoned (1977–86) by the Soviet government and then allowed to go to Israel. Shcharansky’s father was a Communist Party member in Ukraine, working for a time on the party newspaper; and Shcharansky himself was a Komsomol member as a

  • Sharapova, Maria (Russian tennis player)

    Maria Sharapova, Russian tennis player who was one of the game’s leading contenders in the early 21st century, the winner of five Grand Slam titles. Sharapova began playing tennis as a young child, and in 1993 she caught the attention of Czech-born American tennis star Martina Navratilova.

  • Sharapova, Maria Yuryevna (Russian tennis player)

    Maria Sharapova, Russian tennis player who was one of the game’s leading contenders in the early 21st century, the winner of five Grand Slam titles. Sharapova began playing tennis as a young child, and in 1993 she caught the attention of Czech-born American tennis star Martina Navratilova.

  • Sharasojyu (film by Kawase [2003])

    Naomi Kawase: Her motion picture Sharasojyu (2003; Shara), about the family of a young boy who disappeared without a trace, was selected to compete at Cannes in 2003.

  • sharav (air current)

    Khamsin, hot, dry, dusty wind in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that blows from the south or southeast in late winter and early spring. It often reaches temperatures above 40° C (104° F), and it may blow continuously for three or four days at a time and then be followed by an inflow of

  • Sharavati River (river, India)

    Sharavati River, river in western Karnataka state, southern India. Rising in the Western Ghats, it flows for 60 miles (100 km) in a northwesterly direction to the Arabian Sea at Honavar. About 18 miles (29 km) upriver from its mouth, the Sharavati attains a breadth of 230 feet (70 metres) before it

  • Sharawi, Huda (Egyptian feminist and nationalist)

    Huda Sharawi, Egyptian feminist and nationalist who established numerous organizations dedicated to women’s rights and is considered the founder of the women’s movement in Egypt. Sharawi was born into a prosperous family in the Egyptian city of Al-Minyā and was raised in Cairo. Her father, Muhammad

  • Sharawi, Sheikh Muhammad Mutwali ash- (Egyptian Islamic cleric)

    Sheikh Muhammad Mutwali ash-Sharawi, Egyptian Islamic cleric who delivered his religious messages by means of audiocassettes, videotapes, books, and especially his popular weekly lectures on television; from 1976 to 1978 he served as the country’s minister of religious endowments (b. April 15,

  • Sharchops (people)

    Brahmaputra River: People: The ancestry of the Assamese includes peoples speaking Tibeto-Burman languages from the surrounding highlands and peoples from the lowlands of India to the south and west. The Assamese language is akin to Bengali, which is spoken in West Bengal state in India and in Bangladesh. Since the late 19th…

  • Shard (building, London, England, United Kingdom)

    Prince Andrew, duke of York: …down the side of the Shard, a skyscraper in London, in 2012.

  • Shard of Glass (building, London, England, United Kingdom)

    Prince Andrew, duke of York: …down the side of the Shard, a skyscraper in London, in 2012.

  • Shardeloes (house, Buckinghamshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Robert Adam: The Adam style: …at Hatchlands (1758–61), Surrey, and Shardeloes (1759–61), Buckinghamshire, were still near-Palladian, but by 1761 his mature style was developing. Commissions from this time include Harewood House, Yorkshire; Croome Court, Worcestershire; Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire; Bowood House, Wiltshire; and Osterley Park, Middlesex (now in Hounslow, London).

  • Shardik (novel by Adams)

    Richard Adams: Shardik (1974) relates the formation of a religion centred on a giant bear; the protagonists are human. The Plague Dogs (1977; film 1982) explores issues of animal rights through the tale of two dogs that escape from a research facility—possibly carrying the bubonic plague. The…

  • Shardlow (England, United Kingdom)

    South Derbyshire: Shardlow, an inland port on the Trent and Mersey Canal, has enjoyed the revival of interest in canal cruising. Area 131 square miles (338 square km). Pop. (2001) 81,562; (2011 prelim.) 94,600.

  • share (finance)

    Stock, in finance, the subscribed capital of a corporation or limited-liability company, usually divided into shares and represented by transferable certificates. The certificates may detail the contractual relationship between the company and its stockholders, or shareholders, and set forth the

  • share (plow)

    history of technology: Agriculture: …of the iron (or iron-tipped) plowshare, which opened up the possibility of deeper plowing and of cultivating heavier soils than those normally worked in the Greco-Roman period. The construction of plows improved slowly during these centuries, but the moldboard for turning over the earth did not appear until the 11th…

  • share (market research)

    A.C. Nielsen: A “share,” by contrast, denotes what percentage of all the viewers watching television at a particular time tuned in to a particular program; a 30 share means that 30 percent of the viewing audience watched that program.

