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  • sharsaf (clothing)

    Yemen: Daily life and social customs: …cities and towns wore the sharsaf, a black skirt, scarf, and veil ensemble that covers the entire body. In South Yemen, the regime that succeeded the British after 1967 vigorously opposed this women’s dress code, and this opposition prevailed especially in the towns and cities. In the countryside, clothing for…

  • Sharshal (ancient city, Algeria)

    Iol, ancient seaport of Mauretania, located west of what is now Algiers in Algeria. Iol was originally founded as a Carthaginian trading station, but it was later renamed Caesarea and became the capital of Mauretania in 25 bc. The city was famous as a centre of Hellenistic culture, and under the

  • Sharwa (people)

    Sherpa, group of some 150,000 mountain-dwelling people of Nepal; Sikkim state, India; and Tibet (China); they are related to the Bhutia. Small groups of Sherpas also live in parts of North America, Australia, and Europe. Sherpas are of Tibetan culture and descent and speak a language called Sherpa,

  • Shas (political party, Israel)

    Shas, ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi- (Jews of European descent) dominated Agudat Israel, another ultrareligious party, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic (Middle Eastern) Jews. The

  • shasanadevata (Jainist deities)

    Jainism: Image veneration: …associating one of the 24 shasanadevatas (“doctrine goddesses”) with images of individual Tirthankaras began in the 9th century. Some of these goddesses, such as Ambika (“Little Mother”), who is associated with the Tirthankara Arishtanemi, continue to have great importance for the Jain devotee. The images are generally located near the…

  • shash maqām (music)

    Central Asian arts: Classical music: …suites was known as the shash maqām, or six maqāms (suites), with each maqām (an Arabic term, but changed in meaning) set in one of the classical Persian musical modes. (The Persian modes are melodic frameworks, each with a given scale, typical melodic figures, and accepted emotional content.) Regional courts…

  • Shashanka (king of Gauda)

    Harsha: …Kamarupa and warred against King Shashanka of Gauda, his brother’s assassin. At first he did not assume the title of king but merely acted as a regent; after making his position secure, however, he declared himself sovereign ruler of Kannauj (in Uttar Pradesh state) and formally transferred his capital to…

  • Shashe River (river, Africa)

    Shashi River, river in southeastern Africa that rises on the border between Botswana and Zimbabwe. It flows south, past Francistown, Bots., and then southeast along the border for about 225 miles (362 km) to its junction with the Limpopo

  • Shashi (China)

    Jingzhou, city and river port, southern Hubei sheng (province), south-central China. It is located on the north bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) near Lake Chang. The city was established in 1994 by combining what was then the city of Shashi with Jiangling county and the former Jingzhou

  • Shashi River (river, Africa)

    Shashi River, river in southeastern Africa that rises on the border between Botswana and Zimbabwe. It flows south, past Francistown, Bots., and then southeast along the border for about 225 miles (362 km) to its junction with the Limpopo

  • Shashkent (national capital, Uzbekistan)

    Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan and the largest city in Central Asia. Tashkent lies in the northeastern part of the country. It is situated at an elevation of 1,475 to 1,575 feet (450 to 480 metres) in the Chirchiq River valley west of the Chatkal Mountains and is intersected by a series of canals

  • shashlyk (food)

    Shish kebab, dish of small pieces of lamb threaded on a skewer and cooked over an open fire. The name of the dish is derived from the Turkish ?i?, a spit or skewer, and kebab, mutton or lamb. Variants of this dish are found throughout the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. In Greece it is

  • Shashthi (Hindu goddess)

    Shashthi, in Hinduism, a deity who is the goddess of vegetation, reproduction, and infant welfare. Shashthi is especially venerated in eastern India, largely in Bengal and Odisha. The name Shashthi means “the sixth” and is derived from the name of the sixth day after the birth of a child, the end

  • Shashtitantra (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Relation to orthodoxy: He refers also to Shashtitantra (“Doctrine of 60 Conceptions”), the main doctrines of which he claims to have expounded in the karikas. The Samkhya of Charaka, which is substantially the same as is attributed to Panchashika in the Mahabharata, is theistic and regards the unmanifested (avyakta) as being the…

  • Shasta daisy (plant)

    daisy: The cultivated Shasta daisy (L. ×superbum) resembles the oxeye daisy but has larger flower heads that may reach a diameter of 4 inches (10 cm).

