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  • shot (ammunition)

    ammunition: …projectiles are called bullets (or shot in shotguns). Cartridge cases are most commonly made of brass, although steel is also widely used, and cases for shotgun pellets are made of brass and cardboard. The cases of most military rifles and machine guns have a bottleneck shape, allowing a small-calibre bullet…

  • shot bort (mineral)

    industrial diamond: Ballas, or shot bort, is composed of concentrically arranged, spherical masses of minute diamond crystals. Ballas is extremely hard, tough, and difficult to cleave. Principal sources are Brazil and South Africa. Brazilian ballas is said to be the harder of the two.

  • shot clock (sports)

    basketball: U.S. high school and college basketball: …Rules Committee installed a 45-second shot clock in 1985 (reduced to 35 seconds in 1993), restricting the time a team could control the ball before shooting, and one year later it implemented a three-point shot rule for baskets made beyond a distance of 19.75 feet (6.0 metres). In 2008 the…

  • Shot in the Dark, A (film by Edwards [1964])

    A Shot in the Dark, British screwball comedy film, released in 1964, that was the second installment in the Pink Panther series. Ludicrously bumbling French Inspector Jacques Clouseau (played by Peter Sellers) is called on to investigate a murder, but he is instantly smitten with the crime’s main

  • shot put (athletics)

    Shot put, sport in athletics (track and field) in which a spherical weight is thrown, or put, from the shoulder for distance. It derives from the ancient sport of putting the stone. The first to use a shot (cannon ball) instead of a stone competitively were British military sports groups. Although

  • Shot Tower (building, Baltimore, Maryland, United States)

    Baltimore: The contemporary city: The Shot Tower (1828) is a 234-foot (71-metre) shaft once used to manufacture round shot. The Washington Monument (1829), a 178-foot (54-metre) Doric column, was designed by architect Robert Mills, who later designed the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. Hampton National Historic Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground,…

  • Shota Rustaveli, Mount (mountain, Asia)

    Georgia: Relief, drainage, and soils: …point in Georgia, and Mounts Rustaveli, Tetnuld, and Ushba, all of which are above 15,000 feet. The cone of the extinct Mkinvari (Kazbek) volcano dominates the northernmost Bokovoy range from a height of 16,512 feet. A number of important spurs extend in a southward direction from the central range, including…

  • shotcrete (building material)

    Shotcrete, concrete applied by spraying. Shotcrete is a mixture of aggregate and portland cement, conveyed by compressed air to the nozzle of a spray gun, where water is added. The wet mixture is then sprayed in place and may be carved or troweled almost immediately. For structural uses, shotcrete

  • Shōtetsu (Japanese poet)

    Shōtetsu, priest-poet who is considered the last truly important tanka poet before the 20th century. Shōtetsu was born into a middle-rank samurai family in the provinces but was taken by his family to Kyōto when he was a boy. He showed precocious ability at composing tanka. Probably by his father’s

  • Shōtetsu monogatari (work by Shōtetsu)

    Shōtetsu: 1450; Conversations with Shōtetsu), a work of poetic criticism:

  • shotgun (weapon)

    Shotgun, smoothbore shoulder weapon designed to fire a number of pellets, or shot, that spread in a diverging pattern after they leave the muzzle. It is used primarily against small moving targets, especially birds. The earliest smoothbore firearms loaded with shot were the “fowling pieces” that

  • shotgun house (architecture)

    Shotgun house, narrow house prevalent in African American communities in New Orleans and other areas of the southern United States, although the term has come to be used for such houses regardless of location. Shotgun houses generally consist of a gabled front porch and two or more rooms laid out

  • shotgun microphone (electroacoustic device)

    electromechanical transducer: Linearity and directivity: A shotgun microphone has a very strong forward directional response. A parabolic reflector, similar to that of a reflecting telescope, is used to pick up and amplify relatively weak sounds coming from a certain direction. This is useful for such diverse applications as listening to bird…

  • shotgun sequencing (genetics)

