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  • short-circuit beetle (beetle)

    branch and twig borer: The lead-cable borer, or short-circuit beetle (Scobicia declivis), bores into the lead covering of older telephone cables. Moisture entering through the hole can cause short circuits. This beetle lives in oak, maple, or other trees and does not feed on the cable sheathing.

  • short-cross penny (English coin)

    coin: Post-Conquest coinage: His short-cross penny, so called from its reverse design, first issued in 1180, remained unchanged—including the name Henricus—not only by Henry II but also by Richard and John and Henry III until 1247, when Henry III coined the long-cross penny with the arms of the cross…

  • short-eared dog (mammal)

    canine: Paleontology and classification: Atelocynus (small-eared zorro) 1 species of South America. Genus Cerdocyon (crab-eating fox) 1 species of South America. Genus Chrysocyon (maned wolf) 1 species of South America.

  • short-eared owl (bird)

    Short-eared owl, (Asio flammeus), stocky bird of prey of the family Strigidae (order Strigiformes), about 40 cm (about 1.3 feet) long with a prominent facial disk. Among the most widely distributed of owls, it is circumpolar from the Arctic to the North Temperate Zone, occurs in Hawaii and much of

  • short-finned pilot whale (mammal)

    pilot whale: The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the long-finned pilot whale (G. melas) are similar in appearance except for the pronounced difference in flipper length between the two species. Both species are found in all the oceans of the world except the Arctic; however, long-finned pilot…

  • short-headed glider (marsupial)

    glider: An example is the short-headed glider (P. breviceps) found from New Guinea to Tasmania; it is blue-gray with a dark centre stripe and has a long bushy tail. These animals can glide 55 m (180 feet). The greater glider (Schoinobates volans) of eastern Australia may be 105 cm long;…

  • short-headed worm lizard (reptile)

    lizard: Annotated classification: Family Trogonophidae (short-headed worm lizards) Limbless worm lizards with spade-shaped heads. They occur in North Africa, the eastern Arabian Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa. 4 genera with 6 species are recognized. Advances in gene sequencing (especially the use of nuclear genes) and analytical techniques…

  • short-horn sculpin (fish)

    sculpin: …include such forms as: the bullrout, or shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), a large, mottled-brownish sculpin found in Europe, the Arctic, and North America; the longhorn sculpin (M. octodecemspinosus), a common North American species, variable in colour and with long cheek spines; and the sea raven, a North American fish distinctively…

  • short-horned grasshopper (insect)

    Short-horned grasshopper, (family Acrididae), any of more than 10,000 species of insects (order Orthoptera) that are characterized by short, heavy antennae, a four-valved ovipositor for laying eggs, and three-segmented tarsi (distal segments of the leg). They are herbivorous and include some of the

  • short-interval delay cap (explosives)

    explosive: Delay systems: …early 1900s, and (2) the short-interval, or millisecond, delay, which was introduced about 1943. Except for a delay element placed between the ignition and primer charges, they are the same as instantaneous electric caps.

  • short-lived solar prominence (astronomy)

    solar prominence: …are of two main types, active and quiescent. Active prominences erupt quickly and have lifetimes lasting from several minutes to a few hours. They are associated with sunspot groups and, like these, are correlated in numbers and activity with the solar cycle. Quiescent prominences tend to emerge smoothly and subside…

  • short-nosed bandicoot (marsupial)

    bandicoot: The three species of short-nosed bandicoots, Isoodon (incorrectly Thylacis), are found in New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania. Rabbit-eared bandicoots, or bilbies, are species of Thylacomys (sometimes Macrotis); now endangered, they are found only in remote colonies in arid interior Australia. As the name implies, they have big narrow ears,…

  • short-nosed rat kangaroo (marsupial genus)

    rat kangaroo: …rat kangaroos, or bettongs (genus Bettongia), have pinkish noses and short ears. The Tasmanian, or eastern, bettong (B. gaimardi) has gray fur along its back and white fur on its chest and abdomen, along with a crest of black hair along its white-tipped tail. The species is restricted to eastern…

