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  • Shu-ching (Chinese historical text)

    Shujing, (Chinese: “Classic of History”) one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Chinese antiquity. The Shujing is a compilation of documentary records related to events in China’s ancient history. Though it has been demonstrated that certain chapters are forgeries, the authentic parts constitute the

  • shu-fu ware (pottery)

    Shufu ware, Chinese white porcelain made during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) at Jingdezhen. It was the first-known porcelain ordered by imperial officials, and so it sometimes bore the characters shufu (literally “central palace,” or privy council). The body of the ware was covered with a bluish

  • Shu-Han dynasty (Chinese history)

    Liu Bei: …is usually known as the Shu- (“Minor”) Han to distinguish it from the Han proper. As one of the heroes of the 14th-century Chinese historical novel Sanguozhi Yanyi (Romance of the Three Kingdoms), Liu has been celebrated and romanticized in Chinese history. The dynasty that he founded, however, never expanded…

  • Shū-Ile Mountains (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan: …Tien Shan also includes the Shū-Ile Mountains and the Qarataū Range, which extend far to the northwest into the eastern Kazakhstan lowlands. Within these limits the total area of the Tien Shan is about 386,000 square miles (1,000,000 square km).

  • Shu-ilishu (king of Isin)

    history of Mesopotamia: Isin and Larsa: …Ur, and under his successor, Shu-ilishu, a statue of the moon god Nanna, the city god of Ur, was recovered from the Elamites, who had carried it off. Up to the reign of Lipit-Ishtar (c. 1934–c. 1924), the rulers of Isin so resembled those of Ur, as far as the…

  • Shu-Sin (king of Ur)

    history of Mesopotamia: The 3rd dynasty of Ur: his successors Shulgi, Amar-Su’ena, Shu-Sin, and Ibbi-Sin, this dynasty lasted for a century (c. 2112–c. 2004). Ur-Nammu was at first “governor” of the city of Ur under Utu-hegal. How he became king is not known, but there may well be some parallels between his rise and the career of…

  • shu-yüan (academy)

    education: The Song (960–1279): …semiprivate institution known as the shuyuan, or academy. With financial support coming from both state grants and private contributions, these academies were managed by noted scholars of the day and attracted many students and lecturers. Often located in mountain retreats or in the woods, they symbolized the influence of Daoism…

  • Shuaiba (Kuwait)

    Al-Shu?aybah, town and port in southern Kuwait. Located on the Persian Gulf, it is the country’s second most important port. Its industries include an oil refinery, a seafood-packing plant, and a petrochemical plant producing fertilizers. Al-Shu?aybah has one of Kuwait’s largest electric-power

  • shuaisoung (conifer)

    conifer: Sporophyte phase: …the southeastern United States and shuaisuong (Glyptostrobus) in southeastern China. Reproduction of such trees is as attuned to flooding as that of fire species is to scorched earth. Their seeds have air and resin pockets that allow them to float away to slightly raised areas revealed by receding floodwaters.

  • Shuang-ya-shan (China)

    Shuangyashan, city, eastern Heilongjiang sheng (province), far northeastern China. Located some 265 miles (430 km) northeast from Harbin, the provincial capital, Shuangyashan is a new city that has grown up since 1949; its importance is based almost entirely on coal production. The coalfields under

  • Shuangyashan (China)

    Shuangyashan, city, eastern Heilongjiang sheng (province), far northeastern China. Located some 265 miles (430 km) northeast from Harbin, the provincial capital, Shuangyashan is a new city that has grown up since 1949; its importance is based almost entirely on coal production. The coalfields under

  • Shubat Enlil (Syria)

    Shubat Enlil, ancient city in northeastern Syria. Excavations of the mound at the site were begun by Harvey Weiss of Yale University in 1979. His work uncovered archaeological remains dating from about 5000 bc to 1726 bc, when the once-flourishing city was destroyed by Babylon. Shubat Enlil was the

  • Shubert Brothers (American theatrical managers)

    Shubert Brothers, dominant managers and producers in American legitimate theatre during the first half of the 20th century. Although all three brothers later claimed to be native-born, they entered the United States in 1882 as immigrants from Russia with their parents, David and Catherine

  • Shubert, Jacob J. (American theatrical manager)

    Shubert Brothers: …was the middle brother, and Jacob J. (or Jake) Shubert (b. Aug. 15, 1880, Russia—d. Dec. 26, 1963, New York, N.Y., U.S.) was the youngest.

