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  • shilling shocker

    Shilling shocker, a novel of crime or violence especially popular in late Victorian England and originally costing one shilling. Shilling shockers were usually characterized by sensational incidents and lurid writing. Compare dime novel; penny

  • Shillo, Wadi (river, West Bank)

    Yarqon River: They include the Wadi Shillo (Dayr Ballū?) in the east, usually considered by geographers to mark the boundary between historic Judaea and Samaria, and the Wadi Ayyalon (Aijalon) in the southeast. In the valley of the latter, according to the Bible, the moon stood still during Joshua’s conquest…

  • Shillong (India)

    Shillong, city, capital of Meghalaya state, northeastern India. The city is located in the east-central part of the state on the Shillong Plateau, at an elevation of 4,990 feet (1,520 metres). Shillong first became prominent in 1864, when it succeeded Cherrapunji as the district headquarters. In

  • Shillong Peak (mountain peak, India)

    Shillong Plateau: The highest point is Shillong Peak, at 6,433 feet (1,961 metres) located 3 miles (5 km) south of the city of Shillong.

  • Shillong Plateau (plateau, India)

    Shillong Plateau, highland region in eastern Meghalaya state, northeastern India. It is a rolling tableland and the highest portion of the hill mass that comprises most of Meghalaya. The plateau’s western, northern, and southern escarpments are called the Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia hills,

  • Shilluk (people)

    Shilluk, Nilotic people living along the west bank of the Nile between Lake No and latitude 12° N in South Sudan. They speak an Eastern Sudanic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The Shilluk are sedentary agriculturists with strong pastoral interests (cattle, sheep, and goats). Men hunt,

  • Shiloa?, ha- (Jewish magazine)

    A?ad Ha?am: …he founded the periodical Ha-Shiloa?, in which he severely criticized the political Zionism of Theodor Herzl, the foremost Jewish nationalist leader of the time. A?ad Ha?am remained outside the Zionist organization, believing that a Jewish state would be the end result of a Jewish spiritual renaissance rather than the…

  • Shiloah, Reuven (Israeli intelligence director)

    Mossad: Reuven Shiloah, who had been involved in special operations and secret diplomacy during the pre-state period, served as the first director. Bureaucratic conflicts hampered the new agency in its early days; it took more than a year for the agency to become operational, and it…

  • Shiloh (ancient city, Palestine)

    Shiloh, Canaanite town that became the central sanctuary site of the Israelite confederacy during the period of the judges (12th–11th century bc). After the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant were installed in Shiloh until the Ark was captured by the

  • Shiloh (novel by Foote)

    Shelby Foote: Shiloh (1952), Foote’s first popular success, uses the monologues of six soldiers to recreate the Civil War battle of its title. Foote next set out to write what proved to be his masterwork, The Civil War: A Narrative (1958–74), which consists of three volumes—Fort Sumter…

  • Shiloh and Other Stories (work by Mason)

    Bobbie Ann Mason: Mason received critical acclaim for Shiloh and Other Stories (1982), her first collection of stories, which describes the lives of working-class people in a shifting rural society now dominated by chain stores, television, and superhighways. In Country (1985; film 1989), her first novel, is also steeped in mass culture, which…

  • Shiloh Tabernacle (church, Zion, Illinois, United States)

    Zion: The massive 8,000-seat Shiloh Tabernacle was completed in 1900 and became Zion’s religious centre until it burned in 1937. Settlement began in 1901, and from its origins the city was theocratically governed, with the church controlling all business activities. With few exceptions, streets in the city were named…

  • Shiloh, Battle of (United States history)

    Battle of Shiloh, (April 6–7, 1862), second great engagement of the American Civil War, fought in southwestern Tennessee, resulting in a victory for the North and in large casualties for both sides. In February, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had taken Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort

  • Shiloh, M. S. (American anarchist, political philosopher, trade-union organizer, and educator)

    Murray Bookchin, American anarchist, political philosopher, trade-union organizer, and educator best known for his organizing activities on behalf of labour unions and his vehement critiques of capitalism, globalization, and humanity’s treatment of the environment. Bookchin was the son of Russian

  • Shilowa, Mbhazima (South African politician)

