You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Shiur qoma (Hebrew literature)

    Judaism: Early stages to the 6th century ce: …consisting of inordinate hyperboles (Shi?ur qoma, “Divine Dimensions”). A few documents have been preserved that attest to the initiation of carefully chosen persons who were made to undergo tests and ordeals in accordance with psychosomatic criteria borrowed from physiognomy (the art of determining character from physical, especially facial, traits).…

  • Shiv Sena (Indian political party)

    Bal Thackeray: …and politician, founder of the Shiv Sena (“Army of Shiva”) political party, and advocate of a strong pro-Hindu policy in India. Under his leadership the Shiv Sena became a dominant political force in the western Indian state of Maharashtra.

  • Shiva (Hindu deity)

    Shiva, (Sanskrit: “Auspicious One”) one of the main deities of Hinduism, whom Shaivites worship as the supreme god. Among his common epithets are Shambhu (“Benign”), Shankara (“Beneficent”), Mahesha (“Great Lord”), and Mahadeva (“Great God”). Shiva is represented in a variety of forms: in a pacific

  • Shiva Dayal Saheb (Hindu leader)

    Shiva Dayal Saheb, founder of the esoteric Hindu and Sikh sect Radha Soami Satsang. He was born into a devout Vaishnava family and established himself as a banker in Agra. In 1861 he revealed himself as the sant satguru (true teacher of spirituality) and began instructing a group of followers. He

  • Shiva, Ghobad (Iranian graphic designer)

    graphic design: Graphic design in developing nations: …20th century, Iranian graphic designer Ghobad Shiva evoked the colour palette, traditional Arabic calligraphy, and page layouts of ancient Persian manuscripts in his graphic work, which ranged from packaging to advertising and editorial design to stage sets. His poster (1984) celebrating the 800th anniversary of the birth of the renowned…

  • Shiva, Vandana (Indian scientist and activist)

    Vandana Shiva, Indian physicist and social activist. Shiva founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Natural Resource Policy (RFSTN), an organization devoted to developing sustainable methods of agriculture, in 1982. Shiva, the daughter of a forestry official and a farmer, grew

  • Shiva-Buddha (Indonesian religion)

    Indonesia: The empire of Kertanagara: …supporters revered him as a Shiva-Buddha. They believed that he had tapped within himself demonic forces that enabled him to destroy the demons that sought to divide Java. The 14th-century poet Prapancha, author of the Nagarakertagama and a worshipper of Kertanagara, on one occasion referred to the king as the…

  • Shiva-sutra (Indian philosophical text)

    Kashmiri Shaivism: …of the school are the Shiva-sutra, said to have been revealed to Vasugupta; Vasugupta’s Spanda-karika (“Verses on Activity”), 8th–9th century; Utpala’s Pratyabhijna-shastra (“Manual on Recognition”), c. 900; Abhinavagupta’s Paramarthasara (“The Essence of the Highest Truth”), Pratyabhijna-vimarshini (“Reflections on Recognition”), and Tantraloka (“Lights on the Doctrine”), 10th century; and Kshemaraja’s

  • Shivacharya (Indian author)

    Indian philosophy: Shaiva-siddhanta: …Shiva”) by Meykantatevar (13th century), Shivacharya’s Shiva-jnana-siddhiyar (“Attainment of the Knowledge of Shiva”), Umapati’s Shivaprakasham (“Lights on Shiva”) in the 14th century, Shrikantha’s commentary on the Vedanta-sutras (14th century), and Appaya Dikshita’s commentary thereon.

  • shivah (Judaism)

    Shivah, (Hebrew: “seven”), in Judaism, period of seven days of prescribed mourning that begins immediately after the burial of a parent, a spouse, a child, a brother, or a sister and concludes with sundown on the seventh day. Shivah is not observed on the intervening Sabbath and terminates if a

  • Shivaji (Indian king)

    Shivaji, founder of the Maratha kingdom of India. The kingdom’s security was based on religious toleration and on the functional integration of the Brahmans, Marathas, and Prabhus. Shivaji was descended from a line of prominent nobles. India at that time was under Muslim rule: the Mughals in the

  • Shivamogga (India)

    Shivamogga, city, western Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region on the Tunga River (a headstream of the Tungabhadra). Shivamogga is a road and rail junction, reexporting areca nuts, rice, coffee, and pepper. Industries include rice and oilseed milling and cotton