    J. Craig Venter: TIGR and Celera Genomics: …relied on whole genome “shotgun” sequencing, a rapid sequencing technique that Venter had developed while at TIGR. The shotgun technique is used to decode small sections of DNA (about 2,000–10,000 base pairs [bp] in length) of an organism’s genome. These sections are later assembled into a full-length genomic sequence.…

  • Shōtoku (empress of Japan)

    Kōken, the last empress to rule Japan until the 17th century; she twice occupied the throne (749–758; 764–770). There had been a number of female rulers before Kōken, but the power achieved by the Buddhist monk Dōkyō during her second reign caused the Council of Ministers to preclude female

  • Shōtoku taishi eden (Japanese illustrated work)

    Japanese art: Calligraphy and painting: …the 11th century, such as Shōtoku taishi eden (“Illustrated Biography of Prince Shōtoku”) and the Senzui folding screens (byōbu), also reveal the development of indigenous painting styles within the original interpretive matrix of Chinese forms. Although the Chinese method of representing narrative in a landscape setting is honoured, with each…

  • Shōtoku Tennō (empress of Japan)

    Kōken, the last empress to rule Japan until the 17th century; she twice occupied the throne (749–758; 764–770). There had been a number of female rulers before Kōken, but the power achieved by the Buddhist monk Dōkyō during her second reign caused the Council of Ministers to preclude female

  • Shōtoku, Taishi (Japanese regent and author)

    Taishi Shōtoku, influential regent of Japan and author of some of the greatest contributions to Japanese historiography, constitutional government, and ethics. Shōtoku was a member of the powerful Soga family and was the second son of the short-reigned emperor Yōmei. When political maneuvering

  • shott (saline flat)

    Sabkhah, (Arabic), saline flat or salt-crusted depression, commonly found along the coasts of North Africa and Saudi Arabia. Sabkhahs are generally bordered by sand dunes and have soft, poorly cemented but impermeable floors, due to periodic flooding and evaporation. Concentration of seawater and c

  • Shotwell, James Thomson (American historian)

    James Thomson Shotwell, Canadian-born American historian and diplomat who was a notable scholar of international relations in the 20th century. A graduate of the University of Toronto (B.A., 1898) and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1903), Shotwell taught history and international relations at Columbia

  • Shou Hsing (Chinese deity)

    Shouxing, in Chinese mythology, one of three stellar gods known collectively as Fulushou. He was also called Nanji Laoren (“Old Man of the South Pole”). Though greatly revered as the god of longevity (shou), Shouxing has no temples. Instead, birthday parties for elders provide a fitting time for

  • Shouchang (Chinese communist)

    Li Dazhao, cofounder of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and mentor of Mao Zedong. After studying at Tianjin and at Waseda University in Tokyo, Li became an editor for Xinqingnian (“New Youth”), the principal journal of the new Western-oriented literary and cultural movements. In 1918 he was

  • Shoudu Iron and Steel Works (factory, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Industry: …large industrial establishments is the Shoudu Iron and Steel Works, located about 9 miles (14 km) west of the old city. The Shoudu plant was originally started in 1920 and made use of local deposits of iron ore and anthracite coal in the Western Hills; after the Japanese occupation of…

  • Should I Stay or Should I Go (song by the Clash)

    the Clash: …Clash broke up, their “Should I Stay or Should I Go” became a number one hit in the United Kingdom when it was featured in a commercial in 1991. Despite that success and lucrative offers to reunite, the group refused to do so—unlike the Sex Pistols. One of the…

  • shoulder (jewelry)

    ring: …the circle, or hoop; the shoulders; and the bezel. The circle can have a circular, semicircular, or square cross-section, or it can be shaped as a flat band. The shoulders consist of a thickening or enlargement of the circle wide enough to support the bezel. The bezel is the top…

  • shoulder (joint)

    Shoulder, in anatomy, the joint between the arm, or forelimb, and the trunk, together with the adjacent tissue, particularly the tissue over the shoulder blade, or scapula. The shoulder, or pectoral, girdle is composed of the clavicles (collarbones) and the scapulae (shoulder blades). In humans the

  • shoulder (roads)

    roads and highways: Alignment and profile: The shoulder is a strip of pavement outside an outer lane; it is provided for emergency use by traffic and to protect the pavement edges from traffic damage. A set of adjoining lanes and shoulders is called a roadway or carriageway, while the pavement, shoulders, and…

