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  • Shrek 2 (motion picture [2004])

    Julie Andrews: …the animated Shrek films (2004, 2007, and 2010). In addition, Andrews voiced characters in Despicable Me (2010), Despicable Me 3 (2017), and Aquaman (2018). In 2011 she won a Grammy Award for Julie Andrews’ Collection of Poems, Songs, and Lullabies, a

  • Shrek Forever After (film by Mitchell [2010])

    Julie Andrews: films (2004, 2007, and 2010). In addition, Andrews voiced characters in Despicable Me (2010), Despicable Me 3 (2017), and Aquaman (2018). In 2011 she won a Grammy Award for Julie Andrews’ Collection of Poems, Songs, and Lullabies, a spoken-word album for children, and she was honoured with a special…

  • Shrek the Third (film by Miller [2007])

    Julie Andrews: 2007, and 2010). In addition, Andrews voiced characters in Despicable Me (2010), Despicable Me 3 (2017), and Aquaman (2018). In 2011 she won a Grammy Award for Julie Andrews’ Collection of Poems, Songs, and Lullabies, a spoken-word album for children, and

  • shreni (Indian guild)

    India: Guilds: …to commercial activity was the shreni, or guild, through which trade was channeled. The guilds were registered with the town authority, and the activities of guild members followed strict guidelines called the shreni-dharma. The wealthier guilds employed slaves and hired labourers in addition to their own artisans, though the percentage…

  • Shreve, Forrest (American botanist)

    biogeography: …the work of American botanists Forrest Shreve, Homer L. Shantz, Hugh M. Raup, and others.

  • Shreve, Henry Miller (American river captain and engineer)

    Henry Miller Shreve, American river captain and pioneer steamboat builder who contributed significantly to developing the potential of the Mississippi River waterway system. Shreve’s father was a Quaker who nevertheless served as a colonel in the American Revolutionary War and lost all his

  • Shreveport (Louisiana, United States)

    Shreveport, city, seat (1838) of Caddo parish, northwestern corner of Louisiana, U.S., on the Red River, opposite Bossier City. In 1835 Henry Miller Shreve, a river captain and steamboat builder, opened the Red River for navigation by clearing it of a 165-mile (266-km) jam of natural debris called

  • shrew (mammal)

    Shrew, (family Soricidae), any of more than 350 species of insectivores having a mobile snout that is covered with long sensitive whiskers and overhangs the lower lip. Their large incisor teeth are used like forceps to grab prey; the upper pair is hooked, and the lower pair extends forward. Shrews

  • shrew flea (insect)

    flea: Parasitism: , shrew fleas and rabbit fleas) are highly host-specific, whereas other species parasitize a variety of mammals. The cat flea infects not only the domestic cat but dogs, foxes, civets, mongooses, opossums, leopards, and other mammals, including humans, if its regular hosts are not available. Related…

  • shrew gymnure (mammal)

    gymnure: The shrew gymnure (Neotetracus sinensis) lives in cool and damp mountain forests at elevations of 300–2,700 metres (roughly 1,000–9,000 feet) in southern China and adjacent regions of Myanmar (Burma) and northern Vietnam. The long-eared, or Laos, gymnure (H. megalotis) is restricted to limestone

  • shrew opossum (marsupial)

    Rat opossum, (family Caenolestidae), any of six species of South American marsupials in the order Paucituberculata. Rat opossums include the common shrew opossums (genus Caenolestes) with four species, the Incan caenolestid (Lestoros inca), and the Chilean shrew opossum (Rhyncholestes raphanurus).

  • shrew rat (rodent)

    Shrew rat, any of 24 species of carnivorous ground-dwelling rodents found only on the tropical islands of Sulawesi (Celebes), the Philippines, and New Guinea. Eighteen species live exclusively at high elevations in cool, wet mossy forests; the other six inhabit lowland and foothill rainforests.