  • short-nosed spearfish (fish)

    spearfish: The shortbill, or short-nosed, spearfish (T. angustirostris) is a Pacific member of the genus—scarce and rather small for a billfish. Blue above and silvery below, it usually does not exceed 1.8 m (6 feet) and 27 kg (60 pounds). The species T. belone is a Mediterranean…

  • short-order code (computer science)

    computer: Interpreters: Shortcode, or short-order code, was the first such language actually implemented. Suggested by John Mauchly in 1949, it was implemented by William Schmitt for the BINAC computer in that year and for UNIVAC in 1950. Shortcode went through multiple steps: first it converted the alphabetic…

  • short-period Cepheid (astronomy)

    RR Lyrae star, any of a group of old giant stars of the class called pulsating variables (see variable star) that pulsate with periods of about 0.2–1 day. They belong to the broad Population II class of stars (see Populations I and II) and are found mainly in the thick disk and halo of the Milky

  • short-period comet (astronomy)

    comet: Dynamics: …into two dynamical groups: the short-period comets with orbital periods shorter than 200 years and the long-period comets with orbital periods longer than 200 years. The short-period comets were split into two groups, the Jupiter-family comets with periods shorter than about 20 years and the Halley-type comets with periods longer…

  • short-range attack missile (military technology)

    rocket and missile system: Matador and other programs: …had given way to the short-range attack missile, or SRAM, essentially an internally carried, air-launched ballistic missile.

  • short-range ballistic missile (military technology)

    Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty: …and shorter-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) as those having ranges from 500 to 1,000 km.

  • short-range navigation (navigation system)

    military communication: World War II and after: …were short-range navigational systems, called shoran. Combinations of radar and communications for the landing of aircraft in zero visibility were perfected. One such system was the GCA, or ground-controlled approach system. Combinations of radio direction-finding, radar, and communications systems were developed and used for ground control of intercept aircraft—the system…

  • short-range order (chemistry)

    amorphous solid: Distinction between crystalline and amorphous solids: ) The well-defined short-range order is a consequence of the chemical bonding between atoms, which is responsible for holding the solid together.

  • short-range weather forecasting (meteorology)

    weather forecasting: Short-range forecasting: When people wait under a shelter for a downpour to end, they are making a very-short-range weather forecast. They are assuming, based on past experience, that such hard rain usually does not last very long. In short-term predictions the challenge for…

  • short-sightedness (visual disorder)

    Myopia, visual abnormality in which the resting eye focuses the image of a distant object at a point in front of the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the back and sides of the eye), resulting in a blurred image. Myopic eyes, which are usually longer than normal from front to

  • short-tailed albatross (bird)

    procellariiform: Distribution: …two Midway species and the short-tailed albatross (Diomedea albatrus) nest well north of the equatorial doldrums. The latter was brought close to extinction by plume hunters and by a volcanic eruption at its nesting island of Torishima. There were enough immature birds at sea at the time to allow a…

  • short-tailed bandicoot rat (rodent)

    bandicoot rat: …two species of Nesokia, the short-tailed bandicoot rat, or pest rat (N. indica), is almost the size of the lesser bandicoot rat, with soft brown fur and a short tail. Its range extends from northern Bangladesh through Central Asia to northeastern Egypt and also north of the Himalayas from Turkmenistan…

  • short-tailed chinchilla (rodent)

    chinchilla: laniger) and the short-tailed chinchilla (C. brevicaudata), are protected by law, but poaching and habitat loss continue. Chinchillas and their closest living relatives, the mountain viscachas, along with the more distantly related plains viscacha, constitute the family Chinchillidae of the suborder Hystricognatha within the order Rodentia.

