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  • shipping fever (disease)

    Pasteurellosis, any bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella species. The name is sometimes used interchangeably with the so-called shipping fever, a specific type of pasteurellosis (caused by Pasteurella multocida) that commonly attacks cattle under stress, as during shipping. In this type of

  • Shipping News, The (film by Hallstr?m [2001])

    Kevin Spacey: Later credits and House of Cards: …as a newspaper reporter in The Shipping News (2001), a film adaptation of E. Annie Proulx’s award-winning novel. In 2003 Spacey was appointed artistic director of the Old Vic in London. He was the first American to serve as director of that British theatre company, and he also acted in…

  • Shipping News, The (work by Proulx)

    E. Annie Proulx: In The Shipping News (1993; film 2001), the protagonist Quoyle and his family, consisting of two young daughters and his aunt, leave the United States and settle in Newfoundland, Canada, after the accidental death of his unfaithful wife. The Shipping News was awarded both a Pulitzer…

  • shipping route

    Shipping route, any of the lines of travel followed by merchant sea vessels. Early routes usually kept within sight of coastal landmarks, but, as navigators learned to determine latitude from the heavenly bodies, they ventured onto the high seas more freely. When exact positions could be fixed,

  • Shippingport Atomic Power Station (nuclear power station, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States)

    nuclear reactor: From production reactors to commercial power reactors: …build a civilian prototype at Shippingport, Pennsylvania. This reactor, the largest of the power-reactor prototypes, went online in 1957; it is often hailed as the first commercial-scale reactor in the United States.

  • Shiprock (New Mexico, United States)

    Shiprock, town, San Juan county, northwestern New Mexico, U.S. Lying on the vast Navajo reservation, the town, originally called Needles, was founded in 1903 as a centre of tribal government. It served as such until 1938, when the Navajo nation established its capital at Window Rock, Arizona. The

  • shipworm (mollusk)

    Shipworm, any of the approximately 65 species of marine bivalve mollusks of the family Teredidae (Teredinidae). Shipworms are common in most oceans and seas and are important because of the destruction they cause in wooden ship hulls, wharves, and other submerged wooden structures. Only a small

  • shipwreck

    maritime law: Historical development: …case of plunder following a shipwreck: “I am indeed lord of the world, but the Law is the lord of the sea. This matter must be decided by the maritime law of the Rhodians, provided that no law of ours is opposed to it.” The second is a statement of…

  • Shipwreck (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: The SS-N-19 Shipwreck, a small, vertically launched, flip-out wing supersonic missile with a range of about 390 miles, appeared in the 1980s.

  • Shipwrecked Sailor, The (Egyptian tale)

    short story: From Egypt to India: …earliest surviving Egyptian tales, “The Shipwrecked Sailor” (c. 2000 bce), is clearly intended to be a consoling and inspiring story to reassure its aristocratic audience that apparent misfortune can in the end become good fortune. Also recorded during the 12th dynasty were the success story of the exile Sinuhe…

  • shipyard

    Shipyard, shore establishment for building and repairing ships. The shipbuilding facilities of the ancient and medieval worlds reached a culmination in the arsenal of Venice, a shipyard in which a high degree of organization produced an assembly-line technique, with a ship’s fittings added to the

  • Shipyard, The (work by Onetti)

    Juan Carlos Onetti: …major novel, El astillero (1961; The Shipyard), an antihero named Larsen returns to Santa María to try to revive a useless and abandoned shipyard, ending his life in futility and unheroic defeat. The book has been viewed as an ironic allegory reflecting the decay and breakdown of Uruguayan society. The…

  • Shiqāyā peak, Al- (Kuwait)

    Kuwait: Relief: …metres) above sea level at Al-Shiqāyā peak, in the western corner of the country. The Al-Zawr Escarpment, one of the main topographic features, borders the northwestern shore of Kuwait Bay and rises to a maximum elevation of 475 feet (145 metres). Elsewhere in coastal areas, large patches of salty marshland…