    Congress of the People: …party founded in 2008 by Mbhazima Shilowa, Mluleki George, and Mosiuoa Lekota, former high-ranking members of South Africa’s ruling party, the African National Congress (ANC), who disagreed with the direction of that organization. The new party positioned itself as “progressive” and diverse, pledging to reach out to minorities and women,…

  • Shilpi (play by Nazrul Islam)

    South Asian arts: Bangladesh: …and inner tensions in his Shilpi (“The Artist”), in which the artist is torn between love for his wife and for his art. Especially popular are historical themes of political significance, inspiring Muslims who for centuries were subjugated by the Hindus of East Bengal. Ebrahim Khan wrote Kamal Pasha (1926),…

  • Shils, Edward (American social scientist)

    Edward Shils, U.S. sociologist who conducted research on the role of intellectuals in society during his five-decade association with the University of Chicago (b. July 1, 1910--d. Jan 23,

  • Shilts, Randy Martin (American author)

    Randy Martin Shilts, U.S. journalist and author (born Aug. 8, 1951, Davenport, Iowa—died Feb. 16, 1994, Guerneville, Calif.), was a top-notch investigative reporter who became the nation’s first openly gay journalist to work on a major U.S. newspaper, the San Francisco Chronicle. He also was c

  • shim rod (reactor part)

    nuclear reactor: Reactor control elements: Shim rods are designed to compensate for the effects of burnup (i.e., energy production). Reactivity changes resulting from burnup can be large, but they occur slowly over periods of days to years, as compared with the seconds-to-minutes range over which safety actions and routine regulation…

  • Shima Hideo (Japanese engineer)

    Hideo Shima, Japanese engineer (born May 20, 1901, Osaka, Japan—died March 18/19, 1998, Tokyo, Japan), designed and supervised the construction of the world’s first high-speed train. Shima, the son of a prominent railway engineer, graduated from Tokyo Imperial University in 1925. He joined the t

  • Shimabara (Japan)

    Shimabara, port city, Nagasaki ken (prefecture), Kyushu, Japan, on the eastern coast of the Shimabara Peninsula, some 40 miles (65 km) east of Nagasaki. The city, which was a castle town of the Matsudaira family, contains the ruins of the Moridake Castle. The city is noted as the site of the

  • Shimabara Rebellion (Japanese history)

    Shimabara Rebellion, (1637–38), uprising of Japanese Roman Catholics, the failure of which virtually ended the Christian movement in 17th-century Japan and furthered government determination to isolate Japan from foreign influences. The revolt began as a result of dissatisfaction with the heavy

  • Shimada (Japan)

    Shimada, city, Shizuoka ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies on the lower ōi River, opposite the former city of Hamada; in 2005 Hamada was merged administratively into the city of Shimada. During the Edo (Tokugawa) era (1603–1867) it was an important post town on the Tōkaidō (Eastern Sea

  • Shimada Haruo (Japanese scholar)

    industrial relations: Japan: Shimada Haruo, a leading Japanese industrial relations scholar, has maintained that one cannot comprehend Japanese industrial and organizational practices without recognizing that Japanese managers regard human resources as the most critical asset affecting the performance of their enterprises. Therefore, management in large Japanese companies is…

  • Shimane (prefecture, Japan)

    Shimane, ken (prefecture), southwestern Honshu, Japan, facing the Sea of Japan (East Sea). It includes the Oki Islands. The interior is composed chiefly of a volcanic mountain chain, and the coast is dotted with numerous associated hot springs. In the north, the Shimane Peninsula encloses Lake

  • Shimaoka, Tatsuzo (Japanese potter)

    Tatsuzo Shimaoka, Japanese potter (born Oct. 27, 1919, Tokyo, Japan—died Dec. 11, 2007, Mashiko, Japan), was a master craftsman who was a protégé of Shoji Hamada, a leading proponent of the Mingei philosophy, which held that the quality of a piece of art was interconnected with the spirit with

  • Shimazaki Haruki (Japanese author)

    Shimazaki Tōson, Japanese poet and novelist, whose fiction illuminated the clash of old and new values in a Japan feverishly modernizing itself during the period of the Meiji Restoration (1868–1912). Tōson was educated in Tokyo at Meiji Gakuin, where he was also baptized, although Christianity did

  • Shimazaki Tōson (Japanese author)

    Shimazaki Tōson, Japanese poet and novelist, whose fiction illuminated the clash of old and new values in a Japan feverishly modernizing itself during the period of the Meiji Restoration (1868–1912). Tōson was educated in Tokyo at Meiji Gakuin, where he was also baptized, although Christianity did