  • short-tailed gymnure (mammal)

    gymnure: The short-tailed, or lesser, gymnure (Hylomys suillus) ranges from continental Southeast Asia offshore to Tioman Island to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, and northern Borneo in hilly lowlands. The dwarf, or Sumatran, gymnure (H. parvus) occurs in the mountains

  • short-tailed opossum (marsupial)

    Short-tailed opossum, (genus Monodelphis), any of more than 20 species of small, mouse- and shrew-sized, insectivorous and carnivorous, terrestrial opossums (family Didelphidae, subfamily Didelphinae, tribe Marmosini). Total length varies from about 11 cm (4.5 inches) in the smaller species to over

  • short-tailed porcupine (rodent)

    porcupine: Old World porcupines (family Hystricidae): Short-tailed porcupines (genus Hystrix) are the largest, weighing up to 30 kg, with bodies almost a metre long and a tail 8–17 cm long. They move slowly in a ponderous walk but will break into a trot or gallop when alarmed. Like the North American…

  • short-tailed possum (marsupial)

    Short-tailed opossum, (genus Monodelphis), any of more than 20 species of small, mouse- and shrew-sized, insectivorous and carnivorous, terrestrial opossums (family Didelphidae, subfamily Didelphinae, tribe Marmosini). Total length varies from about 11 cm (4.5 inches) in the smaller species to over

  • short-tailed pouched rat (mammal genus)

    African pouched rat: Natural history: The short-tailed pouched rats (genus Saccostomus) are small and thickset, weighing about 75 grams (2.6 ounces) and having bodies up to 18 cm long and much shorter tails. Both species (S. campestris and S. mearnsi) are soft-furred, nocturnal, and slow-moving. They feed primarily on seeds during…

  • short-tailed rat (rodent)

    bandicoot rat: …two species of Nesokia, the short-tailed bandicoot rat, or pest rat (N. indica), is almost the size of the lesser bandicoot rat, with soft brown fur and a short tail. Its range extends from northern Bangladesh through Central Asia to northeastern Egypt and also north of the Himalayas from Turkmenistan…

  • short-tailed scrub wallaby (marsupial)

    Quokka, marsupial mammal, a species of wallaby

  • short-tailed shearwater (bird)

    procellariiform: Importance to humans: …slender-billed, or short-tailed, shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) are taken on the Bass Strait islands off Tasmania and sold fresh, salted, or deep-frozen as “muttonbirds.” In all likelihood, the name muttonbird was derived from the use of the flesh as a supplement for mutton by the early settlers of New South…

  • short-tailed shrew (mammal)

    Short-tailed shrew, (genus Blarina), any of three species of North American insectivores that resemble voles in body form. All have minute, degenerate eyes and small ears concealed in the fur. Within the moderately long and pointed muzzle are reddish-tipped teeth. Blarina species are among the

  • short-tailed weasel (mammal)

    Ermine, (Mustela erminea), northern weasel species in the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae. The species is called ermine especially during its winter white colour phase. The animal’s pelt was used historically in royal robes in Europe, and the term ermine also refers to the animal’s white coat,

  • short-term capital

    international payment and exchange: Short-term flows: A very important distinction must be drawn between the short-term capital that flows in the normal course of industrial and commercial development and that which flows because of exchange-rate movements. The first class of short-term capital may be thought of as going in…

  • short-term debt

    international payment and exchange: Short-term flows: A very important distinction must be drawn between the short-term capital that flows in the normal course of industrial and commercial development and that which flows because of exchange-rate movements. The first class of short-term capital may be thought of as going in…

  • short-term financing

    international payment and exchange: Short-term flows: A very important distinction must be drawn between the short-term capital that flows in the normal course of industrial and commercial development and that which flows because of exchange-rate movements. The first class of short-term capital may be thought of as going in…

  • short-term memory (psychology)

    Short-term memory, in psychology, the concept involving the extremely limited number of items that humans are capable of keeping in mind at one time. Of undeniable importance, the long-standing concept of “short-term memory” is one of the most researched topics in cognitive science. Nearly every

  • short-term regulation (biology)

    motivation: Hunger: The first mechanism, typically called short-term regulation, attempts to take in sufficient energy to balance what is being expended. It is usually assumed that time between meals and meal size are determined by this short-term mechanism. A second mechanism, called long-term regulation, is directed toward storing away sufficient energy for…

  • short-term security

    international payment and exchange: Short-term flows: A very important distinction must be drawn between the short-term capital that flows in the normal course of industrial and commercial development and that which flows because of exchange-rate movements. The first class of short-term capital may be thought of as going in…

  • short-term warning system (military technology)

    warning system: Short-term, or tactical, warning, often hours or minutes in advance, is a notification that the enemy has initiated hostilities.