  • Shiqi (China)

    Zhongshan, city in southern Guangdong sheng (province), southern China. Located in the south-central part of the Pearl (Zhu) River Delta, Zhongshan has a network of waterways connecting it with all parts of the delta and is on an express highway running north to Guangzhou (Canton) and south to

  • Shiquan He (river, Asia)

    Indus River, great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km). Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles (1,165,000 square km), of which 175,000 square miles (453,000 square km) lie in the ranges and

  • Shir ?ion (work by Sulzer)

    Salomon Sulzer: An important publication was Shir ?ion (1840–66; “Song of Zion”), a comprehensive collection of music for the Sabbath, festivals, and holy days, for cantor, choir, and congregational responses with optional organ accompaniment. The musical style was a compromise between traditional chant (for the cantor) and Protestant-like settings for choir;…

  • Shīr ?Alī Khān (emir of Afghanistan)

    Shīr ?Alī Khān, emir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1879 who tried with only limited success to maintain his nation’s equilibrium in the great power struggles between Russia in the north and British India in the south. The third son of Dōst Mo?ammad Khān, Shīr ?Alī succeeded to the throne upon his

  • Shira (volcano, Tanzania)

    Kilimanjaro: Shira ridge (13,000 feet [3,962 metres]) is a remnant of an earlier crater. Below the saddle, Kilimanjaro slopes in a typical volcanic curve to the plains below, which lie at an elevation of about 3,300 feet (1,000 metres). The breathtaking snow-clad dome of Kibo contains…

  • shirabyōshi (dancer-musicians)

    Japanese music: Shintō music: In later times the Heian-originated shirabyōshi female dancer-musicians became important elements in the transfer of courtly and religious traditions into later theatrical forms. Although the influence of Shintō music in the Japanese music traditions is evident, the major source of religious musical influence is found elsewhere, in the Buddhist temples.

  • Shirak Steppe (region, Armenia)

    Armenia: Settlement patterns: The other regions are the Shirak Steppe, the elevated northwestern plateau zone that is Armenia’s granary; Gugark, high plateaus, ranges, and deep valleys of the northeast, covered with forests, farmlands, and alpine pastures; the Sevan Basin, the hollow containing Lake Sevan, on the shores of which are farmlands, villages, and…

  • Shirakaba (Japanese literary journal)

    Shirakaba, (Japanese: “White Birch”) humanistic literary journal (1910–23) founded by a loose association of writers, art critics, artists, and others—among them Shiga Naoya, Arishima Takeo, and Mushanokōji Saneatsu—who together had attended the elite Peers’ School (Gakushūin) in Tokyo. The members

  • Shirakawa (emperor of Japan)

    Shirakawa, 72nd emperor of Japan who abdicated the throne and then established a cloister government (insei) through which he could maintain his power unburdened by the exacting ceremonial and family duty required of the legitimate Japanese sovereign. He thus established a precedent that allowed t

  • Shirakawa Hideki (Japanese chemist)

    Shirakawa Hideki, Japanese chemist who, with Alan G. MacDiarmid and Alan J. Heeger, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2000 for their discovery that certain plastics can be chemically altered to conduct electricity almost as readily as metals. Shirakawa earned a Ph.D. from the Tokyo Institute of

  • Shirakawa Masaaki (Japanese banker and economist)

    Shirakawa Masaaki, Japanese banker and economist who served (2008–13) as governor of the Bank of Japan (BOJ), the country’s central bank. Shirakawa joined the BOJ in 1972 after graduating with a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Tokyo. He later studied in the United States at

  • Shirakawa Tennō (emperor of Japan)

    Shirakawa, 72nd emperor of Japan who abdicated the throne and then established a cloister government (insei) through which he could maintain his power unburdened by the exacting ceremonial and family duty required of the legitimate Japanese sovereign. He thus established a precedent that allowed t

  • Shirakawa, Go- (emperor of Japan)