  • shrew-faced ground squirrel (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Tropical ground squirrels: The shrew-faced ground squirrel (R. laticaudatus) of the Sunda Islands, for example, is highly specialized to eat earthworms and insects with its greatly elongated snout, long tongue, and weak incisor teeth. The three-striped ground squirrel (L. insignis), also of the Sunda Islands, is reported to eat…

  • Shrewsbury (England, United Kingdom)

    Shrewsbury, town, administrative and historic county of Shropshire, western England. It is the county town (seat) of Shropshire, and its strategic position near the border between England and Wales has made it a town of great importance. The older, central portion of the town lies on a peninsula

  • Shrewsbury and Atcham (former district, England, United Kingdom)

    Shrewsbury and Atcham, former borough (district), administrative and historic county of Shropshire, west-central England, in the west-central part of the county. Wales lies across the area’s western border. Shrewsbury and Atcham is an undulating plain covered with glacial drift and drained by the

  • Shrewsbury School (school, Shrewsbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Shrewsbury School, in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, one of the major public (privately endowed) schools in England, founded in 1552 by Edward VI. Thomas Ashton, the first headmaster, gave it a classical and humanistic tone that has been retained, though sciences and other studies are now also prominent

  • Shrewsbury, Battle of (Welsh-English history)

    Henry Percy, 1st earl of Northumberland: …Hotspur was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury (July 21, 1403), and his brother, the earl of Worcester, was captured and beheaded. Northumberland took no part in the battle, having reached the scene too late with his troops. He retired northward but afterward met the king and repledged his oath…

  • Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot, Duke and 12th Earl of (English statesman)

    Charles Talbot, duke and 12th earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman who played a leading part in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and who was largely responsible for the peaceful succession of the Hanoverian George I to the English throne in 1714. Although he displayed great determination in these

  • Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot, Duke and 12th Earl of, Marquess of Alton (English statesman)

    Charles Talbot, duke and 12th earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman who played a leading part in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and who was largely responsible for the peaceful succession of the Hanoverian George I to the English throne in 1714. Although he displayed great determination in these

  • Shrewsbury, John Talbot, 1st earl of (English military officer)

    John Talbot, 1st earl of Shrewsbury, the chief English military commander against the French during the final phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). The son of Richard, 4th Baron Talbot, he served in campaigns in Wales between 1404 and 1413 and as lieutenant of Ireland (1414–19), when he

  • Shrewsbury, Robert of Belesme, 3rd earl of (Norman magnate and soldier)

    Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shropshire or Shrewsbury, Norman magnate, soldier, and outstanding military architect, who for a time was the most powerful vassal of the English crown under the second and third Norman kings, William II Rufus (died 1100) and Henry I. His contemporary reputation for

  • Shrewsbury, Roger de Montgomery, 1st earl of (Norman noble)

    Roger de Montgomery, 1st earl of Shrewsbury, Norman lord and supporter of William I the Conqueror of England. Roger de Montgomery, son of another Roger de Montgomery, known as “the Great,” was a councillor of William, duke of Normandy, before his invasion of England and was probably entrusted by

  • Shrewsbury, Treaty of (England-Wales [1267])

    Edward I: Wars: …recognize Llywelyn’s gains by the Treaty of Shrewsbury (1267), but Edward was determined to reduce Llywelyn and used Llywelyn’s persistent evasion of his duty to perform homage as a pretext for attack. He invaded Wales by three coordinated advances with naval support (1277), blockaded Llywelyn in Snowdonia, starved him into…

  • Shri (Hindu deity)

    Lakshmi, Hindu goddess of wealth and good fortune. The wife of Vishnu, she is said to have taken different forms in order to be with him in each of his incarnations. Thus, when he was the dwarf Vamana, she appeared from a lotus and was known as Padma, or Kamala, both of which mean “Lotus”; when he

  • Shri Krishna Chaitanya (Hindu mystic)

    Chaitanya, Hindu mystic whose mode of worshipping the god Krishna with ecstatic song and dance had a profound effect on Vaishnavism in Bengal. The son of a Brahman, he grew up in an atmosphere of piety and affection. He received a thorough education in the Sanskrit scriptures and, after the death

  • Shri Kshetra (Myanmar)

    Pyay: …K?etra is now known as Hmawza. Excavations, which began there in 1907, revealed the uniquely Pyu culture as opposed to the Mon and Burman. The city was almost circular, its walls enclosed in an area of about 18 square miles (47 square km), the northern portion being planted in rice.…

  • Shri Yajna Shatakarni (Satavahana ruler)

    India: The Andhras and their successors: …the important Andhra kings was Yajnashri Shatakarni, who ruled at the end of the 2nd century ce and asserted his authority over the Shakas. The 3rd century saw the decline of Satavahana power, as the kingdom broke into small pockets of control under various branches of the family.