  • Shasta Dam (dam, California, United States)

    Henry J. Kaiser: …of cement needed for the Shasta Dam, he erected a cement plant in Permanente, Calif., and a nine-mile conveyor belt across a mountain to the dam site in 1939.

  • Shasta, Mount (mountain, California, United States)

    Mount Shasta, peak (14,162 feet [4,317 metres]) of the Cascade Range in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, northern California, U.S. The peak lies 77 miles (124 km) north of the city of Redding. An impressive double-peaked dormant volcano, it dominates the landscape (a vast panorama of tumbled

  • Shastan (people)

    Shastan, North American Indian peoples that spoke related languages of Hokan stock and lived in the highlands of what is now interior northern California, in the basins of the Upper Klamath, the Scott, and the Shasta rivers. Their main subdivisions were the Shasta, New River Shasta, Konomihu, and

  • shastra (Hindu literature)

    Hinduism: Dharma-sutras and Dharma-shastras: Among the texts inspired by the Vedas are the Dharma-sutras, or “manuals on dharma,” which contain rules of conduct and rites as they were practiced in various Vedic schools. Their principal contents address the duties of people at different stages of life, or ashramas…

  • Shastri, Lal Bahadur (prime minister of India)

    Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indian statesman, prime minister of India (1964–66) after Jawaharlal Nehru. A member of Mahatma Gandhi’s noncooperation movement against British government in India, he was imprisoned for a short time (1921). Upon release he studied in the Kashi Vidyapitha, a nationalist

  • Shatadru (river, Asia)

    Sutlej River, longest of the five tributaries of the Indus River that give the Punjab (meaning “Five Rivers”) its name. It rises on the north slope of the Himalayas in Lake La’nga in southwestern Tibet, at an elevation above 15,000 feet (4,600 metres). Flowing northwestward and then

  • sha?a?at (?ūfism)

    Sha??, in ?ūfī Islām, divinely inspired statements that ?ūfīs utter in their mystical state of fana (passing away of the self). The ?ūfīs claim that there are moments of ecstatic fervour when they are overwhelmed by the divine presence to such a degree that they lose touch with worldly realities.

  • Shatakarni I (Satavahana ruler)

    Satavahana dynasty: …early rulers Simuka, Krishna, and Shatakarni I.

  • Shatapatha Brahmana (Vedic treatise)

    Manu: The Shatapatha Brahmana recounts how he was warned by a fish, to whom he had done a kindness, that a flood would destroy the whole of humanity. He therefore built a boat, as the fish advised. When the flood came, he tied this boat to the…

  • sha?? (?ūfism)

    Sha??, in ?ūfī Islām, divinely inspired statements that ?ūfīs utter in their mystical state of fana (passing away of the self). The ?ūfīs claim that there are moments of ecstatic fervour when they are overwhelmed by the divine presence to such a degree that they lose touch with worldly realities.

  • Shatila (refugee camp, Beirut, Lebanon)

    Palestine: The dispersal of the PLO from Lebanon: …refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila, where they massacred hundreds (estimates vary between 700 and 3,000) of Palestinian and Lebanese civilians.

  • Shā?i?, Wādī ash- (valley, Libya)

    Wādī ash-Shā?i?, valley in south-central Libya. The valley extends between Wanzarīk town on the west and Umm al-?Abīd town on the east for a distance of about 87 miles (140 km). Wādī ash-Shā?i? has one of the largest iron-ore deposits in the world; it was discovered in 1943, and, although it is

  • Shatner, William (Canadian actor)

    William Shatner, Canadian actor whose prolific output and self-deprecating sense of humour secured him a place in the North American pop culture pantheon. He was best known for playing Capt. James T. Kirk in the science fiction television series Star Trek (1966–69) and in several Star Trek films.