    Go-Shirakawa, 77th emperor of Japan, during whose reign political power was transferred from the imperial court to the provincial warrior class. He ascended the throne in 1155, taking the reign name Go-Shirakawa, after the death of his brother, the emperor Konoe. When his father, the former emperor

  • Shirakskaya Step (region, Armenia)

    Armenia: Settlement patterns: The other regions are the Shirak Steppe, the elevated northwestern plateau zone that is Armenia’s granary; Gugark, high plateaus, ranges, and deep valleys of the northeast, covered with forests, farmlands, and alpine pastures; the Sevan Basin, the hollow containing Lake Sevan, on the shores of which are farmlands, villages, and…

  • Shirane, Mount (mountain, Japan)

    Japanese Alps: …the Akaishi Range and contains Mount Shirane (10,472 feet [3,192 m]).

  • Shiras moose (mammal)

    moose: …Minnesota, and northern Michigan; the Shiras moose (A. alces shirasi), which inhabits the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada; and the Alaskan moose (A. alces gigas), which inhabits Alaska and northwestern Canada. Although not widely accepted, some classifications also recognize several Eurasian subspecies, including the European moose (A.…

  • Shiras, George, Jr. (United States jurist)

    George Shiras, Jr., associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1892–1903). Shiras was admitted to the bar in 1855, and in 25 years of practice he built up a wide reputation in corporation law. In 1892 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by Pres. Benjamin Harrison. An able justice,

  • Shirasagi Castle (castle, Himeji, Japan)

    Himeji: …town around the white five-storied Himeji, or Shirasagi (“Egret”), Castle, built in the 14th century and reconstructed in 1577 and 1964. Another major restoration project on the castle began in 2009. The castle was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1993. A large part of the city (including the…

  • Shirat Yisra?el (work by ibn Ezra)

    Moses ibn Ezra: …treatise on the poetic art, Kitāb al-mu?ā?arah wa al-mudhākarah (“Conversations and Recollections”; translated into Hebrew as Shirat Yisra?el, or “Song of Israel,” in 1924 by B. Halper). Dealing with Arabic, Castilian, and Jewish poetry, the work is an important Spanish literary history.

  • Shīrāz (Iran)

    Shīrāz, city, capital of Fārs ostān (province), southwestern Iran. It is located in central Fārs in the southern part of the Zagros Mountains, on an agricultural lowland at an elevation of 4,875 feet (1,486 metres). Famous for its wine, it is both a historic site and an attractive modern city, with

  • Shīrāz rug

    Shīrāz rug, handwoven floor covering made in the district around the city of Shīrāz in southern Iran. The best known are the Qashqā?ī rugs, products of nomadic peoples. A group of tribes—some Arab, some Turkish, forming the Khamseh Confederation—weaves rugs somewhat similar to the Qashqā?ī pieces

  • Shīrāz school (Persian painting)

    Shīrāz school, in Persian miniature painting, styles of a group of artists centered at Shīrāz, in southwestern Iran near the ancient city of Persepolis. The school, founded by the Mongol Il-Khans (1256–1353) in mid-14th century, was active through the beginning of the 16th century. It developed

  • Shirazi (people)

    eastern Africa: The Shirazi migration: For much of the 13th century the most important coastal town was Mogadishu, a mercantile city on the Somalian coast to which new migrants came from the Persian Gulf and southern Arabia. Of these, the most important were called Shirazi, who, in the…

  • Shīrāzī, Qu?b ad-Dīn ash- (Persian scholar)

    astronomy: The Islamic world: Al-?ūsī’s student al-Shīrāzī went farther, using a minor epicycle to eliminate the need for an equant point. In the 14th century Ibn al-Shā?ir of Damascus built on the works of the Marāgheh school in his Nihāyat al-su?l fi ta??ī? al-u?ūl (“Final Inquiry Concerning the Rectification of Planetary…