  • shoulder blade (anatomy)

    Scapula, either of two large bones of the shoulder girdle in vertebrates. In humans they are triangular and lie on the upper back between the levels of the second and eighth ribs. A scapula’s posterior surface is crossed obliquely by a prominent ridge, the spine, which divides the bone into two

  • shoulder girdle (anatomy)

    muscle: Tetrapod musculature: In tetrapods, unlike fishes, the pectoral girdle does not have a solid bony connection to the axial skeleton but rather is supported by a series of muscles derived from the outer layer of hypaxial trunk muscles. This is no doubt another adaptation to life in an air environment, where the…

  • shoulder joint (anatomy)

    scapula: …the humerus, to form the shoulder joint. Overhanging the glenoid cavity is a beaklike projection, the coracoid process, which completes the shoulder socket. To the margins of the scapula are attached muscles that aid in moving or fixing the shoulder as demanded by movements of the upper limb.

  • shoulder-hand syndrome (pathology)

    joint disease: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy—also called shoulder-hand syndrome because pain in the shoulder is associated with pain, swelling, and stiffness of the hand—only rarely develops in the wake of external injury. Most often it follows a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or is associated with…

  • Shoulders, James Arthur (American rodeo cowboy)

    Jim Shoulders, (James Arthur Shoulders), American rodeo cowboy (born May 13, 1928, Tulsa, Okla.—died June 20, 2007, Henryetta, Okla.), was a fearless and fierce competitor who notched 16 world championship titles (all-around, 1949, 1956–59; bull riding, 1951, 1954–59; and bareback riding, 1950,

  • Shoulders, Jim (American rodeo cowboy)

    Jim Shoulders, (James Arthur Shoulders), American rodeo cowboy (born May 13, 1928, Tulsa, Okla.—died June 20, 2007, Henryetta, Okla.), was a fearless and fierce competitor who notched 16 world championship titles (all-around, 1949, 1956–59; bull riding, 1951, 1954–59; and bareback riding, 1950,

  • Shōun Genkei (Japanese sculptor)

    Japanese art: Sculpture: Shōun Genkei is renowned for his production (1688–95) of a set of 500 arhats (disciples of the Buddha) at Gohyaku Rakan Temple in Edo. His inspiration came from exposure to Chinese sculpture imported by ōbaku Zen monks at Manpuku Temple to the south of Kyōto.…

  • Shouxing (Chinese deity)

    Shouxing, in Chinese mythology, one of three stellar gods known collectively as Fulushou. He was also called Nanji Laoren (“Old Man of the South Pole”). Though greatly revered as the god of longevity (shou), Shouxing has no temples. Instead, birthday parties for elders provide a fitting time for

  • shove-ha’penny (game)

    shuffleboard: Shove-ha’penny, a later version of shovel-penny, in which a coin or disk is pushed along a polished board so that it stops between closely ruled lines, is still a popular game in English pubs.

  • shoveboard (game)

    Shuffleboard, game in which disks are shoved by hand or with an implement so that they come to a stop on or within a scoring area marked on the board or court (on a table, floor, or outdoor hard surface such as concrete). It was popular in England as early as the 15th century, especially with the

  • shovegroat (game)

    Shuffleboard, game in which disks are shoved by hand or with an implement so that they come to a stop on or within a scoring area marked on the board or court (on a table, floor, or outdoor hard surface such as concrete). It was popular in England as early as the 15th century, especially with the

  • Shovel City (Ohio, United States)

    Marion, city, seat (1824) of Marion county, north central Ohio, U.S., approximately 45 miles (70 km) north of Columbus. Laid out about 1820, it was first called Jacob’s Well (for Jacob Foos, who dug for water there). Renamed in 1822 for Gen. Francis Marion of American Revolutionary War fame, it was

  • shovel, power (tool)

    Power shovel, digging and loading machine consisting of a revolving deck with a power plant, driving and controlling mechanisms, sometimes a counterweight, and a front attachment, such as a boom or crane, supporting a handle with a digger at the end. The whole mechanism is mounted on a base