  • Shri-Nathaji (Hinduism)

    Shri-Nathaji, representation of the Hindu god Krishna. It is the major image of devotion for the Vallabhacharya (or Vallabha Sampradaya), a religious sect of India. The image is enshrined in the main temple of the sect at Nathdwara (Rajasthan state), where it is accorded an elaborate service of

  • Shribhashya (Hindu literature)

    Shrivaishnava: …its philosophical doctrine upon the Shribhashya (“Beautiful Commentary”) of Ramanuja, an exposition of the Vedanta-sutras.

  • shrichakra (religious symbol)

    yantra: …is the shriyantra (also called shrichakra, “wheel of Shri”). It is composed of nine triangles: five pointing downward, said to represent the yoni, or vulva, and four pointing upward, said to represent the lingam, or phallus. The dynamic interplay is understood to be an expression of all the cosmic manifestations,…

  • Shridhara (Hindu mathematician)

    Shridhara, highly esteemed Hindu mathematician who wrote several treatises on the two major fields of Indian mathematics, pati-ganita (“mathematics of procedures,” or algorithms) and bija-ganita (“mathematics of seeds,” or equations). Very little is known about Shridhara’s life. Some scholars

  • Shrieve, Mike (American musician)

    Santana: …25, 1946, León, Nicaragua), and Mike Shrieve (b. July 6, 1949, San Francisco).

  • Shriharsha (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Shankara’s theory of error and religious and ethical concerns: …followers of Shankara, such as Shriharsha in his Khandanakhandakhadya and his commentator Chitsukha, used a destructive, negative dialectic in the manner of Nagarjuna to criticize humanity’s basic concepts about the world.

  • Shrikantha (Indian author)

    Indian philosophy: Shaiva-siddhanta: …Shiva”) in the 14th century, Shrikantha’s commentary on the Vedanta-sutras (14th century), and Appaya Dikshita’s commentary thereon.

  • shrike (bird)

    Shrike, (family Laniidae), any of approximately 30 species of medium-sized predatory birds (order Passeriformes); in particular, any of the more than 25 species of the genus Lanius, constituting the subfamily of true shrikes, Laniinae. With their bills they can kill large insects, lizards, mice,

  • Shrike (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: The rocket-powered AGM-45 Shrike antiradiation missile was used in Vietnam to attack enemy radar and surface-to-air sites by passively homing onto their radar emissions. The first missile of its kind used in combat, the Shrike had to be tuned to the desired radar frequency before flight. Because…

  • shrike-tyrant (bird)

    tyrant flycatcher: The shrike-tyrants (Agriornis) of southern South America take prey as large as mice and small frogs. A number of tyrannids, especially the elaenias, feed extensively on berries and other fruit.

  • shrike-vireo (bird)

    Shrike-vireo, (genus Vireolanius), any of about four species of tropical American songbirds, characterized by a stout, slightly hooked bill (like the true shrikes in the family Laniidae) but with anatomical features that ally them with the vireos (family Vireonidae; order Passeriformes).

  • SHRIMP (geological instrument)

    Earth sciences: Radiometric dating: The SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) enables the accurate determination of the uranium-lead age of the mineral zircon, and this has revolutionized the understanding of the isotopic age of formation of zircon-bearing igneous granitic rocks. Another technological development is the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass…

  • shrimp (crustacean)

    Shrimp, any of the approximately 2,000 species of the suborder Natantia (order Decapoda of the class Crustacea). Close relatives include crabs, crayfish, and lobsters. Shrimp are characterized by a semitransparent body flattened from side to side and a flexible abdomen terminating in a fanlike

  • Shrimp and the Anemone, The (novel by Hartley)

    L.P. Hartley: The Shrimp and the Anemone (1944), his first novel in 19 years, was the first part of a trilogy about a brother and sister, Eustace and Hilda. The first volume treats their childhood. The Sixth Heaven (1946) and Eustace and Hilda (1947) follow them in…

  • shrimp bush (plant)

    Shrimp plant, (Justicia brandegeeana), popular border and greenhouse ornamental of the family Acanthaceae, native to warm regions of the Americas and to the West Indies. Grown for its unusual flower clusters, the shrimp plant will bloom continuously in frost-free areas and is highly attractive to

  • shrimp plant (plant)

    Shrimp plant, (Justicia brandegeeana), popular border and greenhouse ornamental of the family Acanthaceae, native to warm regions of the Americas and to the West Indies. Grown for its unusual flower clusters, the shrimp plant will bloom continuously in frost-free areas and is highly attractive to