  • Shirdi Sai Baba (spiritual leader)

    Shirdi Sai Baba, spiritual leader dear to Hindu and Muslim devotees throughout India and in diaspora communities as far flung as the United States and the Caribbean. The name Sai Baba comes from sai, a Persian word used by Muslims to denote a holy person, and baba, Hindi for father. Sai Baba’s

  • Shire (breed of horse)

    Shire, draft horse breed native to the middle section of England. The breed descended from the English “great horse,” which carried men in full battle armour that often weighed as much as 400 pounds. Shires were improved as draft and farm animals in the latter part of the 18th century by breeding

  • shire (British government unit)

    Shire, in Great Britain, a county. The Anglo-Saxon shire (Old English scir) was an administrative division next above the hundred and seems to have existed in the south in the time of Alfred the Great (871–899) and to have been fully established by the reign of Edgar (959–975). It was administered

  • shire court (medieval court)

    United Kingdom: Government and justice: In local government the Anglo-Saxon shire and hundred courts continued to function as units of administration and justice, but with important changes. Bishops and earls ceased to preside over the shire courts. Bishops now had their own ecclesiastical courts, while earls had their feudal courts. But although earls no longer…

  • Shire Highlands (plateau, Mala?i)

    Shire Highlands, plateau in southern Mala?i, with an area of about 2,800 square miles (7,300 square km). Roughly diamond-shaped, it is bounded by the Shire River valley (northwest and southwest), the Ruo River valley (southeast), and the Lake Chilwa-Phalombe Plain (northeast). Its average

  • Shire River (river, Africa)

    Shire River, most important river in Mala?i. The Shire River is 250 miles (402 km) long and issues from the southern shore of Lake Nyasa (Lake Mala?i), of which it is the only outlet. It enters Lake Malombe (q.v.) 5 miles (8 km) south of Mangochi and exits to flow through swampy banks flanked by

  • Shire, David (American composer)
  • shire-reeve (law)

    Sheriff, a senior executive officer in an English county or smaller area who performs a variety of administrative and judicial functions. Officers of this name also exist in Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United States. In England the office of sheriff existed before the Norman C

  • Shirelles, the (American music group)

    The Shirelles, American vocal group popular in the late 1950s and early ’60s, one of the first and most successful so-called “girl groups.” The original members were Addie (“Micki”) Harris (b. January 22, 1940, Passaic, New Jersey, U.S.—d. June 10, 1982, Los Angeles, California), Doris Coley (b.

  • Shirer, William L. (American author)

    William L. Shirer, American journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his massive study The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (1960). In the 1920s and ’30s Shirer was stationed in Europe and in India as a foreign correspondent for the Chicago Tribune and the

  • Shirer, William Lawrence (American author)

    William L. Shirer, American journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his massive study The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (1960). In the 1920s and ’30s Shirer was stationed in Europe and in India as a foreign correspondent for the Chicago Tribune and the

  • Shirianá (people)

    South American forest Indian: Economic systems: The same holds for the Shirianá and Waica of the Orinoco–Amazon headwaters.

  • shirk (Islam)

    Shirk, (Arabic: “making a partner [of someone]”), in Islam, idolatry, polytheism, and the association of God with other deities. The Qur?ān (Islamic scripture) stresses in many verses that God does not share his powers with any partner (sharīk). It warns those who believe their idols will intercede

  • Shīrkūh, Asad al-Din (Arabian military officer)

    Saladin: …the staff of his uncle Asad al-Dīn Shīrkūh, an important military commander under the emir Nūr al-Dīn, who was the son and successor of Zangī. During three military expeditions led by Shīrkūh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin Christian (Frankish) rulers of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem,…

  • Shirley Temple (doll)

    Shirley Temple: …in the creation of a doll made in her likeness and a nonalcoholic beverage named for her.