  • Shimazu family (Japanese history)

    Shimazu Family, powerful warrior clan that controlled the southern tip of the Japanese island of Kyushu from the 12th to the 19th century. Ensconced in their isolated stronghold on the frontier of Japan, the Shimazu were the only feudal family to play a leading role in Japanese history in both

  • Shimazu Hisamitsu (Japanese feudal lord)

    Shimazu Hisamitsu, noted Japanese lord who in 1867–68 led his clan in the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate, the military dictatorship that had dominated Japan since the early 17th century. He then helped organize the newly restored imperial government. In 1858 Hisamitsu succeeded as daimyo

  • Shimazu Nariakira (Japanese feudal lord)

    Shimazu Nariakira, mid-19th century Japanese daimyo (lord) of the Satsuma han, or feudal fief, whose adoption of Western military techniques and armaments helped make Satsuma one of the strongest fiefs in the country and put the han in a position to play a leading role in the overthrow of the

  • Shimazu Shigehide (Japanese feudal lord)

    Shimazu Shigehide, Japanese lord of the great han, or feudal fief, of Satsuma. Shimazu’s strong leadership and his interest in Western studies put Satsuma in a position to play a leading role in Japanese affairs from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century. Succeeding his father as head of Satsuma in

  • Shimazu Tadahisa (Japanese feudal lord)

    Shimazu Family: …the late 12th century by Shimazu Tadahisa (1179–1227), who adopted the surname of Shimazu after he was appointed governor of the southern portion of Kyushu. The clan prospered by taking advantage of trade with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands. By the 16th century the Shimazu had become the major power…

  • Shimbra Kure, battle of (Ethiopian history)

    Ethiopia: The Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties: …Denegel was defeated at the battle of Shimbra Kure, and the Muslims pushed northward into the central highlands, destroying settlements, churches, and monasteries. In 1541 the Portuguese, whose interests in the Red Sea were imperiled by Muslim power, sent 400 musketeers to train the Ethiopian army in European tactics. Emperor…

  • Shimegi (Anatolian god)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: The sun god Shimegi and the moon god Kushuh, whose consort was Nikkal, the Ningal of the Sumerians, were of lesser rank. More important was the position of the Babylonian god of war and the underworld, Nergal. In northern Syria the god of war Astapi and the goddess…

  • Shimen Reservoir (reservoir, Taiwan)

    T'ao-yüan: The Shih-men (Shimen) Reservoir, on the Tan-shui (Danshui, or Tamsui) River, provides irrigation and hydroelectric power to nearby textile, cement, and small machinery industries. The T’ai-pei (Taibei) oil and gas fields are in the northeast. Coal, iron ore, and nickel are mined.

  • shimenawa (Shintō religious object)

    kamidana: …kamidana may also include a shimenawa, a sacred rope of twisted rice straw traditionally used to demarcate a sacred area. Offerings of water, sake (rice beer), food, and green twigs are placed daily at the front of the shrine, and prayers are offered for blessings on the household. Often Japanese…

  • Shimerda, ántonia (fictional character)

    ántonia Shimerda, fictional character, the protagonist of Willa Cather’s novel My ántonia

  • Shimizu (Japan)

    Shimizu, former city, Shizuoka ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan, situated on the northwest coast of Suruga Bay. In 2005 it was merged administratively into neighbouring Shizuoka city and became a ward of that municipality. During the Edo (Tokugawa) era (1603–1867) Shimizu was a post town on

  • Shimizu Osamu (Japanese composer)

    Japanese music: Composers in Western styles: Shimizu Osamu is perhaps more successful nationalistically in his choral settings of Japanese and Ainu music, in which the style of vocal production and chordal references seems to be a more honest abstraction of Japanese ideals. Mamiya Michio combined traditional timbres with 12-tone compositional technique…

  • Shimizu, Hiroyasu (Japanese speed skater)

    Nagano 1998 Olympic Winter Games: Hiroyasu Shimizu took home the gold medal in the 500-metre speed skating event and the bronze in the 100-metre. Japan’s only female gold medalist was freestyle skier Tae Satoya, who won the moguls competition.