  • short-track speed skating (sport)

    Short-track speed skating, sport that tests the speed, technical skating ability, and aggressiveness of its competitors. Unlike traditional long-track speed skating, contestants race against each other instead of the clock. Short-track speed skating is rooted in the pack-style racing that was

  • short-winged mold beetle (insect)

    Orlando Park: …of insects comprising the family Pselaphidae, a group of small, short-winged, mold beetles that commonly live in ant nests.

  • shortbill spearfish (fish)

    spearfish: The shortbill, or short-nosed, spearfish (T. angustirostris) is a Pacific member of the genus—scarce and rather small for a billfish. Blue above and silvery below, it usually does not exceed 1.8 m (6 feet) and 27 kg (60 pounds). The species T. belone is a Mediterranean…

  • shortcode (computer science)

    computer: Interpreters: Shortcode, or short-order code, was the first such language actually implemented. Suggested by John Mauchly in 1949, it was implemented by William Schmitt for the BINAC computer in that year and for UNIVAC in 1950. Shortcode went through multiple steps: first it converted the alphabetic…

  • shorte Dictionarie for Yonge Beginners, A (dictionary by Withals)

    dictionary: From Classical times to 1604: …edition by John Withals of A Short Dictionary for Young Beginners, which gained greater circulation (to judge by the frequency of editions) than any other book of its kind. Many other lexicographers contributed to the development of dictionaries. Certain dictionaries were more ambitious and included a number of languages, such…

  • Shortell, Stephen M. (American scholar)

    Stephen M. Shortell, American scholar and leader in the study of health services delivery systems in the United States. After receiving a bachelor’s degree in business administration (1966) from the University of Notre Dame, Shortell completed a Master of Public Health degree (1968) at the

  • Shorten, Bill (Australian politician)

    Australian Labor Party: Bill Shorten led the party until 2019, when it lost to the coalition despite entering the federal election with a commanding lead in preference polling.

  • shortening (food product)

    Shortening, fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin used in most doughs and batters to impart crisp and crumbly texture to baked products and to increase the plasticity, or workability, of doughs. Important commercial shortenings include butter, lard, vegetable oils, processed shortenings, and

  • Shorter Rules (work by Basil the Great)

    St. Basil the Great: Works and legacy: The Longer Rules and Shorter Rules (for monasteries) and other ascetic writings distill the experience that began at Annesi and continued in his supervision of the monasteries of Cappadocia: they were to exert strong influence on the monastic life of Eastern Christianity. A notable feature is Basil’s strong preference…

  • Shorter Westminster Catechism (religious work)

    scripture: Other religious or devotional literature: …Westminster Confession of 1646 and Shorter Westminster Catechism of 1647 (Presbyterian), and others.

  • Shorter, Frank (American athlete)

    Frank Shorter, runner who became the first American in 64 years to win the Olympic marathon, earning the gold medal at the 1972 Games in Munich, West Germany, the city of his birth. The son of an American army doctor who was based in Germany after World War II, Shorter had early success with

  • Shorter, Wayne (American musician and composer)

    Wayne Shorter, American musician and composer, a major jazz saxophonist, among the most influential hard-bop and modal musicians and a pioneer of jazz-rock fusion music. Shorter studied at New York University (B.M.E., 1956) and served in the U.S. Army (1956–58). He spent brief periods in the Horace

  • shortest-path problem (computer science)

    Edsger Dijkstra: …his 1959 solution to the shortest-path problem; his algorithm is still used to determine the fastest way between two points, as in the routing of communication networks and in flight planning. His research on the idea of mutual exclusion in communications led him to suggest in 1968 the concept of…

  • Shortest-Way With the Dissenters, The (pamphlet by Defoe)

    Daniel Defoe: Mature life and works.: …of all his pamphlets, “The Shortest-Way With The Dissenters” (1702), published anonymously. His method was ironic: to discredit the highfliers by writing as if from their viewpoint but reducing their arguments to absurdity. The pamphlet had a huge sale, but the irony blew up in Defoe’s face: Dissenters and High…

  • shortfin mako (shark)

    mako shark: The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is found in all tropical and temperate seas, and the longfin mako (I. paucus) is scattered worldwide in tropical seas.