  • shrimpfish (fish)

    Shrimpfish, any of four species of small, tropical marine fishes of the family Centriscidae (order Gasterosteiformes), found in the Indo-Pacific. The name razorfish derives from the shrimpfishes’ characteristic sharp-edged belly. Shrimpfishes are nearly transparent, long-snouted, shrimplike fishes,

  • shrine (religion)

    miracle: Sacred places: Normally these are natural shrines, such as sacred groves, or temples and sanctuaries in which gods or spirits live or have manifested themselves or in which their statues, symbols, holy objects, or relics are enshrined. Holy places, such as Mecca and the Ka?bah in Islam or the Buddhist stupas,…

  • Shrine Island (island, Japan)

    Itsuku Island, offshore island, Hiroshima ken (prefecture), Japan, in the Inland Sea. The small island, one of Japan’s most scenic locations, is 19 miles (31 km) in circumference and occupies an area of 12 square miles (31 square km). It is best known for its 6th-century shrine, which was built on

  • Shrine of St. Ursula (painting by Memling)

    Hans Memling: …extensive narration is the sumptuous Shrine of St. Ursula in the Hospital of St. John. It was commissioned by two nuns, Jacosa van Dudzeele and Anna van den Moortele, who are portrayed at one end of the composition kneeling before Mary. This reliquary, completed in 1489, is in the form…

  • Shrine of the Book (building, Israel)

    Frederick John Kiesler: …last important work was the Shrine of the Book (1959–65), which houses the Dead Sea Scrolls in Israel.

  • Shrine Shintō (Japanese religion)

    Shrine Shintō, form of the Shintō religion of Japan that focusses on worship in public shrines, in contrast to folk and sectarian practices (see Kyōha Shintō); the successor to State Shintō, the nationalistic cult disbanded by decree of the Allied occupation forces at the end of World War II and

  • Shriners (fraternal order)

    circus: History: …local groups such as the Shriners—also performed.

  • shrinkage

    textile: Shrinkage control: Shrinkage control processes are applied by compressive shrinkage, resin treatment, or heat-setting. Compressive, or relaxation, shrinkage is applied to cotton and to certain cotton blends to reduce the stretching they experience during weaving and other processing. The fabric is dampened and dried in a relaxed…

  • shrinkage stoping

    mining: Shrinkage stoping: Shrinkage stoping is used in steeply dipping, relatively narrow ore bodies with regular boundaries. Ore and waste (both the hanging wall and the footwall) should be strong, and the ore should not be affected by storage in the stope.

  • Shripati (Indian astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician)

    Shripati, Indian astronomer-astrologer and mathematician whose astrological writings were particularly influential. Shripati wrote various works in the first two of the three branches of astral science (jyotihshastra)—namely, mathematics (including astronomy), horoscopic astrology, and natural

  • Shrirampur (India)

    Shrirampur, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It is located just west of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is part of the Kolkata (Calcutta) urban agglomeration. Originally a Danish settlement founded in the 18th century and called Frederiksnagar, the town was acquired by the

  • Shriranga III (āravī?u ruler)

    India: Breakup of the empire: …while Venkata III’s own nephew Shriranga allied himself with Bijapur. Interestingly, it was Venkata who granted the Madraspatna fort to the English as the site for a factory (trading post). In 1642 an expedition from Golconda drove the king from his capital at Vellore. Hearing that his uncle was dying,…

  • Shrirangapattana (India)

    Shrirangapattana, town, south-central Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated at the western end of an island in the Kaveri (Cauvery) River, just north of Mysore. The town is named for its 12th-century temple dedicated to Shri Ranga (the Hindu god Vishnu). It was fortified in the 15th

  • Shrivaishnavas (Hindu sect)

    Shrivaishnava, member of a Hindu sect, most numerous in South India, that pays allegiance to the god Vishnu and follows the teachings of the philosopher Ramanuja (c. 1017–1137). “Shri” refers to Vishnu’s consort, also called Lakshmi, to whom Vishnu first taught the doctrine. The sect bases its

  • Shriver, Eunice Kennedy (American philanthropist)

    Eunice Kennedy Shriver, (Eunice Mary Kennedy), American social activist (born July 10, 1921, Brookline, Mass.—died Aug. 11, 2009, Hyannis, Mass.), worked tirelessly to improve the lives of the mentally disabled and, in an effort to provide a forum for them to compete athletically, founded (1968)