  • Shivaratri (Hindu festival)

    Kathmandu: …Kathmandu include, in spring, the Shivaratri and the Machendra Jatra with its procession bearing the image of the god Machendra; in late summer, the Gai Jatra (festival of the cow); and, in early autumn, the Indra Jatra, during which the goddess Devi, represented by a young girl, is carried in…

  • Shiva? ?Asar be-Tammuz (Judaism)

    Fast of Tammuz, a minor Jewish observance (on Tammuz 17) that inaugurates three weeks of mourning (see Three Weeks) that culminate in the 24-hour fast of Tisha be-Av. Though probably an adaptation of some pagan festival, the Jewish people have associated the fast with several unhappy historical

  • Shivdayal (Hindu leader)

    Shiva Dayal Saheb, founder of the esoteric Hindu and Sikh sect Radha Soami Satsang. He was born into a devout Vaishnava family and established himself as a banker in Agra. In 1861 he revealed himself as the sant satguru (true teacher of spirituality) and began instructing a group of followers. He

  • shivering (biological function)

    human disease: Thermoregulation: …as the muscular contractions of shivering—again mediated by the thermostatic control centre in the hypothalamus.

  • Shivers (film by Cronenberg [1975])

    David Cronenberg: Early life and career: …directed his first commercial film, Shivers (1975; also released as They Came from Within), a low-budget horror picture about an artificially engineered parasite that transforms the well-to-do residents of an apartment complex into lustful maniacs. While the lurid nature of the film was interpreted by some viewers as a mere…

  • shivery grass (plant)

    quaking grass: …and little quaking grass, or shivery grass (B. minor).

  • Shivhe R. Hayyim Vital (work by Samuel ben Hayyim Vital)

    ?ayyim ben Joseph Vital: …visions posthumously under the title Shiv?e R. ?ayyim Vital.

  • Shivpuri (India)

    Shivpuri, city, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated on an elevated watershed from which streams radiate in all directions, about 55 miles (90 km) southwest of Gwalior. Shivpuri formerly served as a summer capital of Gwalior princely state. In 1804 it was captured from the

  • Shivpuri National Park (national park, India)

    Madhav National Park, natural area in northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is located about 70 miles (110 km) south of Gwalior on the main road between Mumbai (Bombay) and Agra, just northeast of the city of Shivpuri. The park was established as Madhya Bharat National Park in 1955 and

  • shiv?a (Judaism)

    Shivah, (Hebrew: “seven”), in Judaism, period of seven days of prescribed mourning that begins immediately after the burial of a parent, a spouse, a child, a brother, or a sister and concludes with sundown on the seventh day. Shivah is not observed on the intervening Sabbath and terminates if a

  • Shiwalik Hills (mountains, Asia)

    Siwalik Range, sub-Himalayan range of the northern Indian subcontinent. It extends west-northwestward for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from the Tista River in Sikkim state, northeastern India, through Nepal, across northwestern India, and into northern Pakistan. Though only 10 miles (16 km)

  • Shiwalik Range (mountains, Asia)

    Siwalik Range, sub-Himalayan range of the northern Indian subcontinent. It extends west-northwestward for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from the Tista River in Sikkim state, northeastern India, through Nepal, across northwestern India, and into northern Pakistan. Though only 10 miles (16 km)

  • Shiwālik Series (geology)

    Himalayas: Geologic history: The formations of the Siwalik Series were overthrust and folded, and in between the Lesser Himalayas downwarped to shape the midlands. Now barred from flowing due south, most minor rivers ran east or west through structural weaknesses in the midlands until they could break through the new southern barrier…

  • Shiwang (Chinese mythology)

    Shiwang, (Chinese: “Ten Kings”) in Chinese mythology, the 10 kings of hell, who preside over fixed regions where the dead are punished by physical tortures appropriate to their crimes. The Chinese hell (diyu; “earth prison”) is principally a Buddhist concept that has been modified by Daoism and

  • Shiwini (Anatolian god)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: The sun god Shimegi and the moon god Kushuh, whose consort was Nikkal, the Ningal of the Sumerians, were of lesser rank. More important was the position of the Babylonian god of war and the underworld, Nergal. In northern Syria the god of war Astapi and the goddess…

  • Shiyueh weicheng (film by Chan [2009])