  • share certificate (business)

    security: Stock: A stock certificate ordinarily is given as documentary evidence of share ownership. Originally this was its primary function; but as interest in securities grew and the capital market evolved, the role of the certificate gradually changed until it became, as it is now, an important instrument…

  • share option (securities trading)

    Stock option, contractual agreement enabling the holder to buy or sell a security at a designated price for a specified period of time, unaffected by movements in its market price during the period. Put and call options, purchased both for speculative and hedging reasons, are made by persons

  • share premium (business)

    business organization: Limited liability: …excess being known as a share premium), but it generally cannot issue them for less. Any part of that nominal value and the share premium that has not so far been paid is the measure of the shareholder’s maximum liability to contribute if the company becomes insolvent. If shares are…

  • Share the Land (album by the Guess Who)

    the Guess Who: Post-Bachman years: …album with this new lineup, Share the Land (1970), featured several hits, including Winter’s “Hand Me Down World” and “Bus Rider,” along with Cummings’s title track and the Cummings-Winter collaboration “Hang On to Your Life.” So Long, Bannatyne (1971) followed a year later and included the popular singles “Rain Dance”…

  • share-a-ride system

    mass transit: Alternative service concepts: …better parking arrangements to encourage carpooling, the sharing of auto rides by people who make similar or identical work trips. Car-pool vehicles are privately owned, the guideways (roads) are in place, drivers do not have to be compensated, and vehicle operating costs can be shared. On the other hand, carpoolers…

  • Share-the-Wealth program (United States history)

    United States presidential election of 1936: Political atmosphere: Long’s Share-the-Wealth program (“every man a king”) was tempting to a depression-shocked public. A private poll in the spring of 1935 indicated that if Long could unite the various nationwide radical movements, he might carry up to four million votes in the 1936 election, thus wielding…

  • sharecropping (agriculture)

    debt slavery: …at harvest—a system known as sharecropping. Landowners provided sharecroppers with land, seeds, tools, clothing, and food. Charges for the supplies were deducted from the sharecroppers’ portion of the harvest, leaving them with substantial debt to landowners in bad years. Sharecroppers would become caught in continual debt, especially during weak harvests…

  • shareholder (business)

    corporate governance: Shareholder governance: In liberal models of capitalism, such as Great Britain and the United States, shareholder governance is the dominant company form. On this model, companies exist to serve the interests of shareholders. Shareholders are deemed to be the owners of a firm, which means…

  • shareholders’ equity (accounting)

    bank: The role of bank capital: …also comes from share owners’ equity, which means that bank managers must concern themselves with the value of the bank’s equity capital as well as the composition of the bank’s assets and liabilities. A bank’s shareholders, however, are residual claimants, meaning that they may share in the bank’s profits but…

  • Sharett, Moshe (prime minister of Israel)

    Moshe Sharett, Israeli Zionist leader and politician who was prime minister of Israel from 1953 to 1955. Born in Ukraine, Moshe in 1906 immigrated with his family to Palestine, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. Sharett studied law in Constantinople (later Istanbul) and during World War I

  • Shari River (river, Africa)

    Chari River, principal tributary feeding Lake Chad in north-central Africa. It flows through Chad and the Central African Republic and is formed by the Bamingui (its true headstream), the Gribingui, and the Ouham, which brings to it the greatest volume of water. Near Sarh the Chari is joined on its

  • Shari-raka-mimamsa-bhashya (commentary by Shankara)

    Advaita: …commentary on the Brahma-sutras, the Shari-raka-mimamsa-bhashya (“Commentary on the Study of the Self”). Shankara in his philosophy starts not with logical analysis from the empirical world but rather directly with the Absolute (brahman). If interpreted correctly, he argues, the Upanishads teach the nature of brahman. In making that argument, he…

  • Sharia (Islamic law)

    Sharī?ah, the fundamental religious concept of Islam—namely, its law. The religious law of Islam is seen as the expression of God’s command for Muslims and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon all Muslims by virtue of their religious belief. Known as the Sharī?ah

  • Shariat-Madari, Mohammad Kazem (Iranian cleric)

    Mohammad Kazem Shariat-Madari, Iranian cleric who, as one of five Shī?ite grand ayatollahs, was the leading representative of the clergy during the final years of the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. An early associate of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Shariat-Madari helped establish Iran as an

  • sharif (Arabic title)

    Sharif, Arabic title of respect, restricted, after the advent of Islam, to members of Muhammad’s clan of Hāshim—in particular, to descendants of his uncles al-?Abbās and Abū ?ālib and of the latter’s son ?Alī by Muhammad’s daughter Fā?imah. In the Hejaz (western coast of Arabia), the title of

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载