  • Shubert, Jake (American theatrical manager)

    Shubert Brothers: …was the middle brother, and Jacob J. (or Jake) Shubert (b. Aug. 15, 1880, Russia—d. Dec. 26, 1963, New York, N.Y., U.S.) was the youngest.

  • Shubert, Lee (American theatrical manager)

    Shubert Brothers: …oldest of the brothers was Lee (originally Levi) Shubert (b. March 15, 1875, Russia—d. Dec. 25, 1953, New York, N.Y., U.S.). Sam S. Shubert (b. 1879, Russia—d. May 12, 1905, Harrisburg, Pa., U.S.) was the middle brother, and Jacob J. (or Jake) Shubert (b. Aug. 15, 1880, Russia—d. Dec. 26,…

  • Shubert, Levi (American theatrical manager)

    Shubert Brothers: …oldest of the brothers was Lee (originally Levi) Shubert (b. March 15, 1875, Russia—d. Dec. 25, 1953, New York, N.Y., U.S.). Sam S. Shubert (b. 1879, Russia—d. May 12, 1905, Harrisburg, Pa., U.S.) was the middle brother, and Jacob J. (or Jake) Shubert (b. Aug. 15, 1880, Russia—d. Dec. 26,…

  • Shubert, Sam S. (American theatrical manager)

    Shubert Brothers: Sam S. Shubert (b. 1879, Russia—d. May 12, 1905, Harrisburg, Pa., U.S.) was the middle brother, and Jacob J. (or Jake) Shubert (b. Aug. 15, 1880, Russia—d. Dec. 26, 1963, New York, N.Y., U.S.) was the youngest.

  • Shubhakarasimha (Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: Zhenyan: Between the arrival of Shubhakarasimha and the great persecution of 845, the Zhenyan school enjoyed amazing success. The tradition of Shubhakarasimha and the Mahavairochana-sutra merged with that of Vajrabodhi and the Tattvasamgraha. The Chinese disciples of this new tradition, such as Huiguo, contributed to an emerging Zhenyan synthesis. The…

  • Shubin, Fedot (Russian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Russia: …sculpture that was maintained by Fedot Shubin. The parks and gardens of the Rococo palaces of the empress Elizabeth were adorned with sculpture, but the work was done almost exclusively by Italians and Frenchmen commissioned for the task.

  • Shubrā al-Khaymah (Egypt)

    Shubrā al-Khaymah, northern suburb of Cairo, in Al-Qalyūbiyyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), on the east bank of the Nile River, Lower Egypt. It was formerly a market town supplying Cairo with agricultural produce from the rich alluvial delta area. In the first decade of the 1800s, Mu?ammad ?Alī, the

  • Shubra el-Kheima (Egypt)

    Shubrā al-Khaymah, northern suburb of Cairo, in Al-Qalyūbiyyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), on the east bank of the Nile River, Lower Egypt. It was formerly a market town supplying Cairo with agricultural produce from the rich alluvial delta area. In the first decade of the 1800s, Mu?ammad ?Alī, the

  • Shūbun (Japanese painter)

    Shūbun, priest-painter who was a key figure in the development of monochromatic ink painting (suiboku-ga) in Japan. His career represents an intermediate stage between the early suiboku-ga artists, who followed their Chinese models quite closely, and the later masters, many of them his pupils, who

  • Shuddhodana (father of the Buddha)

    Buddha: Birth and early life: …the son of the king Shuddhodana of the Shakya clan, whose capital was Kapilavastu. Shortly thereafter, his mother, the queen Maha Maya, dreamed that a white elephant had entered her womb. Ten lunar months later, as she strolled in the garden of Lumbini, the child emerged from under her right…