    Li Yuchun: …the 2009 Hong Kong-produced film Bodyguards and Assassins (Shiyueh weicheng). In it she plays a young kung fu expert who, in 1906, helps protect revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen from would-be assassins sent by the Chinese imperial government. Li’s performance earned her two nominations (for best supporting actress and best new…

  • Shīz (ancient city, Iran)

    Takht-e Soleymān, (Persian: “Solomon’s Throne”) ancient city and Zoroastrian temple complex of Iran’s Sāsānian dynasty, subsequently occupied by other groups, including the Mongol Il-Khanid dynasty. It is located in northwestern Iran in the southeastern highlands of Western āz?arbāyjān province,

  • Shizen shin’ei dō (work by Andō Shōeki)

    Andō Shōeki: In his work Shizen shin’eidō (“The True Way of Administering [the society] According to Nature”), he called for the abolition of the warrior class and a return to agrarian egalitarian society, which was to be administered directly by the national government.

  • Shizeng (Chinese painter and critic)

    Chen Shizeng, accomplished critic, painter, and educator of early 20th-century China. Chen came from a family of prominent officials and scholars. He was well educated and something of a child prodigy who, by age 10, was painting, writing poetry, and excelling at calligraphy. In 1902 Chen went to

  • Shizhuzhai Shuhuapu (manual produced by Hu Zhengyan)

    Chinese painting: Ming dynasty (1368–1644): The Shizhuzhai Shuhuapu (“Ten Bamboo Studio Manual of Painting and Calligraphy”), produced by Hu Zhengyan between 1619 and 1633, set the highest standard for polychrome wood-block printing and helped influence the development of colour printing in Japan. Painters such as Chen Hongshou participated in print production…

  • Shizong (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Jiajing, reign name (nianhao) of the 11th emperor of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), whose long reign (1521–66/67) added a degree of stability to the government but whose neglect of official duties ushered in an era of misrule. Notoriously cruel, Jiajing caused hundreds of officials who had the

  • Shizong (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Yongzheng, reign name (nianhao) of the third emperor (reigned 1722–35) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose rule the administration was consolidated and power became concentrated in the emperor’s hands. As the fourth son of the Kangxi emperor, Yinzhen was not immediately in line for the

  • Shizu (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Guangwudi, posthumous name (shi) of the Chinese emperor (reigned ad 25–57) who restored the Han dynasty after the usurpation of Wang Mang, a former Han minister who established the Xin dynasty (ad 9–25). The restored Han dynasty is sometimes referred to as the Dong (Eastern), or the Hou (Later),

  • Shizu (emperor of Jin dynasty)

    Wudi, posthumous name (shi) of the founder and first emperor (265–290) of the Xi (Western) Jin dynasty (265–316/317), which briefly reunited China during the turbulent period following the dissolution of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). Sima Yan was the scion of the great Sima clan to which the

  • Shizu (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Kublai Khan, Mongolian general and statesman, who was the grandson and greatest successor of Genghis Khan. As the fifth emperor (reigned 1260–94) of the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty (1206–1368), he completed the conquest of China (1279) started by Genghis Khan in 1211 and thus became the first Yuan

  • Shizu (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Shunzhi, reign name (nianhao) of the first emperor (reigned 1644–61) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12). The ninth son of Abahai (1592–1643), the great ruler of the Manchu kingdom of Manchuria, Fulin succeeded to the throne in 1643 at the age of five (six by Chinese reckoning) and ruled

  • Shizuoka (Japan)

    Shizuoka, city, capital of Shizuoka ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. In 2003 Shizuoka merged with the port city of Shimizu and other neighbouring municipalities. In 2005 it became a designated city (seireishitei toshi) and was divided into three wards: Aoi, Suruga, and Shimizu. Other

  • Shizuoka (prefecture, Japan)

    Shizuoka, ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan, facing the Pacific Ocean. Cape Omae (west) and the Izu Peninsula (east) in the prefecture are separated by the deeply indented Suruga Bay. The capital is Shizuoka city, which is located on the alluvial fan of the Abe River along the northwestern

  • Shī?a (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shī?ah (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shi?ah (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shi?i (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shī?ī (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shī?ī, Abū ?Abd Allāh al- (Muslim missionary)