  • shortgrass (plant)

    prairie: …the western portion bordering the shortgrass plains.

  • shortgrass prairie (ecology)

    prairie: …the western portion bordering the shortgrass plains.

  • shorthand

    Shorthand, Shorthand alphabetsEncyclop?dia Britannica, Inc.a system for rapid writing that uses symbols or abbreviations for letters, words, or phrases. Among the most popular modern systems are Pitman, Gregg, and Speedwriting. Besides being known as stenography (close, little, or narrow writing),

  • Shorthorn (breed of cattle)

    Shorthorn, cattle breed raised for beef. The Shorthorn was developed during the last quarter of the 18th century through selective breeding of local cattle of the Teeswater district, Durham county, in the north of England. It is characterized by short horns, blocky conformation, and colour ranging

  • Shorthouse, Joseph Henry (British writer)

    Joseph Henry Shorthouse, English novelist whose John Inglesant constitutes one of the best examples of the philosophical romance in English literature. Set in England and Italy during the 17th century, the work is concerned with conflicts between church and state, the Church of England and the

  • shortie terrier (breed of dog)

    Jack Russell Terrier: …the breed is designated the Russell Terrier.

  • Shortland (island, Solomon Islands)

    Shortland Islands: …largest islands are Shortland (or Alu), which has an area of 10 by 8 miles (16 by 13 km) and rises to 607 feet (185 metres); and Fauro Island, which measures 10 by 6 miles (16 by 10 km) and rises to 1,312 feet (400 metres) at two points along…

  • Shortland Islands (islands, Solomon Islands)

    Shortland Islands, volcanic island group, northwestern Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean, just southeast of Bougainville Island, P.N.G. The group’s two largest islands are Shortland (or Alu), which has an area of 10 by 8 miles (16 by 13 km) and rises to 607 feet (185 metres); and Fauro

  • shortleaf pine (tree)

    pine: Major North American pines: taeda), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), and slash pine (or Caribbean pine, P. caribaea) are other important timber trees in the southern United States. The last-named extends over the Florida Keys to several islands in the Caribbean.

  • shortness of breath (medical disorder)

    cardiovascular disease: Ventricular dysfunction in heart failure: The symptoms may vary from shortness of breath on very little exertion to a medical emergency in which the patients feel as though they are suffocating. Congestive symptoms may also result in enlargement of the liver and spleen and loss of fluid into the abdominal cavity (ascites) or the pleural…

  • shortnose lancet fish (fish)

    lancet fish: The shortnose lancet fish (A. brevirostris) inhabits the Atlantic and south Pacific oceans.

  • Shortridge’s mouse (rodent)

    mouse: Geographic distribution and habitat: Shortridge’s mouse (M. shortridgei), for example, has been found living in tall grasses and pygmy bamboo growing among teak forests in Thailand.

  • Shortridge, Clara (American lawyer and reformer)

    Clara Shortridge Foltz, lawyer and reformer who, after helping open the California bar to women, became a pioneering force for women in the profession and a major influence in reforming the state’s criminal justice and prison systems. Clara Shortridge taught school in her youth and in 1864 married

  • shortsightedness (visual disorder)

    Myopia, visual abnormality in which the resting eye focuses the image of a distant object at a point in front of the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the back and sides of the eye), resulting in a blurred image. Myopic eyes, which are usually longer than normal from front to

  • Shortstop (sculpture by Chamberlain)

    John Chamberlain: …to employ car parts was Shortstop (1957), which featured rusty fenders that he had found in the yard of painter and friend Larry Rivers. Chamberlain’s sculptures are typified by Mr. Press (1961), a construction of fragments from automobiles, crumpled and jammed together to create an effect of isolated, frozen movement.…