  • shatranj (game)

    chess: Ancient precursors and related games: …64-square board, gradually transformed into shatranj (or chatrang), a two-player game popular in northern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and southern parts of Central Asia after 600 ce. Shatranj resembled chaturanga but added a new piece, a firzān (counselor), which had nothing to do with any troop formation. A game of shatranj…

  • Shatrov, Mikhail (Soviet playwright)

    Mikhail Shatrov, (Mikhail Filippovich Marshak), Soviet playwright (born April 3, 1932, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died May 23, 2010, Moscow, Russia), inaugurated an age of new artistic freedom with his self-proclaimed “dramas of fact.” Shatrov’s works delicately integrate social, political, and human

  • Shatsamdarbha (work by Jiva Gosvamin)

    Indian philosophy: Chaitanya: …is the great and voluminous Shatsamdarbha. These are the main sources of the philosophy of Bengal Vaishnavism. Chaitanya rejected the conception of an intermediate brahman. Brahman, according to him, has three powers: the transcendent power that is threefold (the power of bliss, the power of being, and the power of…

  • sha?? (saline lake)

    Tozeur: …marked by numerous chott (or sha??, salty lake) depressions and palm groves. The town is situated on the isthmus that separates the Chotts of El-Jarid (Al-Jarīd) and Al-Rharsah (Al-Gharsah), and it is referred to as the gate of the desert.

  • Sha??ārīyah (Sufi order)

    Sha??ārīyah, ?ūfī (Muslim mystic) order deriving its name from either a 15th-century Indian mystic called Sha??ārī or the Arabic word shā?ir (“breaker”), referring to one who has broken with the world. Most Muslim mystics emphasize the servantship of man and the lordship of God, the fana

  • Sha??ārīyyah (Sufi order)

    Sha??ārīyah, ?ūfī (Muslim mystic) order deriving its name from either a 15th-century Indian mystic called Sha??ārī or the Arabic word shā?ir (“breaker”), referring to one who has broken with the world. Most Muslim mystics emphasize the servantship of man and the lordship of God, the fana

  • shatter cone (geology)

    astrobleme: …subsurface shock structures known as shatter cones. These are conically shaped structures that form in the bedrock directly under the point of impact. They radiate in a distinctive pattern from the point of impact and are identifiable even in drill-core samples. The suddenness and intensity of the shattering cannot be…

  • Shattuara II (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: The rise of Assyria: Shattuara II of Hanigalbat, however, put him into a difficult situation, cutting his forces off from their water supplies. With courage born of despair, the Assyrians fought themselves free. They then set about reducing what was left of the Mitanni kingdom into an Assyrian province.…

  • Shattuck report (United States history)

    public health: National developments in the 18th and 19th centuries: The so-called Shattuck report, published in 1850 by the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission, reviewed the serious health problems and grossly unsatisfactory living conditions in Boston. Its recommendations included an outline for a sound public health organization based on a state health department and local boards of health in…

  • Shattuck, Roger Whitney (American literary scholar)

    Roger Whitney Shattuck, American literary scholar (born Aug. 20, 1923, New York, N.Y.—died Dec. 8, 2005, Lincoln, Vt.), was a prominent authority on 20th-century French literature and culture. Shattuck wrote, edited, translated, or contributed to numerous books or other publications, perhaps the m

  • Shatuo Turk (people)

    Shatuo Turk, any member of a nomadic people who came to the aid of the Tang dynasty (618–907) after the rebel Huang Zhao captured the capitals of Luoyang and Chang’an in 880 and 881. Their leader, Li Keyong (856–908), became one of the aspirants to imperial power during the collapse of the Tang

  • Shaturanga (game)

    chess: Ancient precursors and related games: …was a war game called chaturanga, a Sanskrit name for a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata. Chaturanga was flourishing in northwestern India by the 7th century and is regarded as the earliest precursor of modern chess because it had two key features found in all later chess…

  • shatwell (Caribbean singer)

    calypso: …led by popular singers, or shatwell, wandered through the streets singing and improvising veiled lyrics directed toward unpopular political figures.

  • Shaughnessy of Montreal and Ashford, Thomas George Shaughnessy, 1st Baron (Canadian railroad magnate)

    Thomas George Shaughnessy, 1st Baron Shaughnessy, Canadian railway magnate. Born the son of Irish immigrants, he began railway service at the age of 16 out of Milwaukee and in 1882 joined the staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway as general purchasing agent. In 1891 he was appointed its vice

  • Shaughnessy, Clark Daniel (American football coach)

    Clark Daniel Shaughnessy, coach of American college and professional gridiron football who inspired the general revival of the T formation, which had been in disuse for many years. As head coach at the University of Chicago (1933–39), he inherited a de-emphasized football program from Amos Alonzo

  • Shaughnessy, Thomas George Shaughnessy, 1st Baron (Canadian railroad magnate)