    Abū ?Abd Allāh al-Shī?ī, Ismā?īlī propagandist and commander, architect of the Fā?imid Muslim ascendancy in North Africa. Al-Shī?ī appeared among the Kutāma, a Berber tribe of North Africa, at the end of the 9th century, proclaiming himself a precursor of the mahdi (messianic deliverer) and urging

  • Shī?ism (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shi?ite (Islam)

    Shi?i, member of the smaller of the two major branches of Islam, the Shi?ah, distinguished from the majority Sunnis. The origins of the split between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah lie in the events which followed the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was understood to be the messenger of God who,

  • Shi?r (Arabic poetry group)

    Arabic literature: Modern Arabic poetry: …creation of the poetry group Shi?r (“Poetry”), whose magazine of the same name was an influential organ of change. At the core of this group were Yūsuf al-Khāl and Adonis (the pen name of ?Alī A?mad Sa?īd), arguably the most influential figure in modern Arabic poetry. In its radical approach…

  • Shkand-Gumanik Vichar (Zoroastrian text)

    Zoroastrianism: Sources: …Zātspram and Mānushchihr, or Mardān-Farrukh’s Shkand-Gumānīk Vichār (“Final Dispelling of Doubts”), an apology of the Mazdean religion directed against Manichaeism, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.

  • Shkhara (mountain, Asia)

    Caucasus: Physiography: …in the western sector; Mounts Shkhara, Dykhtau, and Kazbek, all over 16,000 feet (4,800 metres), in the central sector; and Mounts Tebulosmta and Bazardyuzyu, both over 14,600 feet (4,550 metres), in the east. Spurs tonguing north and south from the main axis occasionally reach elevations approaching 10,000 feet (3,000 metres).

  • Shkhora (mountain, Asia)

    Caucasus: Physiography: …in the western sector; Mounts Shkhara, Dykhtau, and Kazbek, all over 16,000 feet (4,800 metres), in the central sector; and Mounts Tebulosmta and Bazardyuzyu, both over 14,600 feet (4,550 metres), in the east. Spurs tonguing north and south from the main axis occasionally reach elevations approaching 10,000 feet (3,000 metres).

  • Shklovsky, Viktor (Soviet author)

    Viktor Shklovsky, Russian literary critic and novelist. He was a major voice of Formalism, a critical school that had great influence in Russian literature in the 1920s. Educated at the University of St. Petersburg, Shklovsky helped found OPOYAZ, the Society for the Study of Poetic Language, in

  • Shklovsky, Viktor Borisovich (Soviet author)

    Viktor Shklovsky, Russian literary critic and novelist. He was a major voice of Formalism, a critical school that had great influence in Russian literature in the 1920s. Educated at the University of St. Petersburg, Shklovsky helped found OPOYAZ, the Society for the Study of Poetic Language, in

  • Shkod?r (Albania)

    Shkod?r, town, northwestern Albania. It lies at the southeast end of Lake Scutari, at a point where the Buen? (Serbian and Croatian: Bojana) River, one of Albania’s two navigable streams, flows out of the lake toward the Adriatic Sea. The city is situated at the edge of a wide plain surrounded by

  • Shkod?r, Lake (lake, Europe)

    Lake Scutari, largest lake in the Balkans, on the frontier between Montenegro and Albania. Its area is 150 square miles (390 square km), but it reaches 205 square miles (530 square km) at its seasonal high water. The lake was formerly an arm of the Adriatic Sea. On its west and northwest are steep

  • Shkodra (Albania)

    Shkod?r, town, northwestern Albania. It lies at the southeast end of Lake Scutari, at a point where the Buen? (Serbian and Croatian: Bojana) River, one of Albania’s two navigable streams, flows out of the lake toward the Adriatic Sea. The city is situated at the edge of a wide plain surrounded by

  • Shkodrani, Teodor (Albanian author)

    Albanian literature: …theology, philosophy, and history by Teodor Shkodrani that dates from 1210; it was discovered in the late 1990s in the Vatican archives. Among other early examples of written Albanian are a baptismal formula (1462) and the book Meshari (1555; “The Liturgy,” or “The Missal”) by the Roman Catholic prelate Gjon…

  • Shkolnik, Levi (prime minister of Israel)