  • shortstop (baseball)

    baseball: Infielders: …the left of second base, shortstop is the most difficult and demanding of the defensive positions, requiring outstanding agility, range, and a strong throwing arm. The throw from the shortstop to first base is the infield’s longest and most difficult. The second baseman, who is typically positioned to the right…

  • Shortt pendulum clock

    clock: Electric clocks: …accurate mechanical timekeeper is the Shortt pendulum clock; it makes use of the movement described above for electric master clock systems. The Shortt pendulum clock consists of two separate clocks, one of which synchronizes the other. The timekeeping element is a pendulum that swings freely, except that once every half…

  • shorttail eel (fish)

    eel: Annotated classification: Family Colocongridae (shorttail eels) 1 genus, Coloconger, with about 5 species. Marine; Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific oceans. Family Congridae (congers) 32 genera with about 160 species. All oceans to considerable depths. Family Muraenesocidae

  • shorttail nurse shark (fish)

    nurse shark: …the shorttail nurse shark (P. brevicaudatum). They are not related to the sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus)—a type of sand shark inhabiting the waters above the continental shelves in most warm and temperate regions—which is sometimes referred to as the gray nurse shark.

  • Shortughai (archaeological site, Afghanistan)

    India: Other important sites: …of the Indus civilization, is Shortughai in the Amu Darya (Oxus River) valley, in northern Afghanistan. There the remains of a small Harappan colony, presumably sited so as to provide control of the lapis lazuli export trade originating in neighbouring Badakhshan, have been excavated by a French team.

  • shortwall method

    coal mining: Shortwall mining: In the shortwall mining method, the layout is similar to the longwall method except that the block of coal is not more than 100 metres wide. Furthermore, the slices are as much as three metres thick and are taken by a continuous miner.…

  • shortwave diathermy (medicine)

    diathermy: …therapists in hospitals and clinics: shortwave, ultrasound, and microwave. In shortwave diathermy, the part to be treated is placed between two condenser plates, and the highest temperature is concentrated in the subcutaneous tissues. Shortwave usually is prescribed as treatment for deep muscles and joints and is sometimes used to localize…

  • shortwave radiation (radiant energy)

    atmosphere: Radiation: …traditionally divided into two types: insolation from the Sun and emittance from the surface and the atmosphere. Insolation is frequently referred to as shortwave radiation; it falls primarily within the ultraviolet and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and consists predominantly of wavelengths of 0.39 to 0.76 micrometres (0.00002 to…

  • shortwave radio (communications)

    Shortwave radio, transmission and reception of information by means of electromagnetic waves about 10 to 80 m (33 to 262 feet) in length having frequencies of approximately 29.7 to 3.5 megahertz. During the early 1920s attempts were made to transmit radio signals over long distances by bouncing

  • Shōsetsu shinzui (essay by Tsubouchi Shōyō)

    Japanese literature: Introduction of Western literature: His critical essay Shōsetsu shinzui (1885–86; The Essence of the Novel) greatly influenced the writing of subsequent fiction not only because of its emphasis on realism as opposed to didacticism but because Shōyō, a member of the samurai class, expressed the conviction that novels, hitherto despised by the…

  • Shoshenq (king of Egypt)

    Sheshonk I, first king (reigned 945–924 bce) of the 22nd dynasty of ancient Egypt (see ancient Egypt: the 22nd and 23rd dynasties). Sheshonk came from a line of princes or sheikhs of Libyan tribal descent whose title was “great chief of the Meshwesh” and who appear to have settled in Bubastis in

  • shoshi (Japanese official)

    Japan: Muromachi government structure: Leading officials called shoshi who held the additional post of shugo of Yamashiro province (now in Kyōto urban prefecture) were next in importance to the kanrei. New offices were established to streamline judicial decisions and handle financial matters, and the Ashikaga maintained their own private guard, the hōkōshū.…

  • Shoshone (people)