  • Shudi family (British harpsichord craftsmen)

    keyboard instrument: Great Britain: …families, the Kirkmans and the Shudis. Both families made instruments for several generations and eventually moved on from harpsichord building to piano building. Their harpsichords are very similar, and the two-manual instruments all have a close-plucking lute stop in addition to the usual two unisons and octave. They are invariably…

  • Shudra (Hindu class)

    Shudra, the fourth and lowest of the traditional varnas, or social classes, of India, traditionally artisans and labourers. The term does not appear in the earliest Vedic literature. Unlike the members of the three dvija (“twice-born”) varnas—Brahmans (priests and teachers), Kshatriya (nobles and

  • Shuffle (memoir by Michaels)

    Leonard Michaels: Shuffle (1990) is a poignant book of memoirs of the author’s mother, father, and first wife, Sylvia, who committed suicide when their marriage fell apart and who was also the focus of Sylvia: A Fictional Memoir (1992). Michaels also wrote a play, City Boy (produced…

  • Shuffle Along, Or, The Making of the Musical Sensation of 1921 and All That Followed (musical by Blake and Sissle)

    Savion Glover: …to Broadway in 2016, choreographing Shuffle Along, Or, The Making of the Musical Sensation of 1921 and All That Followed. He earned a Tony nomination for his work.

  • shuffleboard (game)

    Shuffleboard, game in which disks are shoved by hand or with an implement so that they come to a stop on or within a scoring area marked on the board or court (on a table, floor, or outdoor hard surface such as concrete). It was popular in England as early as the 15th century, especially with the

  • Shuftan, Eugen (German-American cinematographer)
  • shufu ware (pottery)

    Shufu ware, Chinese white porcelain made during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) at Jingdezhen. It was the first-known porcelain ordered by imperial officials, and so it sometimes bore the characters shufu (literally “central palace,” or privy council). The body of the ware was covered with a bluish

  • Shūgakuin Imperial Palace (building, Japan)

    Kyōto: The city layout: …of the city and the Shūgakuin Rikyū set in the northeast hills. Katsura underwent a complete renovation using perfectly matched modern materials; its buildings are models of Japanese architectural aesthetic expression. Shūgakuin contains three gardens, the third with an artificial lake. From there one can view the entire expanse of…

  • Shūgakuin Rikyū (building, Japan)

    Kyōto: The city layout: …of the city and the Shūgakuin Rikyū set in the northeast hills. Katsura underwent a complete renovation using perfectly matched modern materials; its buildings are models of Japanese architectural aesthetic expression. Shūgakuin contains three gardens, the third with an artificial lake. From there one can view the entire expanse of…

  • Shugen-dō (Japanese religion)

    Shugen-dō, a Japanese religious tradition combining folk beliefs with indigenous Shintō and Buddhism, to which have been added elements of Chinese religious Taoism. The Shugen-dō practitioner, the yamabushi (literally, “one who bows down in the mountains”), engages in spiritual and physical

  • Shūgiin (Japanese government)

    Diet: …it within 60 days, the House of Representatives can make it law by repassing it by a two-thirds majority of the members present.

  • Shugnan Range (mountain range, Tajikistan)

    Pamirs: Physiography: …west of the latter, the Shugnan Range. The extreme southwestern Pamirs are occupied by the Shakhdarin Range, composed of north-south (Ishkashim Range) and east-west elements, rising to Mayakovsky Peak (19,996 feet [6,095 metres]) and Karl Marx (Karla Marksa) Peak (22,067 feet [6,726 metres]). In the extreme southeast, to the south…

  • shugo (Japanese history)

    Shugo, hereditary military constable during Japan’s Kamakura (1192–1333) and Ashikaga (1338–1573) periods. Originally appointed by Minamoto Yoritomo, the first Kamakura shogun (military dictator), from his personal warrior clique, the shugo occupied provincial military and civil supervisory posts.