    Levi Eshkol, prime minister of Israel from 1963 until his death. Eshkol became involved in the Zionist movement while a student in Vilna, Lith. He moved to Palestine in 1914 when it was under Ottoman rule, working there in a number of settlements. He fought as a member of the Jewish Legion on the

  • Shkup (national capital, North Macedonia)

    Skopje, principal city and capital of North Macedonia. Standing on the banks of the Vardar River amid mountainous country, Skopje began as ancient Scupi, an Illyrian tribal centre. It became the capital of the district of Dardania (part of the Roman province of Moesia Superior) under the emperor

  • Shlisselburg (Russia)

    Shlisselburg, town, Leningrad oblast (region), northwestern European Russia. It is located on the Neva River where it flows out of Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg city. Founded as Oreshek in 1323 by the republic of Novgorod, the town was captured in the early 17th century by the Swedes, who

  • Shlomo (king of Israel)

    Solomon, biblical Israelite king who built the first Temple of Jerusalem and who is revered in Judaism and Christianity for his wisdom and in Islam as a prophet. Nearly all evidence for Solomon’s life and reign comes from the Bible (especially the first 11 chapters of the First Book of Kings and

  • Shlomo Yitz?aqi (French religious scholar)

    Rashi, renowned medieval French commentator on the Bible and the Talmud (the authoritative Jewish compendium of law, lore, and commentary). Rashi combined the two basic methods of interpretation, literal and nonliteral, in his influential Bible commentary. His commentary on the Talmud was a

  • Shlonski, Avraham (Israeli poet)

    Abraham Shlonsky, Israeli poet who founded Israel’s Symbolist school and was an innovator in using colloquial speech in Hebrew verse. In the early 1920s Shlonsky emigrated to Palestine, becoming literary editor of various periodicals. He translated into Hebrew works by authors such as Bertolt

  • Shlonsky, Abraham (Israeli poet)

    Abraham Shlonsky, Israeli poet who founded Israel’s Symbolist school and was an innovator in using colloquial speech in Hebrew verse. In the early 1920s Shlonsky emigrated to Palestine, becoming literary editor of various periodicals. He translated into Hebrew works by authors such as Bertolt

  • Shluh (people)

    Atlas Mountains: The people: The Ishelhiyen (Shluh) of the High Atlas in Morocco inhabit the river valleys that cut down deeply into the massif. Their villages, with populations of several hundred inhabitants in each, are often located at an altitude of more than 6,500 feet. They consist of terraced houses,…

  • Shluh language

    Berber languages: …languages include Tashelhit (Tashelhiyt, Tashelhait, Shilha), Tarifit, Kabyle, Tamazight, and Tamahaq. The family may also include extinct languages such as the Guanche languages of the Canary Islands, Old Libyan (Numidian), and Old Mauretanian, which are known from inscriptions but have not yet been studied thoroughly enough to make any affirmative

  • Shlyapnikov, Aleksandr Gavrilovich (Soviet official)

    Workers' Opposition: Shlyapnikov, S.P. Medvedev, and later Aleksandra Kollontay, not only objected to the subordination of the trade unions but also insisted that the unions, as the institutions most directly representing the proletariat, should control the national economy and individual enterprises. Although the group received substantial support…

  • Shmidt, Otto Yulyevich (Soviet scientist and explorer)

    Otto Yulyevich Shmidt, Soviet scientist and explorer responsible for the Soviet program of exploration and exploitation of Arctic resources; through his many activities he exercised a wide and diverse influence on Soviet life and thought. Professor of mathematics at the University of Moscow from

  • Shmuel-bukh (Yiddish work)

    Yiddish literature: Old Yiddish literature: …early Yiddish adaptations is the Shmuel-bukh (1544; “Samuel Book”), which retells the biblical stories of Saul and David. While the content derives from the biblical books of Samuel and other Hebrew sources, the form was clearly influenced by German models. Using the “Hildebrand stanza” similar to that of the Nibelungenlied,…

  • Shmu?el (Hebrew prophet)

    Samuel, religious hero in the history of Israel, represented in the Old Testament in every role of leadership open to a Jewish man of his day—seer, priest, judge, prophet, and military leader. His greatest distinction was his role in the establishment of the monarchy in Israel. Information about

  • Shneur Zalman (Jewish author)

    Hebrew literature: The 18th and 19th centuries: Shneur Zalman of Ladi created the highly systematized ?abad ?asidism, which was widely accepted in Lithuania. The Musar movement of Israel Salanter encouraged the study of medieval ethical writers.