  • Shirley, Anne (fictional character)

    Anne Shirley, fictional character, the heroine of Anne of Green Gables (1908) and several subsequent novels for children by Lucy Maud Montgomery. Anne, a red-haired Canadian orphan, is an imaginative, high-spirited girl who speaks her mind. She wants, above all, to find a home with people who will

  • Shirley, James (English playwright)

    James Shirley, English poet and dramatist, one of the leading playwrights in the decade before the closing of the theatres by Parliament in 1642. Shirley was educated at the University of Cambridge and after his ordination became master of the St. Albans Grammar School. About 1624 he moved to

  • Shirley, Myra Belle (American outlaw)

    Belle Starr, American outlaw of Texas and the Oklahoma Indian Territory. Myra Belle Shirley grew up in Carthage, Missouri, from the age of two. After the death of an elder brother, who early in the Civil War had become a bushwhacker and had perhaps ridden with guerrilla leader William C.

  • Shirley, Selina (British religious leader)

    Selina Hastings, countess of Huntingdon, central figure in the evangelical revival in 18th-century England, who founded the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion, a sect of Calvinistic Methodists. The daughter of Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers, Selina in 1728 married Theophilus Hastings, 9th

  • Shirley, William (British colonial governor)

    William Shirley, colonial governor of Massachusetts who played an important role in Britain’s struggle against France for control of North America. In 1731, after 11 years of law practice in England, Shirley migrated to Boston. He was appointed admiralty judge in 1733 and the king’s advocate

  • Shirley-Quirk, John Stanton (British singer)

    John Stanton Shirley-Quirk, British bass-baritone opera singer (born Aug. 28, 1931, Liverpool, Eng.—died April 7, 2014, Bath, Eng.), was most closely associated with a series of roles created for him by composer Benjamin Britten, notably the Ferryman in Curlew River (1964), Ananias in The Burning

  • Shirley-Smith, Sir Hubert (British civil engineer)

    Sir Hubert Shirley-Smith, British civil engineer who designed steel bridges in many parts of the world and was a noted writer on engineering topics. One year after he graduated from the City and Guilds of London Institute (1922), Shirley-Smith joined the engineering firm of Sir Douglas Fox and

  • Shirley: A Tale (work by Bront?)

    Charlotte Bront?: Jane Eyre and other novels: In her novel Shirley. Charlotte avoided melodrama and coincidences and widened her scope. Setting aside Maria Edgeworth and Sir Walter Scott as national novelists, Shirley is the first regional novel in English, full of shrewdly depicted local material—Yorkshire characters, church and chapel, the cloth workers and machine breakers…

  • Shirodkar, Bhanumati (Indian singer)

    Shobha Gurtu, renowned singer of Indian classical music. Known for her rich earthy voice, distinctive vocal style, and mastery of various song genres, she was considered the “queen of thumri,” a light classical Hindustani style. Her mother, Menakabai Shirodkar, who was a professional dancer and a

  • Shiromani Akali Dal (political party, India)

    Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), regional political party in Punjab state, northwestern India. It is the principal advocacy organization of the large Sikh community in the state and is centred on the philosophy of promoting the well-being of the country’s Sikh population by providing them with a

  • Shiromanī Gurdwārā Praba?dhak Committee (Sikh organization)

    gurdwara: …elected body known as the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Supreme Committee of Temple Management).

  • Shiroro Dam (dam, Nigeria)

    Abuja: …electricity to the city; the Shiroro Dam, on the Niger River southwest of Abuja, is one source. Pop. (2006) Abuja Municipal Area Council, 776,298; (2016 est.) urban agglom., 2,940,000.

