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  • sharīf (Arabic title)

    Sharif, Arabic title of respect, restricted, after the advent of Islam, to members of Muhammad’s clan of Hāshim—in particular, to descendants of his uncles al-?Abbās and Abū ?ālib and of the latter’s son ?Alī by Muhammad’s daughter Fā?imah. In the Hejaz (western coast of Arabia), the title of

  • Sharif, Nawaz (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Nawaz Sharif, Pakistani businessman and politician who served as prime minister in 1990–93, 1997–98, and 2013–17. After earning an LL.B. from the University of the Punjab in Lahore, Sharif joined his family’s influential House of Ittefaq (Ittefaq Group), an industrial conglomerate with interests in

  • Sharif, Omar (Egyptian actor)

    Omar Sharif, Egyptian actor of international acclaim, known for his dashing good looks and for iconic roles in such films as Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965). Shalhoub was born in Alexandria, the only son of a prosperous lumber merchant. When he was four years old, he moved with

  • Sharif-Emami, Jafar (prime minister of Iran)

    Jafar Sharif-Emami, Iranian politician and close confidant of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi who twice served as prime minister of Iran (1960–61, 1978). He attempted but failed to stem the rise of Shī?ite activism in Iran that led to the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Sharif-Emami studied railroad

  • Sharīf-Emāmī, Ja?far (prime minister of Iran)

    Jafar Sharif-Emami, Iranian politician and close confidant of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi who twice served as prime minister of Iran (1960–61, 1978). He attempted but failed to stem the rise of Shī?ite activism in Iran that led to the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Sharif-Emami studied railroad

  • Sharīk Peninsula (peninsula, Tunisia)

    Sharīk Peninsula, peninsula of northeastern Tunisia, 20 miles (32 km) wide and protruding 50 miles (80 km) into the Mediterranean Sea between the Gulfs of Tunis and Hammamet. The ruins of the old Punic town of Kerkouane, which date from the 6th century bce, are located there. During World War II it

  • Shariputra (disciple of the Buddha)

    Shariputra, Brahman ascetic and famous early disciple of the Buddha. Shariputra first heard of the Buddha and his new teaching from Assaji, one of the original 60 disciples. Quickly achieving enlightenment, he developed a reputation as a master of the Abhidhamma (scholastic writings about the

  • Shāriqah, Al- (emirate, United Arab Emirates)

    Sharjah, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States, or Trucial Oman). Some of Sharjah’s interior boundaries are only presumptive, but its main portion is an irregularly shaped tract, oriented northwest-southeast, stretching about 60 miles (100 km) from the Persian

  • Shāriqah, Al- (United Arab Emirates)

    Sharjah: …and chief urban settlement is Sharjah city, situated on the Persian Gulf.

  • Sharī?ah (Islamic law)

    Sharī?ah, the fundamental religious concept of Islam—namely, its law. The religious law of Islam is seen as the expression of God’s command for Muslims and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon all Muslims by virtue of their religious belief. Known as the Sharī?ah

  • Shari?ah Law in Brunei

    During 2014 Islamization—the process of making all aspects of life in a country Conform with Shari?ah (Islamic law; Syariah in Malay)—was evident in many parts of the Muslim world. The most widely reported developments were in the Middle East, where the Sunni insurgent group known as ISIL (Islamic

  • Sharī?at-Madārī, Mu?ammad Kā?im (Iranian cleric)

    Mohammad Kazem Shariat-Madari, Iranian cleric who, as one of five Shī?ite grand ayatollahs, was the leading representative of the clergy during the final years of the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. An early associate of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Shariat-Madari helped establish Iran as an

  • Shari?ati, ?Ali (Iranian intellectual)

    ?Ali Shari?ati, Iranian intellectual and critic of the regime of the shah (Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi). ?Ali Shari?ati developed a new perspective on the history and sociology of Islam and gave highly charged lectures in Tehrān that laid the foundation for the Iranian revolution of 1979. Shari?ati

  • Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    Sharjah: …and chief urban settlement is Sharjah city, situated on the Persian Gulf.