  • shō (musical instrument)

    sheng: …the sheng, including the Japanese shō and the Korean saenghwang. The Chinese instrument plays melodies with occasional fourth or fifth harmonies (e.g., F or G above C), whereas the Japanese shō normally plays 11-note chords, a tradition that may have emerged from a misinterpretation of ancient court notations. Contemporary Chinese…

  • Shō Tai (king of Ryukyu)

    China: Japan and the Ryukyu Islands: …king of the Ryukyu Islands, Shō Tai, the title of vassal king and in the following year took over the island’s foreign affairs. In reprisal for the massacre of shipwrecked Ryukyuans by Taiwanese tribesmen in 1871, the Tokyo government sent a punitive expedition to Taiwan. Meanwhile, the Japanese sent an…

  • Sho-Go (Japanese military strategy)

    Battle of Leyte Gulf: The Japanese responded with Sho-Go (Victory Operation), a plan to decoy the U.S. Third Fleet north, away from the San Bernardino Strait, while converging three forces on Leyte Gulf to attack the landing; the First Attack Force was to move from the north across the Sibuyen Sea through the…

  • Shoa (historical kingdom, Ethiopia)

    Shewa, historic kingdom of central Ethiopia. It lies mostly on high plateau country, rising to 13,123 feet (4,000 m) in Mount ābuyē Mēda. Its modern capital and main commercial centre is Addis Ababa. Shewa is bounded on the northwest by the Blue Nile River and on the southwest by the Omo River;

  • Shoah (documentary film by Lanzmann [1985])

    Claude Lanzmann: …film was the stepping-stone to Shoah, his most-acclaimed work. After Israel, Why was released, the Foreign Ministry in Israel asked him to create a film on the Holocaust. The film consumed the next 11 years of his life. Perhaps the most-notable aspect of Shoah is that, in nine-and-a-half hours, there…

  • shoal (geology)

    Shoal, accumulation of sediment in a river channel or on a continental shelf that is potentially dangerous to ships. On the continental shelf it is conventionally taken to be less than 10 m (33 feet) below water level at low tide. Shoals are formed by essentially the same factors that produce

  • Shoalhaven River (river, New South Wales, Australia)

    Shoalhaven River, river in southeastern New South Wales, Australia, rising in the Gourock Range of the Eastern Highlands (25 miles [40 km] west of Goruya) and flowing northward mainly through a precipitous gorge. At Braidwood, it emerges into a broad basin that supports pastoral activities.

  • Shoals, Isles of (islands, New Hampshire-Maine, United States)

    Rockingham: …Hampshire and Maine share the Isles of Shoals, offshore islands notable for trade and fishing in the early 18th century. Recreational areas along the coastline include Hampton Beach, Rye Harbor, Wallis Sands, and Ordiorne Point state parks. Other public lands include Pawtuckaway, Kingston, and Bear Brook state parks. The county…

  • Shōbei (Japanese painter)

    Torii Kiyonobu, Japanese painter who founded the Torii school, the only Ukiyo-e school to have survived to this day. (Ukiyo-e is a popular style of painting and woodblock printing utilizing colour and based on themes of the “floating world.”) Torii learned painting from his actor-painter father,

  • shōbō (Buddhism)

    mappō: …“true law” (Sanskrit saddharma, Japanese shōbō); the age of the “copied law” (Sanskrit pratirupadharma, Japanese zōbō); and the age of the “latter law,” or the “degeneration of the law” (Sanskrit pashchimadharma, Japanese mappō). A new period, in which the true faith will again flower, will be ushered in some time…

  • Shōbōgenzō (work by Dōgen)

    Dōgen: His chief work, Shōbōgenzō (1231–53; “Treasury of the True Dharma Eye”), containing 95 chapters and written over a period of more than 20 years, consists of his elaboration of Buddhist principles. Dōgen taught shikan taza, “zazen only,” zazen signifying the Zen practice of meditation in the cross-legged (lotus)…

  • Shobukhova, Liliya (Russian athlete)

    Chicago Marathon: …with four victories, and Russia’s Liliya Shobukhova set the women’s record with three career wins.