  • Shriver, Maria (American television journalist)

    Maria Shriver, first lady of California (2003–11) and American television journalist best known as a reporter for the NBC (National Broadcasting Company) program Dateline and as the host of First Person with Maria Shriver, an interview-based program featuring public figures. Shriver was born into a

  • Shriver, R. Sargent (American politician)

    R. Sargent Shriver, administrator, diplomat, first director (1961–66) of the U.S. Peace Corps, and Democratic nominee for the U.S. vice presidency in 1972. A graduate of Yale Law School (1941), Shriver served as a U.S. naval officer during World War II, and, after a brief association with a Wall

  • Shriver, Robert Sargent, Jr. (American politician)

    R. Sargent Shriver, administrator, diplomat, first director (1961–66) of the U.S. Peace Corps, and Democratic nominee for the U.S. vice presidency in 1972. A graduate of Yale Law School (1941), Shriver served as a U.S. naval officer during World War II, and, after a brief association with a Wall

  • Shrivijaya (historical kingdom, Indonesia)

    Srivijaya empire, maritime and commercial kingdom that flourished between the 7th and the 13th centuries, largely in what is now Indonesia. The kingdom originated in Palembang on the island of Sumatra and soon extended its influence and controlled the Strait of Malacca. Srivijaya’s power was based

  • shriyantra (religious symbol)

    yantra: …is the shriyantra (also called shrichakra, “wheel of Shri”). It is composed of nine triangles: five pointing downward, said to represent the yoni, or vulva, and four pointing upward, said to represent the lingam, or phallus. The dynamic interplay is understood to be an expression of all the cosmic manifestations,…

  • Shrock, Robert R. (American geologist)

    sedimentary rock: Classification systems: Pettijohn, Robert R. Shrock, and Paul D. Krynine. Their classifications provide the basis for all modern discussion of the subject. The nomenclature associated with several schemes of classifying clastic and nonclastic rocks will be discussed in the following sections, but a rough division of sedimentary rocks…

  • Shropshire (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Shropshire, geographic and historic county and unitary authority of western England bordering on Wales. Historically, the area has been known as Shropshire as well as by its older, Norman-derived name of Salop. Shrewsbury, in central Shropshire, is the administrative centre. The geographic and

  • Shropshire (breed of sheep)

    Shropshire, breed of medium-wool, dark-faced, hornless sheep originating in the Downs of England. It is one of the most popular farm sheep in the Midwestern United States. It produces good wool and mutton and subsists on sparse pasturage more successfully than breeds such as the Hampshire or

  • Shropshire Hills (hills, England, United Kingdom)

    South Shropshire: The Shropshire Hills, a series of ridges oriented southwest to northeast, including the Stiperstones, Long Mynd, and Clee Hills, rise to elevations of 1,600 to 1,700 feet (475 to 500 metres) and are separated by deep valleys; they occupy most of the area. Officially designated an…

  • Shropshire Lad, A (poetry by Housman)

    A Shropshire Lad, a collection of 63 poems by A.E. Housman, published in 1896. Housman’s lyrics express a Romantic pessimism in a clear, direct style. The poems of Heinrich Heine, the songs of William Shakespeare, and Scottish border ballads were Housman’s models, from which he learned to express

  • Shropshire, Robert of Bellême, 3rd earl of (Norman magnate and soldier)

    Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shropshire or Shrewsbury, Norman magnate, soldier, and outstanding military architect, who for a time was the most powerful vassal of the English crown under the second and third Norman kings, William II Rufus (died 1100) and Henry I. His contemporary reputation for

  • shroud (ship part)

    rigging: …is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are made fast; the shrouds also serve as ladders to permit the crew to climb aloft. The masts and forestays support all the sails. The ropes by which the yards, on square riggers, the booms…

  • shroud (grave clothing)

    religious dress: Later religious dress: Shrouds are normally of unadorned white linen, following the sumptuary ruling of the 1st-century-ce rabbi Gamaliel the Elder. To the shroud may be added the ?allit used by the deceased, but with the fringes removed or cut, because the prescription governing their use applies only…

  • Shrove Tuesday (Christianity)

    Shrove Tuesday, the day immediately preceding Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent in Western churches). It occurs between February 2 and March 9, depending on the date of Easter. Shrove, derived from shrive, refers to the confession of sins as a preparation for Lent, a usual practice in Europe in