  • Sharjah (emirate, United Arab Emirates)

    Sharjah, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States, or Trucial Oman). Some of Sharjah’s interior boundaries are only presumptive, but its main portion is an irregularly shaped tract, oriented northwest-southeast, stretching about 60 miles (100 km) from the Persian

  • shark (fish)

    Shark, any of numerous species of cartilaginous fishes of predatory habit that constitute the order Selachii (class Chondrichthyes). Sharks, together with rays and skates, make up the subclass Elasmobranchii of the Chondrichthyes. Sharks differ from other elasmobranchs, however, and resemble

  • Shark and the Sardines, The (work by Arévalo)

    Juan José Arévalo: …of a widely circulated book, The Shark and the Sardines (1961), which denounced U.S. domination of Latin America. He served as ambassador to France from 1970 to 1972.

  • Shark Bay (bay, Western Australia, Australia)

    Shark Bay, inlet of the Indian Ocean, Western Australia. It is sheltered on the west by Bernier, Dorre, and Dirk Hartog islands. Peron Peninsula bisects the bay. Geographe Channel forms the bay entrance north of Bernier Island. The principal port along the bay is Carnarvon, at the mouth of the

  • shark fin soup (dish)

    shark: Shark finning: …purpose of supplying fins for shark fin soup served to guests at social occasions where the dish is symbolic of the host’s status. Although most shark fin products are traded through Hong Kong, some are sent to local markets around the world that supply restaurants. The yearly global demand for…

  • shark finning (commercial fishing)

    shark: Shark finning: Among the threats from humans that sharks face is finning, the practice of harvesting the lateral and dorsal fins and the lower tail fin from a shark by commercial fishing operations and others worldwide. After the shark has been captured and its fins have…

  • Shark Research Panel (American organization)

    chondrichthyan: Danger to human life: …of Biological Sciences established a Shark Research Panel at the Smithsonian Institution and Cornell University to gather historical and current records of shark attacks throughout the world. For the 35 years from 1928 to 1962, inclusive, the panel listed 670 attacks on persons and 102 on boats. More recently, the…

  • Shark Tank (American television series)

    Kevin O'Leary: …reality series Dragons’ Den and Shark Tank.

  • Sharkey, Jack (American boxer)

    Jack Sharkey, American world heavyweight-boxing champion from June 21, 1932, when he defeated Max Schmeling in 15 rounds at Long Island City, N.Y., until June 29, 1933, when he was knocked out by Primo Carnera in six rounds in New York City. Sharkey, who named himself for a former leading

  • Sharkia (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Sharqiyyah, mu?āfa?ah (governorate) of the eastern Nile River delta, Lower Egypt, touching the Mediterranean Sea just west of Suez. In the northeast it includes a part of the large Lake Manzala, a brackish coastal lagoon. Its chief port is Al-Manzilah, at the head of a branch railway from

  • sharksucker (fish)

    Remora, any of eight species of marine fishes of the family Echeneidae (order Perciformes) noted for attaching themselves to, and riding about on, sharks, other large marine animals, and oceangoing ships. Remoras adhere by means of a flat, oval sucking disk on top of the head. The disk, derived

  • Sharland, David John (British television writer and producer)

    David Croft, (David John Sharland), British television writer and producer (born Sept. 7, 1922, Sandbanks, Dorset, Eng.—died Sept. 27, 2011, Tavira, Port.), created and co-wrote scores of episodes for some of Britain’s most beloved television sitcoms, including Dad’s Army (1968–77), It Ain’t Half

  • Sharm ael-Shayeikh (Egypt)

    Sharm el-Sheikh, resort town on the southeastern coast of the Sinai Peninsula. Located in Janūb Sīnā? mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Egypt, the area was occupied from 1967 to 1982 by the Israelis, who began building the town as a tourist destination. Its development as such continued after being returned

  • Sharm el-Sheikh (Egypt)

    Sharm el-Sheikh, resort town on the southeastern coast of the Sinai Peninsula. Located in Janūb Sīnā? mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Egypt, the area was occupied from 1967 to 1982 by the Israelis, who began building the town as a tourist destination. Its development as such continued after being returned

  • Sharma, Kailash (Indian social reformer)

    Kailash Satyarthi, Indian social reformer who campaigned against child labour in India and elsewhere and advocated the universal right to education. In 2014 he was the corecipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, along with teenage Pakistani education advocate Malala Yousafzai, “for their struggle against

  • Sharma, Neki Ram (Indian politician)

    Haryana: History: …movement, as well as by Neki Ram Sharma, who headed a committee to cultivate the concept of an autonomous state.