  • Shimjon (Korean painter)

    An Chung-sik, the last gentleman painter of the great Korean Chos?n dynasty (1392–1910). As a promising young painter, An Chung-sik was sent to China for training by the Korean court. Upon his return he became a master of the popular Southern style, with its emphasis on fingertip technique. He was

  • Shimla (India)

    Shimla, city, capital of Himachal Pradesh state, northwestern India. The city lies northeast of Chandigarh on a ridge of the Himalayan foothills, at an elevation of about 7,100 feet (2,200 metres). Shimla was built by the British on land they had retained after the Gurkha War of 1814–16 and was

  • shimmy (card game)

    Chemin de fer, French card game played mainly in European and Latin American casinos. The game is played by up to 12 players, on a kidney-shaped table; the object is to total 9 with a hand of two or three cards. When the cards total a two-digit number, the first digit is ignored, so that 14 would

  • Shimo (island, Tsushima, Japan)

    Tsushima: …two rocky islands, Kami and Shimo, which are separated at one point by a narrow channel. Kami has an area of 98 square miles (255 square km), while Shimo has an area of 174 square miles (450 square km).

  • Shimoda (Japan)

    Shizuoka: The port of Shimoda, on the southeast coast of the peninsula, received the ships of Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States in 1854 and was one of the first Japanese ports to be opened to trade with the United States. Other historic sites in the prefecture…

  • Shimoda v. Japan (law case)

    law of war: Law by custom: …court, in the case of Shimoda v. Japan (1955), dealt with the legality in international law of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  • Shimodate (Japan)

    Shimodate, city, Ibaraki ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, situated on a tributary of the Kokai River. Shimodate was a cotton textile centre during the Tokugawa era (1603–1867). The construction of railways during the Meiji era (1868–1912) connected the city with Mito (east) and Utsunomiya

  • Shimoga (India)

    Shivamogga, city, western Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region on the Tunga River (a headstream of the Tungabhadra). Shivamogga is a road and rail junction, reexporting areca nuts, rice, coffee, and pepper. Industries include rice and oilseed milling and cotton

  • Shimogakari (nō theatrical style)

    Komparu Zempō: …conservative style of performance called shimogakari and had waned in popularity, it revived and once again presented performances at the court in Kyōto.

  • Shimomura Kanzan (Japanese painter)

    Shimomura Kanzan, Japanese artist who contributed to the modernization of traditional Japanese painting. Shimomura went to Tokyo in 1881 to study painting and became a pupil of Kanō Hōgai and Hashimoto Gahō. One of the first students to enter the Tokyo Fine Arts School, founded in 1889, Shimomura

  • Shimomura Seizaburō (Japanese painter)

    Shimomura Kanzan, Japanese artist who contributed to the modernization of traditional Japanese painting. Shimomura went to Tokyo in 1881 to study painting and became a pupil of Kanō Hōgai and Hashimoto Gahō. One of the first students to enter the Tokyo Fine Arts School, founded in 1889, Shimomura

  • Shimomura, Osamu (Japanese-born chemist)

    Osamu Shimomura, Japanese-born chemist who was a corecipient, with Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien, of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1955 Shimomura became a research assistant at Nagoya University, where he earned a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1960. That same year, he traveled to the

  • Shimonoseki (Japan)

    Shimonoseki, city, southwestern Yamaguchi ken (prefecture), far western Honshu, Japan. It occupies a strategic position on the Kanmon (Shimonoseki) Strait between Honshu and Kyushu. Kitakyūshū lies opposite Shimonoseki across the strait. The city, the most populous in the prefecture, was formerly

  • Shimonoseki Incident (Japanese history)

    Takasugi Shinsaku: …Shimonoseki Strait resulted in the Shimonoseki Incident (1864)—the demolition of all Chōshū forts along the strait by warships from Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States. The loyalist faction in Chōshū then chose Takasugi to help construct a new Western-style army.