  • Shirreff, Emily Anne Eliza (English educational pioneer)

    Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff, English pioneer in the cause of better education for women. She was from 1870 a member of the executive committee of Girton College, Cambridge (founded for women in 1869), and in 1871 with her sister Maria founded a union out of which grew (1872) the Girls’ Public Day

  • shirt (clothing)

    Shirt, any of a variety of garments having sleeves and worn on the upper part of the body, often under a coat, jacket, or other garment. Shirts were worn as early as the 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt (c. 1539–1292 bce); they were made of a rectangular piece of linen, folded and sewn up the sides,

  • Shirukdukh (king of Elam)

    ancient Iran: The Old Elamite period: …third king of this line, Shirukdukh, was active in various military coalitions against the rising power of Babylon, but Hammurabi was not to be denied, and Elam was crushed in 1764 bc. The Old Babylon kingdom, however, fell into rapid decline following the death of Hammurabi, and it was not…

  • Shirvan Plain (plain, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Economic regions: …Azerbaijan, is centred on the Shirvan Plain. The Ming??evir hydroelectric station is located there. The area also has a well-developed network of roads. Industry is generally engaged in the processing of such agricultural products as cotton, grapes, and fruit. The most important vineyards lie in the vicinity of ?amax?, a…

  • Shirvan rug

    Shirvan rug, floor covering handmade in the Shirvan region of Azerbaijan in the southeastern Caucasus. With the exception of a group of rugs woven in the vicinity of Baku, most Shirvans are found in small sizes, with examples from the southern part of the area around the town of Saliani more likely

  • Shirvani, Abul Hasan (Azerbaijani author)

    Azerbaijan: Cultural life: …on mathematics and philosophy, and Abul Hasan Shirvani (11th–12th centuries), the author of Astronomy, may be noted. The poet and philosopher N?zāmī, called Ganjavī after his place of birth, Ganja, was the author of Khamseh (“The Quintuplet”), composed of five romantic poems, including “The Treasure of Mysteries,” “Khosrow and Shīrīn,”…

  • Shirwa, Lake (lake, Malawi)

    Lake Chilwa, lake in southeastern Malawi. It lies in a depression between the Shire Highlands (west) and the Mozambique border (east) that extends north-northeast from the foot of the Mulanje Mountains through Lake Chiuta to the Lugenda valley in Mozambique. The Chilwa basin-plain is broken by a

  • Shisa (guardian diety)

    Shintō: Shintō religious arts: …of sacred stone animals called komainu (“Korean dogs”) or karajishi (“Chinese lions”) are placed in front of a shrine. Originally they served to protect the sacred buildings from evil and defilements. After the 9th century they were used for ornamental purposes on ceremonial occasions at the Imperial Court and later…

  • Shisan Yanmen (Chinese politics)

    Kangxi: Early life: …was to replace the so-called Thirteen Offices (Shisan Yanmen) with a Neiwufu (Dorgi Yamun), or Office of Household. The Thirteen Offices, all organized solely by Chinese eunuchs, had been the abomination of the Manchus ever since they had been introduced by the late emperor, to handle affairs of the imperial…

  • shish kebab (food)

    Shish kebab, dish of small pieces of lamb threaded on a skewer and cooked over an open fire. The name of the dish is derived from the Turkish ?i?, a spit or skewer, and kebab, mutton or lamb. Variants of this dish are found throughout the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. In Greece it is

  • Shisha Pangma (mountain, China)

    Xixabangma, one of the world’s highest mountains, reaching an elevation of 26,286 feet (8,012 metres) above sea level. It rises in the Himalayas in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwestern China, near the Nepal border. The Trisuli River cuts a gorge to the west of the

  • Shishak (king of Egypt)

    Sheshonk I, first king (reigned 945–924 bce) of the 22nd dynasty of ancient Egypt (see ancient Egypt: the 22nd and 23rd dynasties). Sheshonk came from a line of princes or sheikhs of Libyan tribal descent whose title was “great chief of the Meshwesh” and who appear to have settled in Bubastis in

  • Shishakli, Adib al- (Syrian military officer)

    Adib al-Shishakli, Syrian army officer who overthrew the Syrian government in December 1949 and dominated Syrian politics until his own overthrow in 1954. Shishakli was a Syrian nationalist who after World War II opposed movements toward the political union of Syria and Iraq. When unification

  • Shishaldin Volcano (mountain, Alaska, United States)

    Alaska: Relief: …such glacier-covered peaks as symmetrical Shishaldin Volcano (9,372 feet [2,857 metres]) on Unimak can be seen. Usually, however, the weather is wet and stormy, the winds horizontal and cutting, and the fog all-pervading.