    Thomas George Shaughnessy, 1st Baron Shaughnessy, Canadian railway magnate. Born the son of Irish immigrants, he began railway service at the age of 16 out of Milwaukee and in 1882 joined the staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway as general purchasing agent. In 1891 he was appointed its vice

  • Shauqi, A?mad (Egyptian poet)

    A?mad Shawqī, the amīr al-shu?arā? (“prince of poets”) of modern Arabic poetry and a pioneer of Arabic poetical drama. Shawqī, a member of a family attached to the khedivial court, was sent by the khedive to France to study at Montpellier and Paris universities. On his return the path of quick

  • Shauraseni language

    India: Political systems: …had its local variations in Shauraseni (from which Pali evolved), and Magadhi, in which the Buddha preached. Sanskrit, the more cultured language as compared with Prakrit, was favoured by the educated elite. Panini’s grammar, the Astadhyayi, and Yaska’s etymological work, the Nirukta, suggest considerable sophistication in the development of Sanskrit.

  • Shaushka (Hurrian deity)

    Anatolian religion: The pantheon: Her Hurrian name was Shaushka. As a warrior goddess she was represented as a winged figure standing on a lion with a peculiar robe gathered at the knees and accompanied by doves and two female attendants.

  • Shaushshatar (Mitanni king)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: …domain of the Mitanni king Saustatar (Saushatar) stretched from the Mediterranean all the way to the northern Zagros Mountains, in western Iran, including Alalakh, in northern Syria, as well as Nuzi, Kurrukhanni, and Arrapkha. The northern boundary dividing Mitanni from the Hittites and the other Hurrian states was never fixed,…

  • Shavante (people)

    Xavante, Brazilian Indian group speaking Xavante, a language of the Macro-Ge language family. The Xavante, who numbered about 10,000 in the early 21st century, live in the southeastern corner of Mato Grosso state, between the Rio das Mortes and the Araguaia River, in a region of upland savannah

  • Shavgar (Kazakhstan)

    Turkestan, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies in the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) plain. Turkestan was an ancient centre of the caravan trade; it was known as Shavgar and later as Yasī. It became a religious centre called Khazret (Hazrat) because of the 12th-century Sufi (Muslim mystic) Ahmed

  • shaving (grooming)

    razor: shaving or cutting hair. Prehistoric cave drawings show that clam shells, shark’s teeth, and sharpened flints were used as shaving implements. Solid gold and copper razors have been found in Egyptian tombs of the 4th millennium bce. According to the Roman historian Livy, the razor…

  • Shaving of Shagpat: An Arabian Entertainment, The (work by Meredith)

    George Meredith: Beginnings as poet and novelist.: …prose, writing a fantasy entitled The Shaving of Shagpat: An Arabian Entertainment, published in 1855. Original in conception but imitative of The Arabian Nights in manner, it baffled most readers, who did not know whether to regard it as allegory or fairy tale. But the most perceptive of the critics,…

  • Shavit (Israeli launch vehicle)

    Shavit, Israeli launch vehicle. Shavit (Hebrew for “comet”) is a small three-stage solid-fueled rocket, first launched in 1988. It was based on the Jericho 2 ballistic missile. Because of its geographic location and hostile relations with surrounding countries, Israel must launch its vehicles to

  • Shavshetsky (mountains, Georgia)

    Ajaria: Geography: … in the north and the Shavshetsky in the south, rise from the Black Sea coastal lowlands to more than 9,200 feet (2,800 metres). Between the ranges lies the Ajaristskali River valley, which is closed at the eastern end by a third range, the Arsiyan Mountains. The coastal lowland area, which…

  • Shavuot (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Shavuoth (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Shaw (neighborhood, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Adams-Morgan and beyond: East of Adams-Morgan are the Shaw and U Street neighbourhoods, once known as “Black Broadway” and where Duke Ellington grew up and first played jazz. Farther east, LeDroit Park is the home of Howard University. LeDroit Park developed as a wealthy all-white enclave enclosed by a fence that was torn…

  • Shaw alphabet

    English language: Orthography: …for different purposes: (1) the Initial Teaching (Augmented Roman) Alphabet (ITA) of 44 letters used by some educationists in the 1970s and ’80s in the teaching of children under age seven; (2) the Shaw alphabet of 48 letters, designed in the implementation of the will of George Bernard Shaw; and…