  • shovel-billed kingfisher (bird)

    coraciiform: Locomotion and feeding: The shovel-billed kingfisher (Clytoceyx rex) of New Guinea is partly terrestrial and is known to feed on beetles and earthworms; the latter are apparently dug from the soil of the forest floor with the bird’s short, heavy bill. The ruddy kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda), widespread in Southeast…

  • shovel-penny (game)

    Shuffleboard, game in which disks are shoved by hand or with an implement so that they come to a stop on or within a scoring area marked on the board or court (on a table, floor, or outdoor hard surface such as concrete). It was popular in England as early as the 15th century, especially with the

  • shovel-tusker (mammal)

    proboscidean: Some proboscideans, called “shovel-tuskers,” developed a pair of long and broad lower incisors used for digging. Many, including the gomphotheres, had upper and lower pairs of tusks, whereas others had tusks only in the lower jaw.

  • shovelboard (game)

    Shuffleboard, game in which disks are shoved by hand or with an implement so that they come to a stop on or within a scoring area marked on the board or court (on a table, floor, or outdoor hard surface such as concrete). It was popular in England as early as the 15th century, especially with the

  • shoveler (bird)

    Shoveler, any of four species of dabbling ducks in the genus Anas (family Anatidae) with large, long, spoon-shaped bills. The northern shoveler (A. clypeata) nests in North America, Europe, and northern Asia, migrating to South America, North Africa, and southern Asia in winter. The male has a

  • shovelhead sturgeon (fish)

    sturgeon: Distribution: …Acipenseridae also includes the genus Scaphirhynchus, the shovelhead, or shovelnose, sturgeon, with three species distinguished by their long, broad, flat snouts. These fishes inhabit the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

  • shovelnose sturgeon (fish)

    sturgeon: Distribution: …Acipenseridae also includes the genus Scaphirhynchus, the shovelhead, or shovelnose, sturgeon, with three species distinguished by their long, broad, flat snouts. These fishes inhabit the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

  • Shover, Neal (American academic)

    Neal Shover, American academic specializing in corporate and white-collar crime. Shover’s first publication, a book chapter titled “Defining Organizational Crime” (1978), served to establish the parameters of the field of corporate and governmental deviance. Shover was raised in Columbus, Ohio,

  • Show Boat (work by Kern and Hammerstein II)

    musical: …the production in 1927 of Show Boat (music by Kern, book and lyrics by Hammerstein); it was the first musical to provide a cohesive plot and initiate the use of music that was integral to the narrative, a practice that did not fully take hold until the 1940s. Based on…

  • Show Boat (novel by Ferber)

    Show Boat, popular sentimental novel by Edna Ferber, published in 1926. The book chronicles three generations of a theatrical family who perform and live on a Mississippi River steamboat. It was the basis of a successful Broadway musical and has been produced several times for film and

  • Show Boat (film by Whale [1936])

    James Whale: Films of the later 1930s: Show Boat had been made in 1929 and would be again in 1951, but Whale’s version (1936) of the Oscar Hammerstein II—Jerome Kern musical (via the Edna Ferber novel) is often considered the best; Irene Dunne delivered a strong lead performance, and she had peerless…

  • Show Boat (film by Sidney [1951])

    George Sidney: Annie Get Your Gun, Kiss Me Kate, and Show Boat: …that success with the classic Show Boat (1951), a colourful version of the Jerome Kern–Oscar Hammerstein II Broadway musical, which was based on an Edna Ferber novel. Again, Garland was supposed to be one of the principals (Julie), but Ava Gardner ended up with the role; the cast also featured…

  • show control (computer technology)

    stagecraft: The computerized controller: The term show control refers to the process of using computers to precisely control the movement of various pieces of electrically and hydraulically powered equipment. Prior to the adoption of computer controllers, the ability to control more than one system at a time was, to a great…

  • Show de Cristina, El (American television show)

    Cristina Saralegui: …doing a talk show, and El Show de Cristina was born. The show’s format was similar to that of English-language talk shows of the time, but there was concern that some of the topics normally covered by them might be too risqué for Saralegui’s more conservative Hispanic audience. That apprehension…