  • Shimonoseki, Treaty of (1895, China-Japan)

    Treaty of Shimonoseki, (April 17, 1895), agreement that concluded the first Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), which ended in China’s defeat. By the terms of the treaty, China was obliged to recognize the independence of Korea, over which it had traditionally held suzerainty; to cede Taiwan, the

  • Shimotsumichi Makibi (Japanese envoy)

    Kibi Makibi, early envoy to China who did much to introduce Chinese culture to the comparatively primitive Japanese state. In 717, when Chinese culture under the great T’ang dynasty (618–907) was at its height, Kibi traveled there as a student. Upon his return to Japan, he received an audience

  • shimpa (melodrama)

    Japanese performing arts: Meiji period: These shimpa, or “new school,” plays, however, were little more than crude melodramas. Yakko and other actresses performing in shimpa marked the first time women had appeared on the professional stage since Okuni’s time. One shimpa troupe continues to perform today, in a style that retains…

  • Shimpotō Party (political party, Japan)

    Kaishintō, a leading Japanese political party from its founding in 1882 by the democratic leader ōkuma Shigenobu until its merger with several smaller parties in 1896. It generally represented the urban elite of intellectuals, industrialists, and merchants. Its platform, like that of its main

  • Shimshelevich, Isaac (president of Israel)

    Itzhak Ben-Zvi, second president of Israel (1952–63) and an early Zionist leader in Palestine, who helped create the political, economic, and military institutions basic to the formation of the state of Israel. A Zionist from his youth, Ben-Zvi in 1905 helped form the Russian Poale Zion, a

  • Shimshon (biblical figure)

    Samson, legendary Israelite warrior and judge, or divinely inspired leader, renowned for the prodigious strength that he derived from his uncut hair. He is portrayed in the biblical Book of Judges (chapters 13–16). Samson’s incredible exploits, as related in the biblical narrative, hint at the

  • Shimura–Taniyama conjecture (mathematics)

    mathematics: Developments in pure mathematics: Andrew Wiles established the Shimura-Taniyama conjectures in a large range of cases that included Frey’s curve and therefore Fermat’s last theorem—a major feat even without the connection to Fermat. It soon became clear that the argument had a serious flaw; but in May 1995 Wiles, assisted by another English…

  • Shin (Pure Land sect)

    Shin, (Japanese: “True Pure Land sect”), the largest of the popular Japanese Buddhist Pure Land sects. See Pure Land

  • shin (bone)

    Tibia, inner and larger of the two bones of the lower leg in vertebrates—the other is the fibula. In humans the tibia forms the lower half of the knee joint above and the inner protuberance of the ankle below. The upper part consists of two fairly flat-topped prominences, or condyles, that

  • shin (floral art)

    Ikenobō: Ikenobō arrangements are divided into shin (formal), gyō (semi-formal), and so (informal).

  • Shin Bet (Israeli agency)

    intelligence: Israel: Shin Bet, which takes its name from the Hebrew initials for General Security Services, conducts internal counterintelligence focused on potential sabotage, terrorist activities, and security matters of a strongly political nature. Shin Bet is divided into three wings responsible for Arab affairs, non-Arab affairs, and…

  • shin hanga (Japanese print style)

    Japanese art: Wood-block prints: The shin hanga (“new print”) movement sought to revive the classic ukiyo-e prints in a contemporary and highly romanticized mode. Landscapes and women were the primary subjects. Watanabe Shōsaburō was the publisher most active in this movement. His contributing artists included Kawase Hasui, Hashiguchi Goyō, Yoshida…

  • Shin Kabuki (Japanese theatre)

    Okamoto Kidō: …what has been called the New Kabuki (Shin Kabuki). He also wrote more than 100 short stories and several novels, the most popular being Hanshichi torimono-chō, a recounting of cases handled by a detective Hanshichi, of the Tokugawa shogunate.

  • Shin kokin wakashū (Japanese literary anthology)

    Japan: Kamakura culture: the new Buddhism and its influence: …selection of poems entitled the Shin kokin wakashū. The waka of this period is characterized by the term yūgen, which may be described as a mood both profound and mysterious.

  • Shin kokinshū (Japanese literary anthology)

    Japan: Kamakura culture: the new Buddhism and its influence: …selection of poems entitled the Shin kokin wakashū. The waka of this period is characterized by the term yūgen, which may be described as a mood both profound and mysterious.