  • Shaw v. Reno (law case)

    gerrymandering: ” In Shaw v. Reno (1993), the Court ruled that electoral districts whose boundaries cannot be explained except on the basis of race can be challenged as potential violations of the equal protection clause, and in Miller v. Johnson (1995) it held that the equal protection clause…

  • Shaw’s Garden (garden, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States)

    Missouri Botanical Garden, botanical garden in St. Louis, Mo., U.S. It is most notable for its Climatron, a geodesic-dome greenhouse in which 1,200 species of plants are grown under computer-controlled conditions simulating a rainforest. The 79-acre (32-hectare) garden also has the largest

  • Shaw, Alfred P. (architect)

    Merchandise Mart: History: …& White under chief architect Alfred P. Shaw. Construction began on Aug. 16, 1928, and the building opened on May 5, 1930. The Mart housed Field’s wholesale showrooms and manufacturing facilities and leased floor space to retail tenants. Amenities included restaurants, parking facilities, a bank, a post office, and a…

  • Shaw, Anna Howard (American minister)

    Anna Howard Shaw, American minister, lecturer, and, with Susan B. Anthony, one of the chief leaders of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Shaw moved with her parents to the United States from her native England in 1851. She grew up from 1859 on an isolated frontier farm near Big

  • Shaw, Artie (American musician)

    Artie Shaw, American clarinetist and popular bandleader of the 1930s and ’40s. He was one of the few outstanding jazz musicians whose commitment to jazz was uncertain. Shaw began playing in high school and turned professional in 1925. The first signs of indecision became apparent in the early

  • Shaw, Bernard (American journalist)

    Bernard Shaw, American television journalist and the first chief anchor for the Cable News Network (CNN). Shaw’s childhood heroes included newsman Edward R. Murrow, whose television broadcasts inspired Shaw to pursue a career in journalism. He became an avid reader of newspapers in his hometown of

  • Shaw, C. H. (American machinist)

    drilling machinery: Shaw, a Denver machinist, before 1890. Cuttings dropped out by gravity. This machine was called a stoper when it was used in Colorado and California mines. A pneumatic feed held the machine in place and fed the steel into the rock. These two developments, hammering…

  • Shaw, Clifford (American psychologist)

    criminology: Action research: …perhaps most successful example was Clifford Shaw’s Chicago Area Project, carried out during the 1920s and ’30s, which applied the ecological theories of University of Chicago sociologists Robert Park and Ernest Burgess in an attempt to motivate local residents to deal with the social problems of their neighbourhoods.

  • Shaw, Frank L. (American politician)

    Los Angeles: The 1920s and ’30s: …a recall movement against Mayor Frank L. Shaw and his close associates. Police misconduct and the mayor’s mishandling of public funds forced Shaw from office and led to the election of reform mayor Fletcher Bowron in 1938.

  • Shaw, George Bernard (Irish dramatist and critic)

    George Bernard Shaw, Irish comic dramatist, literary critic, and socialist propagandist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1925. Shaw’s article on socialism appeared in the 13th edition of the Encyclop?dia Britannica. George Bernard Shaw was the third and youngest child (and only son) of

  • Shaw, Helen (American fishing enthusiast)

    fly-fishing: Modern fly-fishing: …of fly patterns in 1892; Helen Shaw introduced innovative fly-tying techniques during the 1940s and ’50s; and Joan Salvato Wulff was one of the world’s finest casters, setting many records in the 1950s and ’60s, as well as being a noted writer on the subject.

  • Shaw, Henry Wheeler (American humorist)

    Josh Billings, American humorist whose philosophical comments in plain language were widely popular after the American Civil War through his newspaper pieces, books, and comic lectures. He employed the misspellings, fractured grammar, and hopeless logic then current among comic writers who assumed

  • Shaw, Irwin (American author)

    Irwin Shaw, prolific American playwright, screenwriter, and author of critically acclaimed short stories and best-selling novels. Shaw studied at Brooklyn College (B.A., 1934) and at age 21 began his career by writing the scripts of the popular Andy Gump and Dick Tracy radio shows. He wrote his

  • Shaw, Jane (American businesswoman)

    Intel: Expansion and other developments: …2005, and four years later Jane Shaw replaced Barrett as chairman. She held the post until 2012, when she was succeeded by Andy Bryant. The following year Brian Krzanich became CEO. In 2019 chief financial officer Bob Swan became CEO, and Intel ranked 43 on the Fortune 500 list of…