  • Shishan (people)

    Chechnya: People: …main ethnic group is the Chechens, with minorities of Russians and Ingush. The Chechens and the Ingush are both Muslim and are two of the many Caucasian mountain peoples whose language belongs to the Nakh group. Fiercely independent, the Chechens and other Caucasian tribes mounted a prolonged resistance to Russian…

  • Shishi (Chinese art)

    Lion of Fo, in Chinese art, stylized figure of a snarling lion. Its original significance was as a guardian presence in a Buddhist temple. Lions of Fo are often created in pairs, with the male playing with a ball and the female with a cub. They occur in many types of Chinese pottery and in Western

  • shishi mai (Shintō)

    Japanese music: Biwa, vocal, and folk music: Lion dance (shishi mai) ensembles often use a trio consisting of a bamboo flutist, a gong player, and a drummer who plays a taiko and a small odeko barrel drum. Cymbals (chappa) and samisen may appear in other folk pantomimes or dances. The most common…

  • Shishkin, Ivan Ivanovich (Russian painter)

    Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin, one of the most popular landscape painters of Russia. His paintings of wooded landscapes led his contemporaries to call him “tsar of the woods.” Shishkin was the son of a merchant. He studied art with a characteristic thoroughness, first at the School of Painting,

  • Shishkov, Aleksandr Semyonovich (Russian statesman)

    Aleksandr Semyonovich Shishkov, Russian writer and statesman whose intense nationalistic and religious sentiments made him a precursor of the Slavophile movement in Russia of the 1830s and 1840s. A naval officer by training, Shishkov rose to the rank of vice admiral before retiring in disagreement

  • Shishman dynasty (Bulgarian history)

    Bulgaria: The second Bulgarian empire: …in 1330 when Tsar Mikhail Shishman was defeated and slain by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbuzhd (modern Kyustendil). Bulgaria lost its Macedonian lands to the Serbian empire of Stefan Du?an, which then became the dominant Balkan power for the next four decades. Bulgaria appeared to be on the…

  • Shishman, Ivan (tsar of Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Ottoman rule: Although Ivan Shishman, Bulgaria’s last medieval tsar, declared himself a vassal of Murad in 1371, the Ottomans continued to seek complete domination. Sofia, in the west, was seized in 1382, and Shumen, in the east, fell in 1388. A year later the defeat of the Serbs…

  • Shishman, Mikhail (tsar of Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: The second Bulgarian empire: …nadir in 1330 when Tsar Mikhail Shishman was defeated and slain by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbuzhd (modern Kyustendil). Bulgaria lost its Macedonian lands to the Serbian empire of Stefan Du?an, which then became the dominant Balkan power for the next four decades. Bulgaria appeared to be on…

  • Shishuo xinyu (work compiled by Liu Yiqing)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …5th-century collection of anecdotes titled Shishuo xinyu (“A New Account of Tales of the World”) by Liu Yiqing. Though prose writers as a whole continued to be most concerned with lyrical expression and rhetorical devices for artistic effect, there were notable deviations from the prevailing usage in the polyphonic pianwen…

  • Shishupalavadha (work by Magha)

    Magha: …whose only recorded work is Shishupalavadha (“The Slaying of King Shishupala”), an influential mahakavya (“great poem”), a type of classical epic that consists of a variable number of comparatively short cantos. Magha is a master of technique in the strict Sanskrit sense of luscious descriptions; intricate syntax; compounds that, depending…

  • Shisui (Japanese artist)