  • Sharma, Pran Kumar (Indian cartoonist)

    Pran, (Pran Kumar Sharma), Indian cartoonist (born Aug. 15, 1938, Kasur, British India [now in Pakistan]—died Aug. 5, 2014, Gurgaon, Haryana, India), created a series of witty characters of Indian origin in his comic books, thereby entertaining millions of young Indian readers and earning the

  • Sharma, Rakesh (Indian military pilot and cosmonaut)

    Rakesh Sharma, Indian military pilot and cosmonaut, the first Indian citizen in space. In 1970 Sharma joined the Indian Air Force as a pilot. He flew 21 combat missions in a MiG-21 in the Bangladesh war of 1971. In 1982 he was selected as a cosmonaut for a joint Soviet-Indian spaceflight. On April

  • Sharma, Shankar Dayal (president of India)

    Shankar Dayal Sharma, Indian lawyer and politician who was president of India from 1992 to 1997. Sharma pursued his higher education at Agra and Lucknow universities. After earning a doctorate in law at the University of Cambridge, he attended Lincoln’s Inn in London and Harvard University. In 1940

  • Sharma, Shiv Kumar (Indian musician)

    Shiv Kumar Sharma, Indian san?ūr (hammered dulcimer) virtuoso who is credited with shifting the instrument from a predominantly accompanimental and ensemble role in the Sufi music of Kashmir to a solo role in the Hindustani classical music tradition of North India. Sharma began studying music when

  • Sharma, Shivkumar (Indian musician)

    Shiv Kumar Sharma, Indian san?ūr (hammered dulcimer) virtuoso who is credited with shifting the instrument from a predominantly accompanimental and ensemble role in the Sufi music of Kashmir to a solo role in the Hindustani classical music tradition of North India. Sharma began studying music when

  • Sharma, Sushma (Indian politician)

    Sushma Swaraj, Indian politician and government official who served in a variety of legislative and administrative posts at the state (Haryana) and national (union) levels in India. She served as the leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the Lok Sabha (lower chamber of the Indian

  • Sharman, Bill (American basketball player)

    Bill Sharman, American professional basketball player noted for his skills as a free-throw shooter and as a long-range field-goal marksman. After graduation from the University of Southern California (1950), Sharman played both professional baseball and basketball. In 1955 he left the Brooklyn

  • Sharman, Helen (British chemist and astronaut)

    Helen Sharman, British chemist and astronaut who was the first British citizen to go into space, participating in a mission to the Soviet modular space station Mir in May 1991. Sharman received a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of Sheffield in 1984. After receiving a doctorate

  • Sharman, Helen Patricia (British chemist and astronaut)

    Helen Sharman, British chemist and astronaut who was the first British citizen to go into space, participating in a mission to the Soviet modular space station Mir in May 1991. Sharman received a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of Sheffield in 1984. After receiving a doctorate

  • Sharman, William Walton (American basketball player)

    Bill Sharman, American professional basketball player noted for his skills as a free-throw shooter and as a long-range field-goal marksman. After graduation from the University of Southern California (1950), Sharman played both professional baseball and basketball. In 1955 he left the Brooklyn

  • sharo (Fulani ritual)

    Nigeria: Cultural milieu: …to the Fulani custom of sharo (test of young manhood), rival suitors underwent the ordeal of caning as a means of eliminating those who were less persistent. In Ibibio territory, girls approaching marriageable age were confined for several years in bride-fattening rooms before they were given to their husbands. A…

  • Sharon (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Sharon, city, Mercer county, western Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along the Shenango River at the Ohio border, 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Youngstown, Ohio. Sharon is part of an industrial area that includes Sharpsville, Farrell, and Wheatland. The original settlement developed about 1802 around a

  • Sharon (Vermont, United States)

    Sharon, town (township), Windsor county, east-central Vermont, U.S. It lies along the White River 29 miles (47 km) northeast of Rutland and is surrounded on three sides by high hills. Chartered in 1761, it received its biblical name from Sharon, Connecticut, which was founded in the 1730s during

  • Sharon, Ariel (prime minister of Israel)

    Ariel Sharon, Israeli general and politician, whose public life was marked by brilliant but controversial military achievements and political policies. He was one of the chief participants in the Arab-Israeli wars and was elected prime minister of Israel in 2001, a position he held until he was

  • Sharon, Arik (prime minister of Israel)

    Ariel Sharon, Israeli general and politician, whose public life was marked by brilliant but controversial military achievements and political policies. He was one of the chief participants in the Arab-Israeli wars and was elected prime minister of Israel in 2001, a position he held until he was