  • Shaw, Josephine (American social worker)

    Josephine Shaw Lowell, American charity worker and social reformer, an advocate of the doctrine that charity should not merely relieve suffering but that it should also rehabilitate the recipient. She was born to wealthy Bostonians who numbered among their friends such well-known figures as James

  • Shaw, Joshua (American inventor)

    small arm: Percussion ignition: …caps (attributed to the Philadelphian Joshua Shaw in 1815) were becoming the accepted system for igniting firearm powder charges. A percussion cap was a truncated cone of metal (preferably copper) that contained a small amount of fulminate of mercury inside its crown, protected by foil and shellac. This cap was…

  • Shaw, Lemuel (American jurist)

    Lemuel Shaw, chief justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts (1830–60), who left an indelible mark on the law of that state and significantly contributed to the structure of American law. Shaw was educated at Harvard, studied law privately, was admitted to the bar in 1804 in New

  • Shaw, Norman (British architect)

    Norman Shaw, British architect and urban designer important for his residential architecture and for his role in the English Domestic Revival movement. After an apprenticeship to William Burn, Shaw attended the architectural school of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. He subsequently entered the

  • Shaw, Patricia Campbell Hearst (American heiress)

    Patty Hearst, an heiress of the William Randolph Hearst newspaper empire who was kidnapped in 1974 by leftist radicals called the Symbionese Liberation Army, whom she under duress joined in robbery and extortion. The third of five daughters of Randolph A. Hearst, she attended private schools in Los

  • Shaw, Richard Norman (British architect)

    Norman Shaw, British architect and urban designer important for his residential architecture and for his role in the English Domestic Revival movement. After an apprenticeship to William Burn, Shaw attended the architectural school of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. He subsequently entered the

  • Shaw, Richard Norman (British architect)

    Norman Shaw, British architect and urban designer important for his residential architecture and for his role in the English Domestic Revival movement. After an apprenticeship to William Burn, Shaw attended the architectural school of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. He subsequently entered the

  • Shaw, Robert (British actor, novelist and playwright)

    Robert Shaw, English actor, novelist, and playwright who first garnered attention for his performances in Shakespearean plays before launching a successful film career. Shaw began his career with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, where he performed in Macbeth, Cymbeline, Henry

  • Shaw, Robert (American conductor)

    Robert Shaw, American choral and orchestral conductor. Shaw graduated in 1938 from Pomona College, Claremont, California, where he directed the Glee Club. In 1941 he founded the Collegiate Chorale in New York and led it until 1954. He was director of the choral departments of the Berkshire

  • Shaw, Robert Gould (Union army officer)

    Robert Gould Shaw, Union army officer who commanded a prominent regiment of African American troops during the American Civil War. Shaw was born into an immensely wealthy Boston family. His merchant father retired from business to take up translating literature and moved his family to West Roxbury,

  • Shaw, Robert Lawson (American conductor)

    Robert Shaw, American choral and orchestral conductor. Shaw graduated in 1938 from Pomona College, Claremont, California, where he directed the Glee Club. In 1941 he founded the Collegiate Chorale in New York and led it until 1954. He was director of the choral departments of the Berkshire

  • Shaw, Run Run (Chinese entertainment mogul and philanthropist)

    Run Run Shaw, (Shao Yifu), Chinese entertainment mogul and philanthropist (born 1907, Ningbo, Zhejiang province, China—died Jan. 7, 2014, Hong Kong, China), in the 1960s and ’70s presided over East Asia’s largest movie studio, where he produced hundreds of popular movies and was credited with

  • Shaw, Sir Napier (British meteorologist)

    Sir Napier Shaw, English meteorologist whose introduction of the millibar, a unit of measurement of air pressure, and the tephigram, a graphical representation of the first law of thermodynamics as applied to Earth’s atmosphere, contributed to the development of modern meteorology. Shaw taught

  • Shaw, Sir Walter (British official)

    Palestine: The British mandate: …inquiry under the aegis of Sir Walter Shaw attributed the clashes to the fact that “the Arabs have come to see in Jewish immigration not only a menace to their livelihood but a possible overlord of the future.” A second royal commission, headed by Sir John Hope Simpson, issued a…

  • Shaw, Sir William Napier (British meteorologist)