  • shugo daimyo (Japanese history)

    daimyo: …and 15th centuries the so-called shugo daimyo arose. These daimyo were appointed as military governors (shugo) under the Ashikaga shoguns (hereditary military dictators), and they held legal jurisdiction over areas as large as provinces. The shugo daimyo’s private landholdings were quite limited, however, and these daimyo gained much of their…

  • shuhūd (?ūfism)

    Mushāhadah, (Arabic: “witnessing” or “viewing”) in Sufi (Muslim mystic) terminology, the vision of God obtained by the illuminated heart of the seeker of truth. Through mushāhadah, the Sufi acquires yaqīn (real certainty), which cannot be achieved by the intellect or transmitted to those who do not

  • Shui (people)

    Guizhou: Population composition: …the Lolo), the Dong, the Shui, the Mien (known as the Yao in China), and the Zhuang. All of the minority groups intermingle with Han people. Only at the low xiang, or village, level can one find any exclusive ethnic grouping. Generally, few minority people live in northern Guizhou, particularly…

  • Shui Rong (Chinese mythology)

    Cheng Huang: He was thus identified with Shui Rong (their names have the same meaning), one of the Eight Spirits to whom Emperor Yao is said to have offered sacrifice in prehistoric times. Actually, there is no mention of Cheng Huang in Chinese literature until the 6th century ce.

  • Shui-feng Shui-pa (dam, China-North Korea)

    Sup’ung Dam, hydroelectric project on the Yalu River at the North Korean border with Liaoning province, northeastern China, upstream from Dandong. It was originally designed as a joint project of the Japanese-controlled Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) government, which administered the Northeast (Manchuria)

  • Shui-hu chuan (Chinese novel)

    Water Margin, ancient Chinese vernacular novel known from several widely varying manuscripts under the name Shuihuzhuan. Its variations are so extreme as to make the work the most textually complex in Chinese literature; the text cannot be dated with accuracy, and its authors cannot be identified.

  • Shuifeng Shuiba (dam, China-North Korea)

    Sup’ung Dam, hydroelectric project on the Yalu River at the North Korean border with Liaoning province, northeastern China, upstream from Dandong. It was originally designed as a joint project of the Japanese-controlled Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) government, which administered the Northeast (Manchuria)

  • Shuiguan (Chinese mythology)

    Sanguan: …grants remission of sins; and Shuiguan, official of water who averts misfortune. The Chinese theatre did much to popularize Tianguan by introducing a skit before each play called “The Official of Heaven Brings Happiness.” Reflecting a Daoist principle that held heaven, earth, and water to be three transcendent powers, Chang…

  • Shuihuzhuan (Chinese novel)

    Water Margin, ancient Chinese vernacular novel known from several widely varying manuscripts under the name Shuihuzhuan. Its variations are so extreme as to make the work the most textually complex in Chinese literature; the text cannot be dated with accuracy, and its authors cannot be identified.

  • Shuijingzhu (work by Li Tao-yüan)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …and Li Daoyuan, author of Shuijingzhu (“Commentary on the Water Classic”). Although both of these works seem to have been planned to serve a practical, utilitarian purpose, they are magnificent records of contemporary developments and charming storehouses of accumulated folklore, written with great spontaneity and artistry. This age also witnessed…

  • shuimo (Chinese art)

    Wang Wei: …known for ink monochrome (shuimo) landscapes, especially snowscapes. The latter demanded the use of pomo (“breaking the ink”), a broader ink-wash technique with which he is typically associated.

  • shuimodiao (Chinese theatre)

    Kunqu, form of Chinese drama that developed in the 16th century. The term kunshan qiang (“Kunshan tune”) originally referred to a style of music that emerged in the late Yuan dynasty (early 14th century). It was created by Gu Jian, a musician of Kunshan (near Suzhou), who combined the music of the

  • shuin-jō (license)

    Japan: The enforcement of national seclusion: …by granting special licenses, or shuin-jō (“red-seal license”), to oceangoing merchant ships. But Ieyasu’s encouragement of trade was aimed at establishing a bakufu trade monopoly. In 1604, for example, a special system for the purchase of silk was established: Chinese silk imported to Japan by Portuguese ships was sold at…