  • Shin Maha Thila Wuntha (Myanmar monk)

    Southeast Asian arts: The 15th century: …the court of Ava, and Shin Maha Thila Wuntha and Shin Uttamagyaw, both of whom were of village stock and did not go to court but remained on in their village monasteries. Shin Maha Thila Wuntha, in the closing years of his life, turned to prose and wrote a chronicle…

  • Shin Nippon Seitetsu KK (Japanese corporation)

    Nippon Steel Corporation, Japanese corporation created by the 1970 merger of Yawata Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., and Fuji Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. It ranks among the world’s largest steel corporations. Its headquarters are in Tokyo, and it has several offices overseas. In 1896 the Japanese government e

  • Shin Rengō (labour organization, Japan)

    Japanese Trade Union Confederation (Rengō), largest national trade union in Japan. The federation was founded in 1989 and absorbed its predecessors—including the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan (Sōhyō), the Japanese Confederation of Labour (Dōmei), and others—and brought together both

  • Shin Saim-dang (Korean painter)

    Korean art: Painting: Yi Am, Sin Saim-dang, and Yi Ch?ng are the better scholar-painters of the first period. Unlike the professional court painters, who made Chinese landscapes their specialty, these amateur scholar-painters devoted themselves to painting the so-called Four Gentlemen—the pine tree, bamboo, plum tree, and orchid—as well as such…

  • Shin Sang-Ok (South Korean film director)

    Shin Sang Ok, South Korean film director (born Oct. 11, 1926, Chungjin, Korea [now N.Kor.]—died April 11, 2006, Seoul, S.Kor.), was one of the foremost directors in South Korea during the 1950s and ’60s, with such classic melodramas as Sarangbang sonnimgwa eomeoni (1961, My Mother and Her Gu

  • shin splints (medical condition)

    periosteum: …also referred to as “shin splints”), which commonly affects runners.

  • Shina language (Indo-Iranian language)

    Dardic languages: …the Eastern group, which includes Shina and Kashmiri. (Some scholars use the term Dardic to refer only to the Eastern subgroup of languages and use the name Pisaca to refer to the group as a whole.)

  • Shīnā language (Indo-Iranian language)

    Dardic languages: …the Eastern group, which includes Shina and Kashmiri. (Some scholars use the term Dardic to refer only to the Eastern subgroup of languages and use the name Pisaca to refer to the group as a whole.)

  • Shinagawa (street, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area: Street patterns: …most important of these was Shinagawa, to the south, first of the 53 stages on the Tōkaidō (the main coastal road to Kyōto) celebrated in the woodblock prints of Hiroshige and others. It is still situated on the oldest and most important highway to Yokohama and beyond. The old highway…

  • shinai (sword)

    kendo: …century, practice armour and the shinai, a sword made of bamboo, were introduced to allow realistic fencing without risk of injury. The study of what came to be known as kendo was even compulsory in Japanese schools from time to time. An All-Japan Kendo Federation was formed following the end…

  • Shinano River (river, Japan)

    Shinano River, river, the longest in Japan, draining most of Nagano and Niigata prefectures. It rises at the foot of Mount Kobushi, in the Japanese Alps of Honshu, and flows north-northeast for 228 miles (367 km) to enter the Sea of Japan at Niigata. Its upper course is joined by numerous

  • Shinawatra, Thaksin (prime minister of Thailand)

    Thaksin Shinawatra, Thai politician and businessman who served as prime minister of Thailand (2001–06). A descendant of Chinese merchants who settled in the area before World War I, Thaksin originally planned for a career in the police force, although his father was a politician. He graduated from

  • Shinawatra, Yingluck (prime minister of Thailand)

    Yingluck Shinawatra, Thai businesswoman and politician who was prime minister of Thailand from 2011 to 2014. She was the younger sister of former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra and the first woman in the country to hold that office. Yingluck was the youngest of nine children born into a wealthy

  • shinbone (bone)

    Tibia, inner and larger of the two bones of the lower leg in vertebrates—the other is the fibula. In humans the tibia forms the lower half of the knee joint above and the inner protuberance of the ankle below. The upper part consists of two fairly flat-topped prominences, or condyles, that

  • Shinbutsu shūgō (Japanese religion)

    Shinbutsu shūgō, in Japan, amalgamation of Buddhism with the indigenous religion Shintō. The precedents for this amalgamation were laid down almost as soon as Buddhism entered Japan in the mid-6th century, and the process of blending Buddhism with Shintō has dominated the religious life of the

  • shinden (architecture)

    Japan: The establishment of warrior culture: …is built in the Japanese shinden style (a style of mansion construction developed in the Heian period) in its first and second stories, while its upper story is in the kara (“Chinese”) style of the Zen school. Thus Kitayama culture, while absorbing new Zen influences from China, retained much of…