  • Sharon, Lois & Bram (Canadian musical group)

    Sharon, Lois & Bram, trio of children’s performers: the singer Sharon Hampson (born March 31, 1943, in Toronto, Ontario), singer and pianist Lois Lilienstein (born July 10, 1936, in Chicago, Illinois; died April 22, 2015, in Toronto), and singer and guitarist Bram Morrison (born December 18, 1940,

  • Sharon, Plain of (plain, Israel)

    Plain of Sharon, section of the Mediterranean coastal plain, and the most densely settled of Israel’s natural regions. It is roughly triangular in shape and extends about 55 miles (89 km) north-to-south from the beach at Mount Carmel to the Yarqon River at Tel Aviv–Yafo. The plain is bounded on the

  • Sharon, rose of (plant, Hibiscus species)

    Rose of Sharon, (Hibiscus syriacus, or Althaea syriaca), shrub or small tree, in the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), native to eastern Asia but widely planted as an ornamental for its showy flowers. It can attain a height of 3 metres (10 feet) and generally assumes a low-branching

  • Sharon, rose of (plant)

    Saint-John's-wort: Creeping Saint-John’s-wort (H. calycinum), sometimes known as rose of Sharon or Aaron’s-beard, and goldencup Saint-John’s-wort (H. patulum) are both shrubby East Asian species. Creeping Saint-John’s-wort bears pale yellow flowers with orange stamens on 30-cm- (1-foot-) tall plants, while goldencup Saint-John’s-wort has slightly smaller deep yellow…

  • sharp (music)

    accidental: A sharp (?) raises a note by a semitone; a flat (?) lowers it by a semitone; a natural (?) restores it to the original pitch. Double sharps (×) and double flats (??) indicate that the note is raised or lowered by two semitones. Sharps or…

  • Sharp Corporation (Japanese company)

    Olivetti & C. SpA: …into a joint venture with Sharp Corp. of Japan in 1982 to produce together high-speed copiers and other office machines. That same year Docutel Corp., an electronics company and leading American manufacturer of automated teller machines, purchased Olivetti Corp., an American subsidiary of the company. The merger agreement made Olivetti…

  • Sharp Objects (American television series)

    Gillian Flynn: …an active role in adapting Sharp Objects into a TV series starring Amy Adams that aired in 2018. That same year Flynn cowrote the screenplay for Widows with director Steve McQueen. The movie received wide acclaim for transcending the heist genre to offer a complex narrative of race, class, and…

  • Sharp Objects (novel by Flynn)

    Gillian Flynn: Sharp Objects concerns a newspaper reporter who returns to her Missouri hometown to investigate a series of murders of young girls. The narrative, threaded with themes of child abuse and self-harm, was noted for its subtle evocation of dread. Dark Places centres on a young…

  • Sharp Resolution (Netherlands [1617])

    Johan van Oldenbarnevelt: Disputes with Prince Maurice: …was answered by the so-called Sharp Resolution voted by the States of Holland on Aug. 4, 1617, which, among other things, encouraged the various towns in the province to recruit armed units of their own, not integrated in the federal army and not even subject to Maurice’s command as the…

  • Sharp, Becky (fictional character)

    Becky Sharp, fictional character, an amoral adventuress in William Makepeace Thackeray’s Vanity Fair (1847–48), a novel of the Regency period (roughly the second decade of the 19th century) in England. She has been considered one of the most vivid characters in English

  • Sharp, Cecil (British musician)

    Cecil Sharp, English musician noted for his work as a collector of English folk song and dance. Sharp was educated at Uppingham School and the University of Cambridge. In 1882 he emigrated to Australia, where he practiced law and became associate to the chief justice of South Australia. In 1889 he

  • Sharp, Cecil James (British musician)

    Cecil Sharp, English musician noted for his work as a collector of English folk song and dance. Sharp was educated at Uppingham School and the University of Cambridge. In 1882 he emigrated to Australia, where he practiced law and became associate to the chief justice of South Australia. In 1889 he

  • Sharp, Granville (English scholar and philanthropist)

    Granville Sharp, English scholar and philanthropist, noted as an advocate of the abolition of slavery. Granville was apprenticed to a London draper, but in 1758 he entered the government ordnance department. A diligent student of Greek and Hebrew, he published several treatises on biblical

  • Sharp, John (English rector)