    Shoshone, North American Indian group that occupied the territory from what is now southeastern California across central and eastern Nevada and northwestern Utah into southern Idaho and western Wyoming. The Shoshone of historic times were organized into four groups: Western, or unmounted,

  • Shoshone Falls (waterfall, Idaho, United States)

    Shoshone Falls, cataract on the Snake River, southern Idaho, U.S., near the city of Twin Falls. The falls have a 212-foot (65-metre) drop, about the same as that of Niagara Falls, New York; early settlers aptly called the falls “the Niagara of the West.” Once spectacular, the cataract has lost much

  • Shoshone River (river, Wyoming, United States)

    Shoshone River, river in Wyoming, U.S., formed by North and South forks in the Absaroka Range in Yellowstone National Park. It flows northeast past Cody and Lovell, joining the Bighorn River (Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area) at Kane, near the Montana border, after a course of 100 miles (160

  • Shoshone-Bannock (people)

    Shoshone-Bannock, any of the bands formerly of the Shoshone and Bannock peoples of North America who later chose to live as one people. Some of these bands shared the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho after its creation in 1863. In 1937 certain of these bands chose to incorporate jointly under federal

  • Shoshonean languages

    Mesoamerican Indian languages: The classification and status of Mesoamerican languages: Tübatulabal Takic

  • Shoshoni (people)

    Shoshone, North American Indian group that occupied the territory from what is now southeastern California across central and eastern Nevada and northwestern Utah into southern Idaho and western Wyoming. The Shoshone of historic times were organized into four groups: Western, or unmounted,

  • Shōsō Repository (structure, Nara, Japan)

    Shōsō Repository, a timber structure in Nara, Japan, that was built to receive the personal treasures bequeathed to the Tōdai Temple by the emperor Shōmu, who died in 756. While subsequent deposits gradually added to the collection, the original gift embraced more than 600 items, which included

  • Shōsō Treasure House (structure, Nara, Japan)

    Shōsō Repository, a timber structure in Nara, Japan, that was built to receive the personal treasures bequeathed to the Tōdai Temple by the emperor Shōmu, who died in 756. While subsequent deposits gradually added to the collection, the original gift embraced more than 600 items, which included

  • Shōsō-in (structure, Nara, Japan)

    Shōsō Repository, a timber structure in Nara, Japan, that was built to receive the personal treasures bequeathed to the Tōdai Temple by the emperor Shōmu, who died in 756. While subsequent deposits gradually added to the collection, the original gift embraced more than 600 items, which included

  • Shostak, Marjorie (American writer)

    Marjorie Shostak, U.S. writer who conducted pathbreaking anthropological studies on tribal women while living among the !Kung San tribe in Africa’s Kalahari Desert from 1968 to 1971; Shostak learned their difficult clicking language (! represents the click sound) and documented her findings in

  • Shostakovich, Dmitry (Russian composer)

    Dmitry Shostakovich, Russian composer, renowned particularly for his 15 symphonies, numerous chamber works, and concerti, many of them written under the pressures of government-imposed standards of Soviet art. Shostakovich was the son of an engineer. He entered the Petrograd (now St. Petersburg)

  • Shostakovich, Dmitry Dmitriyevich (Russian composer)

    Dmitry Shostakovich, Russian composer, renowned particularly for his 15 symphonies, numerous chamber works, and concerti, many of them written under the pressures of government-imposed standards of Soviet art. Shostakovich was the son of an engineer. He entered the Petrograd (now St. Petersburg)

  • Shostka (Ukraine)

    Shostka, city, northern Ukraine, lying along the Shostka River. It became the site of a gunpowder mill in 1739, but not until Soviet times did it become a considerable settlement, being incorporated in 1924. Its varied industries have included food processing and the manufacture of photographic

  • shot (weaving)

    filling: …yarn is known as a pick, or shot. In textile finishing, filling is a sizing, or weighting, substance added to yarn or fabric to fill in open spaces or increase weight.

  • shot (abrasive)

    abrasive: Metal cleaning: Metal shot is used on softer metallic castings.

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