  • Shinden style (Japanese architectural style)

    Shinden-zukuri, Japanese architectural style for mansion-estates constructed in the Heian period (794–1185) and consisting of a shinden, or chief central building, to which subsidiary structures were connected by corridors. The shinden style developed when the Heian court nobility, given

  • shinden-zukuri (Japanese architectural style)

    Shinden-zukuri, Japanese architectural style for mansion-estates constructed in the Heian period (794–1185) and consisting of a shinden, or chief central building, to which subsidiary structures were connected by corridors. The shinden style developed when the Heian court nobility, given

  • Shindo Kaneto (Japanese director)

    Kaneto Shindo, Japanese filmmaker and screenwriter (born April 22, 1912, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan—died May 29, 2012, Tokyo, Japan), over a career of some 70 years (1941–2010), contributed screenplays for more than 150 motion pictures, at least 45 of which he also directed. Shindo worked with

  • Shine (film by Hicks [1996])

    Geoffrey Rush: …David Helfgott in the film Shine (1996), a role for which he won an Academy Award for best actor. Rush then turned in nuanced interpretations of Inspector Javert in Les Misérables (1998) and spy master Sir Francis Walsingham in Elizabeth (1998); he reprised the latter role in the 2007 sequel.…

  • Shine a Light (film by Scorsese [2008])

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 2000s: Gangs of New York, The Aviator, and The Departed: …singer-songwriter, and the concert film Shine a Light (2008) starred the Rolling Stones.

  • Shine on, Harvest Moon (film by Butler [1944])

    David Butler: …Butler ventured into biopics with Shine on, Harvest Moon, which featured Ann Sheridan and Dennis Morgan as vaudeville stars Nora Bayes and Jack Norworth, respectively. The following year he turned to westerns with San Antonio, a solid drama starring Errol Flynn and Alexis Smith. Butler then directed Morgan and Jack…

  • Shinel (short story by Gogol)

    The Overcoat, short story by Nikolay Gogol, published in Russian as “Shinel” in 1842. The Overcoat is perhaps the best-known and most influential short fiction in all of Russian literature. Gogol’s Dead Souls and “The Overcoat” are considered the foundation of 19th-century Russian realism. Gogol’s

  • shiner (fish)

    Shiner, any of several small North American fishes of the minnow (q.v.)

  • Shiner, David (American clown)

    circus: Clowns: Two Americans, Bill Irwin and David Shiner, are perhaps the best-known among New Vaudeville clowns; their talents were featured in the Broadway production Fool Moon (1994). Also among the most renowned of modern clowns is David Larible, who descends from seven generations of Italian circus performers. During the late 20th…

  • Shinezon, Miriam (Israeli judge and government official)

    Miriam Ben-Porat, (Miriam Shinezon), Israeli judge and government official (born April 26, 1918, Vitsyebsk, Vitebsk province, Soviet Russia [now in Belarus]—died July 26, 2012, Jerusalem), was the first female justice (1976–88) on Israel’s Supreme Court and the first woman to be that country’s

  • Shing-bya-can (Buddhist deity)

    Five Great Kings: …rides a white lioness; (4) Shing-bya-can, the “king of virtue,” who resides in the southern quarter, is black and rides a black horse; (5) Dgra-lha skyes-gcig-bu, the “king of speech,” who resides in the western quarter, is red and rides a black mule.

  • Shingaku (religious movement)

    Shingaku, (Japanese: “Heart Learning,” or “Mind Learning”) religious and ethical movement in Japan founded by Ishida Baigan (ad 1685–1744). It pays particular devotion to the Shintō sun goddess Amaterasu and to the uji-gami, or Shintō tutelary deities, but also uses in its popular ethics the

  • Shingei (Japanese artist)

    Shingei, Japanese artist who represents the second generation of an extraordinary family of painters and art connoisseurs and who served the Ashikaga shoguns (a family of military dictators that ruled Japan, 1338–1573). Shingei succeeded his father, Shinnō (Nōami), as curator of the Ashikaga art

  • shingeki (drama movement)

    Tsubouchi Shōyō: …of the founders of the shingeki (“new drama”) movement, which introduced the plays of Henrik Ibsen and George Bernard Shaw to Japan and provided an outlet for modern plays by Japanese authors. In 1915 he retired from Waseda University to devote his time to his translation of Shakespeare.

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