    Henry Compton: …year, for refusing to suspend John Sharp, rector of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, whose antipapal sermons had offended the king, Compton was himself suspended. He gave his support to the seven bishops who made a petition against the king’s Declaration of Indulgence (1687), and he was the only ecclesiastic to sign the…

  • Sharp, Martin (Australian artist)

    Martin Ritchie Sharp, Australian artist (born Jan. 21, 1942, Bellevue Hill, near Sydney, Australia—died Dec. 1, 2013, Bellevue Hill), created vibrant Pop art-influenced album covers and posters of artists such as Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, and Donovan that helped to define the look of the psychedelic

  • Sharp, Martin Ritchie (Australian artist)

    Martin Ritchie Sharp, Australian artist (born Jan. 21, 1942, Bellevue Hill, near Sydney, Australia—died Dec. 1, 2013, Bellevue Hill), created vibrant Pop art-influenced album covers and posters of artists such as Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, and Donovan that helped to define the look of the psychedelic

  • Sharp, Mitchell William (Canadian politician and economist)

    Mitchell William Sharp, Canadian politician and economist (born May 11, 1911, Winnipeg, Man.—died March 19, 2004, Ottawa, Ont.), served as an influential adviser to Prime Ministers Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau. In 1963 Sharp was elected to Parliament for Elington, and soon afterward P

  • Sharp, Phillip A. (American physiologist)

    Phillip A. Sharp, American molecular biologist, awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Richard J. Roberts, for his independent discovery that individual genes are often interrupted by long sections of DNA that do not encode protein structure. Sharp received a doctorate

  • Sharp, Phillip Allen (American physiologist)

    Phillip A. Sharp, American molecular biologist, awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Richard J. Roberts, for his independent discovery that individual genes are often interrupted by long sections of DNA that do not encode protein structure. Sharp received a doctorate

  • sharp-nosed mackerel shark (fish)

    Mako shark, (genus Isurus), either of two species of swift, active, potentially dangerous sharks of the mackerel shark family, Lamnidae. The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is found in all tropical and temperate seas, and the longfin mako (I. paucus) is scattered worldwide in tropical seas. Mako

  • sharp-shinned hawk (bird)

    hawk: …called accipiters)—are exemplified by the sharp-shinned hawk (A. striatus), a bird with a 30-cm (12-inch) body length, gray above with fine rusty barring below, found through much of the New World, and by Cooper’s hawk (A. cooperii), a North American species similar in appearance but larger—to 50 cm (20 inches)…

  • sharp-tailed grouse (bird)

    grouse: …grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and the sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus). The former is the largest New World grouse, exceeded in the family only by the capercaillie. A male may be 75 cm (30 inches) long and weigh 3.5 kg (about 7.5 pounds). This species inhabits sagebrush flats. The sharptail, a 45-cm…

  • sharpbill (bird)

    Sharpbill, (Oxyruncus cristatus), bird of rain forests in scattered localities from Costa Rica southward to Paraguay. It is usually considered the sole member of the family Oxyruncidae (order Passeriformes), which is closely related to the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). The sharpbill is a

  • Sharpe, Boogsie (Trinidadian musician)

    steel band: …(Starlift), Jit Samaroo (Renegades), and Len (“Boogsie”) Sharpe (Phase II Pan Groove) helped to create a new style of steel band music for Panorama, and by the end of the 1970s the Panorama competition had eclipsed fetes and Carnival masquerades as the major venue for steel band performance.

  • Sharpe, Len (Trinidadian musician)

    steel band: …(Starlift), Jit Samaroo (Renegades), and Len (“Boogsie”) Sharpe (Phase II Pan Groove) helped to create a new style of steel band music for Panorama, and by the end of the 1970s the Panorama competition had eclipsed fetes and Carnival masquerades as the major venue for steel band performance.