    Sir Napier Shaw, English meteorologist whose introduction of the millibar, a unit of measurement of air pressure, and the tephigram, a graphical representation of the first law of thermodynamics as applied to Earth’s atmosphere, contributed to the development of modern meteorology. Shaw taught

  • Shaw, T. E. (British scholar and military officer)

    T.E. Lawrence, British archaeological scholar, military strategist, and author best known for his legendary war activities in the Middle East during World War I and for his account of those activities in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926). Lawrence was the son of Sir Thomas Chapman and Sara Maden,

  • Shaw, Warren Wilbur (American race–car driver)

    Wilbur Shaw, American automobile-racing driver who won the Indianapolis 500 three times—1937, 1939, and 1940—and was president of the Indianapolis Speedway (1945–54). He first entered the Memorial Day classic in 1927, when he finished fourth. He placed second in the race in 1933, 1935, and 1938.

  • Shaw, Wilbur (American race–car driver)

    Wilbur Shaw, American automobile-racing driver who won the Indianapolis 500 three times—1937, 1939, and 1940—and was president of the Indianapolis Speedway (1945–54). He first entered the Memorial Day classic in 1927, when he finished fourth. He placed second in the race in 1933, 1935, and 1938.

  • shawabty figure (statuette)

    Ushabti figure, any of the small statuettes made of wood, stone, or faience that are often found in large numbers in ancient Egyptian tombs. The figures range in height from approximately 4 to 20 inches (10 to 50 cm) and often hold hoes in their arms. Their purpose was to act as a magical

  • shāwarmah (food)

    Saudi Arabia: Daily life and social customs: …are also popular, as is shāwarmah (shwarma), a marinated meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken that is grilled on a spit and served either as an entrée or a sandwich. As in the countries of the Persian Gulf, makhbūs (machbous), a rice dish with fish or shrimp, is extremely…

  • Shawcross of Friston, Hartley William Shawcross, Baron (British lawyer)

    Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross of Friston, British prosecutor (born Feb. 4, 1902, Giessen, Ger.—died July 10, 2003, Cowbeech, Sussex, Eng.), gained renown as the chief British prosecutor on the International Military Tribunal trying Nazi war criminals in Nürnberg, Ger., in 1945–46. As B

  • Shawinigan Falls (waterfall, Canada)

    Shawinigan Falls, waterfall on the Saint-Maurice River near Shawinigan, southern Quebec province, Can., about 19 miles (30 km) above Trois-Rivières city. The most powerful falls in the province, they have a drop of about 165 feet (50 m). A hydroelectric plant built at Shawinigan Falls in 1903 was

  • Shawiya (people)

    Shawiya, Berber ethnic and linguistic group of the Aurès Plateau region of the Atlas Mountains of northeastern Algeria. The Shawiya speak one of four major Algerian Amazigh languages. The Shawiya practice cereal agriculture in the uplands and pastoral nomadism and horticulture in the oases along

  • shawl (garment)

    Shawl, square, oblong, or triangular protective or ornamental article of dress worn, generally by women, over the shoulders, neck, or head. It has been a common article of clothing in most parts of the world since antiquity. The period from roughly 1800 up to the 1870s, when the fashion silhouette

  • shawl period (fashion)

    shawl: …was known as the “shawl period” because women in Europe and America wore shawls with almost all their clothing. At the beginning of that century, shawls were a necessity in a fashionable woman’s wardrobe because dresses were thin and décolleté; it was a sign of gentility to wear a…

  • shawm (musical instrument)

    Shawm, (from Latin calamus, “reed”; Old French: chalemie), double-reed wind instrument of Middle Eastern origin, a precursor of the oboe. Like the oboe, it is conically bored; but its bore, bell, and finger holes are wider, and it has a wooden disk (called a pirouette, on European shawms) that

  • Shawmut Peninsula (peninsula, Massachusetts, United States)

    Boston: Area of the colonial town: The hilly Shawmut Peninsula, upon which Boston was settled, originally was almost completely surrounded by water. It was connected with mainland Roxbury to the south by a narrow neck of land along the line of present-day Washington Street. To the west of the neck were great reaches…

  • Shawn, Edwin Myers (American dancer)

    Ted Shawn, innovative American modern dancer and cofounder of the Denishawn school and company. A former divinity student, Shawn was introduced to dance as therapy after an illness. Soon after beginning his dance career, he met and married Ruth St. Denis in 1914; together they founded Denishawn.

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