  • Shrovetide play (German play)

    Fastnachtsspiel, carnival or Shrovetide play that emerged in the 15th century as the first truly secular drama of pre-Reformation Germany. Usually performed on platform stages in the open air by amateur actors, students, and artisans, the Fastnachtsspiele consisted of a mixture of popular and

  • shrub (plant)

    Shrub, any woody plant that has several stems, none dominant, and is usually less than 3 m (10 feet) tall. When much-branched and dense, it may be called a bush. Intermediate between shrubs and trees are arborescences, or treelike shrubs, from 3 to 6 m tall. Trees are generally defined as woody

  • shrub althaea (plant, Hibiscus species)

    Rose of Sharon, (Hibiscus syriacus, or Althaea syriaca), shrub or small tree, in the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), native to eastern Asia but widely planted as an ornamental for its showy flowers. It can attain a height of 3 metres (10 feet) and generally assumes a low-branching

  • shrub rose (plant)

    rose: Major species and hybrids: …be trained to ascend trellises; shrub roses, which develop into large bushes; and miniature roses, which are pygmy-sized plants bearing tiny blossoms. Altogether there are thousands of identifiable varieties of roses in those and other classes.

  • shrub savanna (grassland)

    savanna: Environment: …with scattered trees and shrubs; shrub savanna, with scattered shrubs; and grass savanna, from which trees and shrubs are generally absent. Other classifications have also been suggested.

  • shrubby cinquefoil (plant genus)

    cinquefoil: The genus Dasiphora, known as shrubby cinquefoils, is closely related to Potentilla and consists of three species of shrubs with pinnately compound leaves and five-petaled flowers. D. fruticosa (formerly P. fruticosa) has provided many dwarf shrubs used in landscaping.

  • shrubby tundra (ecosystem)

    Russia: Tundra: …areas of mosses and lichens; shrubby tundra, with mosses, lichens, herbaceous plants, dwarf Arctic birch, and shrub willow; and wooded tundra, with more extensive areas of stunted birch, larch, and spruce. There are considerable stretches of sphagnum bog. Apart from reindeer, which are herded by the indigenous population, the main…

  • shrubland (ecology)

    Scrubland, diverse assortment of vegetation types sharing the common physical characteristic of dominance by shrubs. A shrub is defined as a woody plant not exceeding 5 metres (16.4 feet) in height if it has a single main stem, or 8 metres if it is multistemmed. The world’s main areas of scrubland

  • shrunken head (talisman)

    headhunting: …skin with hot sand, thus shrinking it to the size of the head of a small monkey but preserving the features intact. There, again, headhunting was probably associated with cannibalism in a ceremonial form.

  • Shruti (Hindu sacred literature)

    Shruti, (Sanskrit: “What Is Heard”) in Hinduism, the most-revered body of sacred literature, considered to be the product of divine revelation. Shruti works are considered to have been heard and transmitted by earthly sages, as contrasted to Smriti, or that which is remembered by ordinary human

  • shruti (music)

    ?ruti, (Sanskrit: “heard”), in the music of India and Pakistan, the smallest tonal interval that can be perceived. The octave, in Indian theory, is divided into 22 ?rutis. The division is not precisely equal, but these microtonal units may be compared to Western quarter tones, of which there are 24

  • SHS (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: High-temperature synthesis: In a reaction known as self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), highly reactive metal particles ignite in contact with boron, carbon, nitrogen, and silica to form boride, carbide, nitride, and silicide ceramics. Since the reactions are extremely exothermic (heat-producing), the reaction fronts propagate rapidly through the precursor powders. Usually, the ultimate particle…

  • shtadlan (Jewish advocate)

    Josel Of Rosheim: …Alsace [now in France]), famous shtadlan (advocate who protected the interests and pled the cause of the Jewish people); through persistent legal exertions, he aborted many incipient acts of persecution.

  • Shtayyeh, Mohammad (Palestinian government official)

    Palestinian Authority: Domestic affairs, the Gaza Strip, and relations with Hamas: …was replaced in March by Mohammad Shtayyeh, a chief negotiator of the Oslo Accords.