  • show file (computer technology)

    stagecraft: Role of the sound designer: …designer edits them into a show file, which consists of digitized sound cues edited into the sequence in which they are to be used during the production. These cues are typically adjusted—they may be added, changed, or deleted, and loudness and cue placement may be altered—during the rehearsal period, but,…

  • show geranium (plant)

    Geraniales: The florist’s geranium (Pelargonium ×domesticum) is a favourite house plant and is available in many varieties. These cultivars (horticultural varieties) originated from plants native to South Africa. Geranium robertianum (herb Robert) is a well-known garden plant, as are some species of Erodium. Erodium cicutarium (pin-clover), a Mediterranean species…

  • show jumping (equestrian event)

    Show jumping, competitive equestrian event in which horse and rider are required to jump, usually within a time limit, a series of obstacles that have been designed for a particular show. If possible, the horse is warmed up by walking and trotting for at least half an hour before entering the

  • Show Me a Hero (American television miniseries)

    David Simon: …cowriter on the HBO miniseries Show Me a Hero (2015), the story of Nick Wasicsko, the young mayor of Yonkers, New York, who fought for the desegregation of the city’s public housing during the 1980s and ’90s.

  • Show Me State (state, United States)

    Missouri, constituent state of the United States of America. To the north lies Iowa; across the Mississippi River to the east, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; to the south, Arkansas; and to the west, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. With the exception of Tennessee, Missouri has more neighbouring

  • Shōwa (emperor of Japan)

    Hirohito, emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989. He was the longest-reigning monarch in Japan’s history. Hirohito was born at the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo, the son of the Taishō emperor and grandson of the Meiji emperor. He was educated at the Peers’ School and at the Crown Prince’s

  • Showa (historical kingdom, Ethiopia)

    Shewa, historic kingdom of central Ethiopia. It lies mostly on high plateau country, rising to 13,123 feet (4,000 m) in Mount ābuyē Mēda. Its modern capital and main commercial centre is Addis Ababa. Shewa is bounded on the northwest by the Blue Nile River and on the southwest by the Omo River;

  • Shōwa Day (Japanese holiday)

    Golden Week: The four holidays are Shōwa Day (April 29), Constitution Day (May 3), Greenery Day (May 4), and Children’s Day (May 5).

  • Shōwa no Hi (Japanese holiday)

    Golden Week: The four holidays are Shōwa Day (April 29), Constitution Day (May 3), Greenery Day (May 4), and Children’s Day (May 5).

  • Shōwa period (Japanese history)

    Shōwa period, in Japanese history, the period (1926–89) corresponding to the reign of the emperor Hirohito. The two Chinese characters (kanji) in the name Shōwa translate as “Bright Peace” in Japanese. However, a more nuanced interpretation is “Enlightened Harmony”—with the added significance that

  • Showalter, Elaine (American literary critic and teacher)

    Elaine Showalter, American literary critic and teacher and founder of gynocritics, a school of feminist criticism concerned with “woman as writer…with the history, themes, genres, and structures of literature by women.” Showalter studied English at Bryn Mawr College (B.A., 1962), Brandeis

  • Showboat (American musical)

    Alberta Hunter: …the 1928–29 London production of Showboat with Paul Robeson. She returned to the United States in 1929, but the Great Depression eroded even the dubious security of vaudeville, and in 1933 she headed back to Europe, where work was more plentiful and racism less evident. In 1935 she played a…

  • showboat (theatre)

    Showboat, floating theatre that tied up at towns along the waterways of the southern and midwestern United States, especially along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, to bring culture and entertainment to the inhabitants of river frontiers. The earliest of these entertainment boats were family-owned

  • showbread (Judaism)

    Shewbread, any of the 12 loaves of bread that stood for the 12 tribes of Israel, presented and shown in the Temple of Jerusalem in the Presence of God. The loaves were a symbolic acknowledgment that God was the resource for Israel’s life and nourishment and also served as Israel’s act of t

  • shower (meteorology)

    climate: Showers, thunderstorms, and hail: Precipitation from shower clouds and thunderstorms, whether in the form of raindrops, pellets of soft hail, or true hailstones, is generally of great intensity and shorter duration than that from layer clouds and is usually composed of larger particles. The clouds…

  • shower bath

    construction: Plumbing: Shower baths are also common, often incorporated into bathtub recesses or in a separate compartment finished with ceramic tile. In some countries a bidet is included.