    Ogata Kenzan, Japanese potter and painter, brother to the artist Ogata Kōrin. He signed himself Kenzan, Shisui, Tōin, Shōkosai, Shuseidō, or Shinshō. Kenzan received a classical Chinese and Japanese education and pursued Zen Buddhism. At the age of 27 he began studying with the potter Ninsei and in

  • Shisunaga (Shaishunaga ruler)

    Shaishunaga dynasty: Shisunaga, or Susunaga, the founder, was of obscure origin and may have initially served as Magadhan viceroy at Kashi (Varanasi). Gradually he came to be associated with the early Magadhan capital Girivraja, or Rajgir, and reestablished the city of Vaishali in north Bihar. Shishunaga’s reign, like that…

  • shitagasane (Japanese dress)

    sokutai: …hō is the white damask shitagasane, which has a back panel forming a 12-foot (3.7-metre) train. The cap-shaped headdress (kammuri), of black lacquered silk, has an upright pennon decorated with the imperial chrysanthemum crest. When wearing the sokutai, the emperor carries an ivory tablet (shaku), undoubtedly inspired by jade tablets…

  • Shitala (Indian goddess)

    Shitala, (Hindi: “She Who Is Cool”) Indian goddess of smallpox and of other infectious diseases. She is worshipped under this name throughout the regions of South Asia in which Indo-Aryan languages are spoken. In India she is widely worshipped in the rural areas of West Bengal state. In much of

  • Shitao (Chinese painter)

    Shitao, Chinese painter and theoretician who was, with Zhu Da, one of the most famous of the Individualist painters in the early Qing period. Like Zhu, Shitao was of the formerly imperial Ming line and became a Buddhist monk; but unlike Zhu he seems to have led a life typical of his class and

  • shite (Japanese theatre)

    Japanese performing arts: 7th to 16th centuries: …not by the chief (shite) or supporting (waki) actors of Noh but by kyōgen actors, who also acted the roles of villagers or fishermen in Noh plays. The antecedents of kyōgen cannot be described with certainty, but it is probable that kyōgen’s short sketches of master-servant quarrels, husband-wife arguments,…

  • shitei toshi (Japanese government)

    Japan: Local government: …be given the status of shitei toshi (designated city). Designated cities are divided into ku (wards), each of which has a chief and an assembly, the former being nominated by the mayor and the latter elected by the residents. The number of these cities has steadily increased since the first…

  • Shitian (Chinese painter)

    Shen Zhou, Chinese artist who was a leading member of a group of scholar-artists later known as the Wu school (after Wu district). Shen was born to an honoured and secure family and enjoyed a long life involved in the learned arts of poetry, painting, and calligraphy. His many paintings reveal an

  • Shitong (work by Liu Zhiji)

    historiography: China: …Zhiji (661–721) had produced the Shitong (“Historical Perspectives”), the first comprehensive work on historical criticism in any language. For him, the writing of history had an exalted—and very Confucian—mission:

  • shittamwood (plant)

    Sideroxylon: lanuginosa, variously known as chittamwood, shittamwood, gum elastic, and false buckthorn, is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. It grows to about 15 metres (50 feet) tall. The leaves are 3.75–10 cm (1.5–4 inches) long, are dark lustrous green above and rusty beneath, and persist until late in the fall.…

  • Shittim (religion)

    covenant: Post-Sinai covenants: …held a covenant ceremony at Shittim (northeast of the Dead Sea), which has been greatly elaborated upon in tradition as the “second giving of the Law,” Deuteronomy. Though it is true that the Book of Deuteronomy from the 7th century bce exhibits the same basic structure as that of the…

  • Shiu-Lan Jin, Deborah (American atomic physicist)

    Deborah Jin, (Deborah Shiu-Lan Jin), American atomic physicist (born Nov. 15, 1968, Stanford, Calif.—died Sept. 15, 2016, Boulder, Colo.), did groundbreaking work in the study of gases of strongly interacting atoms at temperatures near absolute zero (?273.15 °C, or ?459.67 °F). In 2003 Jin created

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