  • shtetl (Jewish community)

    dietary law: Elaboration of the Jewish laws: …eastern European Jewish community (or shtetl), behaviour in regard to food not only included the biblical prescriptions and proscriptions but in many ways resembled the behaviour of people in the corporate communities of tribal societies. The major life crises were celebrated by feasts or other uses of food. Wine and…

  • Shtetl and Other Yiddish Novellas, A (novella by Bergelson)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in Poland and the Soviet Union: …Depot,” translated into English in A Shtetl and Other Yiddish Novellas [1986]), his first novella, already exemplifies the new modernism—involving multiple perspectives and internal monologues in free, indirect style. Bergelson’s characteristic atmosphere of futility and despair is vividly present in the novella In a fargrebter shtot (1914; “In a Backwoods…

  • Shtetl, Dos (work by Asch)

    Sholem Asch: …and with Dos Shtetl (1905; The Little Town, 1907) he began a career outstanding for both output and impact. His tales, novels, and plays filled 29 volumes in a collected Yiddish edition published in 1929–38. By their vitality and vigorous naturalism, his works attracted sizable reading publics in Europe and…

  • Shtiler, Shtiler (story by Leib)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: …of his best-known poems, “Shtiler, Shtiler” (1914; “Hush, Hush”) is “a credo for a poetry of nuance and understatement, a kind of allegorical reflection on the state of modern Jewish life, and a play upon the messianic expectation that runs through the whole Jewish experience” (according to the American…

  • Shtokavian (language)

    Croatia: Languages: …literary language, based on the Shtokavian dialect, emerged in the second half of the 19th century as a result of an effort to unite all South Slavs. Although all three major branches of Serbo-Croatian (Shtokavian, Chakavian, and Kajkavian) were spoken by Croats (as they still are today), the Shtokavian dialect…

  • Shtyurmer, Boris Vladimirovich (prime minister of Russia)

    Boris Vladimirovich Sturmer, Russian public official, who served as prime minister, minister of the interior, and minister of foreign affairs during World War I. Before his appointment to the premiership, Sturmer served as master of ceremonies at court, was a department head in the Ministry of the

  • shu (Chinese philosophy)

    Han Feizi: Political thought: …ruler must make use of shu (“administrative techniques” or “statecraft”). Rulers of the Warring States period found it advantageous to employ men skilled in government, diplomacy, and war. But how to separate solid talent from idle chatter became a serious problem. Shu was Han Feizi’s answer to the problem. After…

  • Shu (Egyptian god)

    Shu, in Egyptian religion, god of the air and supporter of the sky, created by Atum by his own power, without the aid of a woman. Shu and his sister and companion, Tefnut (goddess of moisture), were the first couple of the group of nine gods called the Ennead of Heliopolis. Of their union were born

  • shu fu ware (pottery)

    Shufu ware, Chinese white porcelain made during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) at Jingdezhen. It was the first-known porcelain ordered by imperial officials, and so it sometimes bore the characters shufu (literally “central palace,” or privy council). The body of the ware was covered with a bluish

  • Shu Maung (Myanmar general and dictator)

    U Ne Win, Burmese general who was the leader of Burma (now Myanmar) from 1962 to 1988. Shu Maung studied at University College, Rangoon (now Yangon), from 1929 to 1931, and in the mid-1930s he became involved in the struggle for Burmese independence from the British. During World War II, after the

  • Shu Qingchun (Chinese author)

    Lao She, Chinese author of humorous, satiric novels and short stories and, after the onset of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), of patriotic and propagandistic plays and novels. A member of the Manchu ethnic minority, Shu Sheyu served as principal of an elementary school at age 17 and soon worked

  • Shū River (river, Central Asia)

    Chu River, river in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, rising in the Tien Shan at the confluence of the Dzhuvanaryk and Kochkor rivers. It flows north through the Boam Gorge, beyond which it is joined by the Chon-Kyomin; it then flows northwest through the fertile Chu Valley, in which much of its water is

  • Shu Sheyu (Chinese author)

    Lao She, Chinese author of humorous, satiric novels and short stories and, after the onset of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), of patriotic and propagandistic plays and novels. A member of the Manchu ethnic minority, Shu Sheyu served as principal of an elementary school at age 17 and soon worked

  • Shu, Frank H. (American astronomer)

    Milky Way Galaxy: The spiral arms: …American astronomers Chia-Chiao Lin and Frank H. Shu showed that a spiral shape is a natural result of any large-scale disturbance of the density distribution of stars in a galactic disk. When the interaction of the stars with one another is calculated, it is found that the resulting density distribution…

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