  • Sharpe, Samuel (Jamaican slave revolt leader)

    slave rebellions: In 1831 Samuel Sharpe led a Christmas Day general strike for wages and better working conditions. After the strikers’ demands were ignored, however, the strike turned to open rebellion by tens of thousands of slaves, who looted and burned plantations into January 1832 before being defeated by…

  • Sharpe, Shannon (American football player)

    Baltimore Ravens: …lineman Jonathan Ogden, tight end Shannon Sharpe, and cornerback Rod Woodson. Over the remainder of the decade, the Ravens remained competitive, qualifying for the playoffs in six of the 10 seasons from 2001 to 2010—which included a loss to the rival Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC championship game following the…

  • Sharpe, Sir Alfred (British colonial administrator)

    Sir Alfred Sharpe, English adventurer and colonial administrator who helped establish the British Nyasaland Protectorate (now Mala?i) and obtain portions of central East Africa (now in Zambia) for the British Empire. Sharpe went to the Shire Highlands, south of Lake Nyasa, in 1887 to hunt elephant

  • Sharpe, Thomas Ridley (British novelist)

    Tom Sharpe, (Thomas Ridley Sharpe), English novelist (born March 30, 1928, London, Eng.—died June 6, 2013, Llafranc, Spain), crafted satiric novels dripping with dark and riotous humour. Sharpe was known for his bawdy style and for his ability to take the absurdities of everyday life to uproarious

  • Sharpe, Tom (British novelist)

    Tom Sharpe, (Thomas Ridley Sharpe), English novelist (born March 30, 1928, London, Eng.—died June 6, 2013, Llafranc, Spain), crafted satiric novels dripping with dark and riotous humour. Sharpe was known for his bawdy style and for his ability to take the absurdities of everyday life to uproarious

  • Sharpe, William F. (American economist)

    William F. Sharpe, American economist who shared the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1990 with Harry M. Markowitz and Merton H. Miller. Their early work established financial economics as a separate field of study. Sharpe received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los

  • Sharpe, William Forsyth (American economist)

    William F. Sharpe, American economist who shared the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1990 with Harry M. Markowitz and Merton H. Miller. Their early work established financial economics as a separate field of study. Sharpe received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los

  • sharpener (psychology)

    George S. Klein: …things and overlook differences, and sharpeners, who see contrasts and maintain a high level of awareness of differences between stimuli. In 1951 Klein and Herbert J. Schlesinger introduced the term cognitive style to refer to the combination of several cognitive controls within a single person. Klein also did research on…

  • sharpening (materials processing)

    abrasive: Tool sharpening: The sharpening of all types of tools continues to be a major grinding operation. Drills, saws, reamers, milling cutters, broaches, and the great spectrum of knives are kept sharp by abrasives. Coarser-grit products are used for their initial shaping. Finer-grit abrasives produce keener cutting…

  • Sharpeville massacre (South African history [1960])

    Sharpeville massacre, (March 21, 1960), incident in the black township of Sharpeville, near Vereeniging, South Africa, in which police fired on a crowd of black people, killing or wounding some 250 of them. It was one of the first and most violent demonstrations against apartheid in South Africa.

  • Sharpey-Schafer, Sir Edward Albert (British physiologist and inventor)

    Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer, English physiologist and inventor of the prone-pressure method (Schafer method) of artificial respiration adopted by the Royal Life Saving Society. The first holder of the Sharpey Scholarship (1871) at University College, London, he studied with William Sharpey

  • Sharpless, K. Barry (American chemist)

    K. Barry Sharpless, American scientist who, with William S. Knowles and Noyori Ryōji, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2001 for developing the first chiral catalysts. Sharpless received a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1968. After postdoctoral work, he joined the Massachusetts Institute of

  • sharpness (optics)

    technology of photography: The twin-lens reflex: …top screen shows the image sharpness and framing as recorded on the film in the lower section. The viewing image remains visible all the time, but the viewpoint difference (parallax) of the two lenses means that the framing on the top screen is not exactly identical with that on the…

  • Sharpsburg, Battle of (American Civil War [1862])

    Battle of Antietam, (September 17, 1862), in the American Civil War (1861–65), a decisive engagement that halted the Confederate invasion of Maryland, an advance that was regarded as one of the greatest Confederate threats to Washington, D.C. The Union name for the battle is derived from Antietam

  • sharpshooting (sport)

    Shooting, the sport of firing at targets of various kinds with rifles, handguns (pistols and revolvers), and shotguns as an exercise in marksmanship. Shooting at a mark as a test of skill began with archery, long before the advent of firearms (c. 1300). Firearms were first used in warfare and later

  • sharptail mola (fish)

    mola: The sharptail mola (Masturus lanceolatus) is also very large; its maximum length is 3.37 metres (11.1 feet). However, the slender mola (Ranzania laevis) is smaller, measuring no more than 1 metre (39.3 inches) long.