  • shower meteor (astronomy)

    Meteor shower, temporary rise in the rate of meteor sightings, caused by the entry into Earth’s atmosphere of a number of meteoroids (see meteor and meteoroid) at approximately the same place in the sky and the same time of year, traveling in parallel paths and apparently having a common origin.

  • Showing My Color: Impolite Essays on Race and Identity (work by Page)

    Clarence Page: …essays appeared in his book Showing My Color: Impolite Essays on Race and Identity (1996), in which he argued against the concept of “colour-blindness,” emphasizing instead the importance of engaging one’s ethnic heritage. In 2000 Page published the book A Bridge to the New Media Century.

  • Showscan (cinema)

    motion-picture technology: Wide-screen and stereoscopic pictures: …increase in frame rate (Showscan operates at 60 frames per second) or increase in overall picture size—height as well as width (IMAX and Futurevision). In these formats the sound tracks are usually printed on a separate, magnetic strip of film.

  • Showtime (American cable television company)

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: …seasons the premium cable channel Showtime offered an “after-hours” version of the show.

  • showy orchis (plant)
  • showy oxytropis (plant)

    locoweed: …to purplish flowers; and the showy oxytropis (O. splendens), bearing silvery hairs and rich lavender-pink flowers.

  • Shōyuken (Japanese poet)

    Matsunaga Teitoku, renowned Japanese scholar and haikai poet of the early Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who founded the Teitoku (or Teimon) school of haikai poetry. Teitoku raised haikai—comic renga (“linked verses”) from which the more serious 17-syllable haiku of Bashō were derived—to an

  • shōzoku (religious garment)

    Shōzoku, vestments worn by the Shintō priests of Japan during the performance of religious ceremonies. Most of the costumes appear to date from the Heian period (794–1185) and originated as the dress of noblemen, the colours and cut often determined by court rank. The basic garment is the hakama, a

  • Sho?ah (European history)

    Holocaust, the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by NaziGermany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this “the final solution to the Jewish question.” Yiddish-speaking Jews and survivors in the years

  • Shqip

    Albanian language, Indo-European language spoken in Albania and by smaller numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of the southern Balkans, along the east coast of Italy and in Sicily, in southern Greece, and in Germany, Sweden, the United States, Ukraine, and Belgium. Albanian is the only

  • Shqip?ri

    Albanian language, Indo-European language spoken in Albania and by smaller numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of the southern Balkans, along the east coast of Italy and in Sicily, in southern Greece, and in Germany, Sweden, the United States, Ukraine, and Belgium. Albanian is the only

  • Shqip?ri

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiran?). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptar?—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Shqip?ria

    Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiran?). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptar?—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well

  • Shqiptar? (people)

    Kosovo: Ethnic groups: The Albanian share of the population rose from about half in 1946 to about four-fifths by the 1990s. Meanwhile, the proportion of Serbs fell to less than one-fifth. After the Kosovo conflict of 1998–99, additional Serbs emigrated. Thus, in the early 21st century, the population makeup…

  • shraddha (Hinduism)

    Shraddha, in Hinduism, a ceremony performed in honour of a dead ancestor. The rite is both a social and a religious responsibility enjoined on all male Hindus (with the exception of some sannyasis, or ascetics). The importance given in India to the birth of sons reflects the need to ensure that

  • shraddha (Buddhism)

    Saddha, (Pali: “trust,” “faith,” “fidelity”) in Buddhism, the religious disposition of a Buddhist. The Theravada branch of Buddhism, which claims to adhere most closely to the teachings of the historical Buddha, does not rely upon supernatural authority or the word of the Buddha. Rather, it claims

  • shrapnel (weaponry)

    Shrapnel, originally a type of antipersonnel projectile named for its inventor, Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), an English artillery officer. Shrapnel projectiles contained small shot or spherical bullets, usually of lead, along with an explosive charge to scatter the shot as well as fragments of the