  • Shōchiku Co., Ltd. (Japanese motion-picture studio)

    Shōchiku Co., Ltd., leading Japanese motion-picture studio, the films of which are usually home-centred dramas aimed toward an audience of women. The company was formed in 1902 as a production company for Kabuki performances. The business was expanded in 1920 to include motion-picture production,

  • shochu (alcoholic beverage)

    alcohol consumption: Japan: …sake the common beverage is shochu, a sake mash distillate that contains about 25 percent alcohol. There is historical evidence of heavy drinking and alcoholism, as well as various attempts to impose prohibition. Abstinence was practiced by some followers of Buddhism and of some revered Japanese philosophers. In the last…

  • shock (physiology)

    Shock, in physiology, failure of the circulatory system to supply sufficient blood to peripheral tissues to meet basic metabolic requirements for oxygen and nutrients and the incomplete removal of metabolic wastes from the affected tissues. Shock is usually caused by hemorrhage or overwhelming

  • shock (emotion)
  • shock absorber (technology)

    Shock absorber, device for controlling unwanted motion of a spring-mounted vehicle. On an automobile, for example, the springs act as a cushion between the axles and the body and reduce the shocks on the body produced by a rough road surface. Some combinations of road surface and car speed may

  • Shock and Awe (film by Reiner [2017])

    Tommy Lee Jones: …impending invasion of Iraq in Shock and Awe (2017). He later appeared as the missing father of an astronaut (played by Brad Pitt) in the futuristic drama Ad Astra (2019).

  • shock cavalry (military force)

    military technology: Antiquity and the classical age, c. 1000 bce–400 ce: …the 4th century bce of shock cavalry by the armies of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great. However, the defeat of Roman legions by Parthian horse archers at Carrhae in western Mesopotamia in 53 bce marked merely a shifting of boundaries between ecospheres on topographical grounds…

  • Shock Corridor (film by Fuller [1963])

    Samuel Fuller: Films of the 1960s and ’70s: With Shock Corridor (1963) and The Naked Kiss (1964), both made for Allied Artists, Fuller had almost total freedom, resulting in two of his most accomplished—and disturbing—works. Shock Corridor starred Peter Breck as a reporter who has himself committed to an institution in order to track…

  • Shock Doctrine, The (film by Whitecross and Winterbottom [2009])

    Naomi Klein: The Shock Doctrine was adapted as a feature-length documentary film by director Michael Winterbottom in 2009.

  • Shock Doctrine, The (work by Klein)

    Naomi Klein: Klein’s The Shock Doctrine (2007) was a scathing critique of neoliberalism—particularly of Milton Friedman’s “Chicago school” of economics. The book examined what Klein termed “disaster capitalism,” a form of extreme capitalism that advocated privatization and deregulation in the wake of war or natural catastrophe. The Shock…

  • shock effect (warfare)

    military technology: Antiquity and the classical age, c. 1000 bce–400 ce: Also, the shock cavalry of Philip and Alexander was an exception so rare as to prove the rule; moreover, their decisiveness was made possible by the power of the Macedonian infantry phalanx.) Heavy infantry remained the dominant European military institution until it was overthrown in the 4th…

  • shock metamorphism (geology)

    Robert S. Dietz: …for his suggestion that certain shock effects in rocks are indicative of meteorite impact.

  • Shock of the New, The (television program)

    Robert Hughes: …with the eight-part television series The Shock of the New, an exploration of the impact of modern art and architecture. Appearing on PBS in 1981, the series showcased his prickly, critical style, his refreshingly frank viewpoint, and his penetrating appraisals.

  • shock therapy (economics)

    Poland: Economy: …an approach known as “shock therapy,” which sought both to control inflation and to expedite Poland’s transition to a market economy. As part of that plan, the government froze wages, removed price controls, phased out subsidies to state-owned enterprises, and permitted large-scale private enterprise.

  • shock therapy (psychiatry)

    Shock therapy, method of treating certain psychiatric disorders through the use of drugs or electric current to induce shock; the therapy derived from the notion (later disproved) that epileptic convulsions and schizophrenic symptoms never occurred together. In 1933 the psychiatrist Manfred Sakel

  • shock wave (physics)

    Shock wave, strong pressure wave in any elastic medium such as air, water, or a solid substance, produced by supersonic aircraft, explosions, lightning, or other phenomena that create violent changes in pressure. Shock waves differ from sound waves in that the wave front, in which compression

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载