  • Sharpton, Al (American minister, politician, and civil rights activist)

    Al Sharpton, American civil rights activist and minister. Sharpton began preaching at age four and became an ordained Pentecostal minister at age 10. In 1971 he founded a national youth organization that promoted social and economic justice for African Americans. He graduated from Tilden High

  • Sharpton, Alfred Charles, Jr. (American minister, politician, and civil rights activist)

    Al Sharpton, American civil rights activist and minister. Sharpton began preaching at age four and became an ordained Pentecostal minister at age 10. In 1971 he founded a national youth organization that promoted social and economic justice for African Americans. He graduated from Tilden High

  • Sharqā?, Ash- (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ashur, ancient religious capital of Assyria, located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern Iraq. The first scientific excavations there were conducted by a German expedition (1903–13) led by Walter Andrae. Ashur was a name applied to the city, to the country, and to the principal god of

  • Sharqā?, Qal?at (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ashur, ancient religious capital of Assyria, located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern Iraq. The first scientific excavations there were conducted by a German expedition (1903–13) led by Walter Andrae. Ashur was a name applied to the city, to the country, and to the principal god of

  • sharqī (wind)

    Morocco: Climate: …late spring or summer, the sharqī (chergui)—a hot, dusty wind from the Sahara—can sweep over the mountains into the lowlands, even penetrating the coastal cities. Temperatures rise dramatically, often reaching 105 °F (41 °C). If crops have not been harvested, damage can be extensive from the desiccating effects of the…

  • Sharqī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Jaunpur: …independent Muslim kingdom of the Sharqī dynasty (1394–1479). It was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1559 and fell under British rule in 1775. Jaunpur contains several old mosques, including the A?alā Mosque (1408) and the Jāmi? Masjid (Great Mosque; 1478). A splendid bridge, built in the 16th century,…

  • Sharqī, al-Jabal ash- (mountains, Asia)

    Anti-Lebanon Mountains, mountain range that runs northeast-southwest along the Syrian-Lebanese border parallel to the Lebanon Mountains, from which they are separated by the al-Biqā? Valley. The range averages 6,500 feet (2,000 m) above sea level, with several peaks exceeding 8,000 feet (2,400 m).

  • Sharqīyah, A?-Sa?rā? ash- (desert, Egypt)

    Eastern Desert, large desert in eastern Egypt. Originating just southeast of the Nile River delta, it extends southeastward into northeastern Sudan and from the Nile River valley eastward to the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. It covers an area of about 85,690 square miles (221,940 square km). The

  • Sharqiyyah, Al- (province, Saudi Arabia)

    Al-Sharqiyyah, region, eastern Saudi Arabia. The region includes most of the desert Rub? al-Khali (the Empty Quarter) and extends southward from a neutral zone jointly administered with Kuwait to indefinite borders with Yemen and Oman. It is bounded by Kuwait on the north, the Persian Gulf on the

  • Sharqiyyah, Al- (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Sharqiyyah, mu?āfa?ah (governorate) of the eastern Nile River delta, Lower Egypt, touching the Mediterranean Sea just west of Suez. In the northeast it includes a part of the large Lake Manzala, a brackish coastal lagoon. Its chief port is Al-Manzilah, at the head of a branch railway from

  • Sharr Mountains (mountains, North Macedonia-Kosovo)

    ?ar Mountains, mountain range in western North Macedonia and southern Kosovo, one of the most rugged and impassable in the Balkans, extending northeast–southwest for about 47 miles (75 km). A southern continuation along the Albanian frontier, which includes the Korab, Bistra, Jablanica, and

  • Sharrer, Honoré Desmond (American artist)

    Honoré Desmond Sharrer, American artist (born July 12, 1920, West Point, N.Y.—died April 17, 2009, Washington, D.C.), painted finely observed realistic depictions of working-class Americans. Her masterpiece, the five-panel Tribute to the American Working People (1947–51), debuted in 1951 at

  • Sharru-kin (ruler of Mesopotamia)

    Sargon, ancient Mesopotamian ruler (reigned c. 2334–2279 bc), one of the earliest of the world’s great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and was considered the

  • Sharruma (Anatolian deity)

    Anatolian religion: The pantheon: …gods, Hebat, and her son, Sharruma; and at Yaz?l?kaya, where a rocky outcrop forming a natural open chamber was adorned with a series of 64 bas-reliefs that represented the national pantheon, every identifiable deity bears a Hurrian name written in Hittite hieroglyphs. The central group is recognizable as the family…

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