  • Shrapnel, Henry (British inventor)

    Henry Shrapnel, artillery officer and inventor of a form of artillery case shot. Commissioned in the Royal Artillery in 1779, he served in Newfoundland, Gibraltar, and the West Indies and was wounded in Flanders in the Duke of York’s unsuccessful campaign against the French in 1793. In 1804 he

  • Shrauta-sutra (Hindu text)

    Shrauta-sutra, any of a number of Hindu ritual manuals used by priests engaged in the performance of the grander Vedic sacrifices, those requiring three fires and the services of many specialized priests. The manuals are called shrauta (from Sanskrit shruti, “revelation”; literally “that which is

  • shravakayana (Buddhism)

    pratyeka-buddha: …way of the disciple (shravakayana) and the way of the self-enlightened buddha (pratyeka-buddhayana). The latter concept was retained only in the Theravada tradition. By contrast, Mahayana Buddhists emphasize the ideal of the bodhisattva, who postpones his own final enlightenment while he works toward the salvation of others, and they

  • Shravana Belgola (India)

    Shravanabelagola, town, southern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in a hilly upland region, about 55 miles (90 km) north of Mysuru (Mysore). Shravanabelagola contains notable examples of Mauryan architecture (from the Mauryan empire [c. 321–185 bce]). In addition to notable

  • Shravanabelagola (India)

    Shravanabelagola, town, southern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in a hilly upland region, about 55 miles (90 km) north of Mysuru (Mysore). Shravanabelagola contains notable examples of Mauryan architecture (from the Mauryan empire [c. 321–185 bce]). In addition to notable

  • Shravanabelgola (India)

    Shravanabelagola, town, southern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in a hilly upland region, about 55 miles (90 km) north of Mysuru (Mysore). Shravanabelagola contains notable examples of Mauryan architecture (from the Mauryan empire [c. 321–185 bce]). In addition to notable

  • Shravasti (ancient city, India)

    Shravasti, city of ancient India, located near the Rapti River in northeastern Uttar Pradesh state. In Buddhist times (6th century bce–6th century ce), Shravasti was the capital of the kingdom of Kosala and was important both as a prosperous trading centre and for its religious associations. It

  • Shrayber, Maria S. (Soviet pharmacologist)

    chromatography: Early developments: Izmaylov and Maria S. Shrayber, distributed the support material as a thin film on a glass plate. The plate and support material could then be manipulated in a fashion similar to that of paper chromatography. The results of the Soviet studies were reported in 1938, but the…

  • SHRDLU (computer program)

    artificial intelligence: Microworld programs: …of the microworld approach was SHRDLU, written by Terry Winograd of MIT. (Details of the program were published in 1972.) SHRDLU controlled a robot arm that operated above a flat surface strewn with play blocks. Both the arm and the blocks were virtual. SHRDLU would respond to commands typed in…

  • shredded cereal (food)

    cereal processing: Shredded cereals: Shredded wheat, differing from other breakfast foods, is made from whole grains with the germ and bran retained and no flavour added. In its final form it is in tablets composed of shreds of cooked and toasted wheat. The wheat is cleaned and…

  • shredded wheat (food)

    cereal processing: Shredded cereals: Shredded wheat, differing from other breakfast foods, is made from whole grains with the germ and bran retained and no flavour added. In its final form it is in tablets composed of shreds of cooked and toasted wheat. The wheat is cleaned and then boiled…

  • Shrek (animated film by Adamson and Jenson [2001])

    Julie Andrews: …in several of the animated Shrek films (2004, 2007, and 2010). In addition, Andrews voiced characters in Despicable Me (2010), Despicable Me 3 (2017), and Aquaman (2018). In 2011 she won a Grammy Award for Julie Andrews’

  • Shrek (fictional character)

    Shrek, animated cartoon character, a towering, green ogre whose fearsome appearance belies a kind heart. Shrek is the star of a highly successful series of animated films. At the beginning of the 2001 film Shrek, the title character lives as a recluse in a remote swamp in the fairy-tale land of

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