  • Shuisky, Vasily Ivanovich, Prince (tsar of Russia)

    Vasily (IV) Shuysky, boyar who became tsar (1606–10) during Russia’s Time of Troubles. A member of an aristocratic family descended from Rurik, the legendary founder of the dynasty that ruled Russia until 1598, Vasily Shuysky achieved prominence in 1591 when he conducted the investigation of the

  • Shujā? ibn Mana (Iraqi artisan)

    Mosul school: …(1232; British Museum) made by Shujā? ibn Mana. The ewer features representational as well as abstract design, depicting battle scenes, animals, and musicians within medallions. Mosul metalworkers also created pieces for eastern Christians. A candlestick of this variety (1238; Museum of Decorative Arts, Paris), attributed to Dā?ūd ibn Salamah of…

  • Shujā? Mirza (king of Afghanistan)

    Shāh Shojā?, shāh, or king, of Afghanistan (1803–10; 1839–42) whose alliance with the British led to his death. Shojā? ascended the throne in 1803 after a long fratricidal war. In 1809 he concluded an alliance with the British against an expected Franco-Russian invasion of India but, the following

  • Shujā?, Shāh (Mughal prince)

    Battle of Bahadurpur: …1657, his four sons—Dārā Shikōh, Shāh Shujā?, Aurangzeb, and Murād Bakhsh—fought for power: Shujā?, the second son—who had quickly set himself up as the independent governor of Bengal—was defeated at Bahadurpur, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Benares (now Varanasi) in Uttar Pradesh state, by Dārā’s son Sulaymān Shikōh. Shikōh…

  • Shujā?-al-Dawlah (nawab of Oudh)

    Robert Clive: Calcutta and Plassey: … (Buxar) had already been won; Shujā? al-Dawlah, the nawab of Oudh (Ayodhya), was in flight, and the emperor had joined the British camp. But there was a political and military vacuum between Bengal and Delhi (the Mughal capital), and the whole Bengal administration was in chaos.

  • Shujā?-ul-Mulk (king of Afghanistan)

    Shāh Shojā?, shāh, or king, of Afghanistan (1803–10; 1839–42) whose alliance with the British led to his death. Shojā? ascended the throne in 1803 after a long fratricidal war. In 1809 he concluded an alliance with the British against an expected Franco-Russian invasion of India but, the following

  • Shujing (Chinese historical text)

    Shujing, (Chinese: “Classic of History”) one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Chinese antiquity. The Shujing is a compilation of documentary records related to events in China’s ancient history. Though it has been demonstrated that certain chapters are forgeries, the authentic parts constitute the

  • Shukairī, A?mad (Palestinian political leader)

    A?mad Shuqayrī, Palestinian nationalist who led the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1964 to 1967. The son of a noted religious scholar, Shuqayrī was born in Lebanon and returned to the family home in Acre, Palestine (now ?Akko, Israel), when he was eight years old. After graduating

  • Shukairy, A?mad (Palestinian political leader)

    A?mad Shuqayrī, Palestinian nationalist who led the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1964 to 1967. The son of a noted religious scholar, Shuqayrī was born in Lebanon and returned to the family home in Acre, Palestine (now ?Akko, Israel), when he was eight years old. After graduating

  • Shukeiry, A?mad (Palestinian political leader)

    A?mad Shuqayrī, Palestinian nationalist who led the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1964 to 1967. The son of a noted religious scholar, Shuqayrī was born in Lebanon and returned to the family home in Acre, Palestine (now ?Akko, Israel), when he was eight years old. After graduating

  • Shuken, Leo (American composer and sound man)
  • Shukhevych, Roman (Ukrainian political leader)

    Ukraine: The last years of Stalin’s rule: …UPA, under the leadership of Roman Shukhevych (killed 1950), continued effective military operations against Soviet troops until the early 1950s. The armed resistance received covert support from the local rural population, embittered by the concurrent forced collectivization drive, reminiscent of the 1930s in eastern Ukraine. Also accused of abetting the…

  • Shukō (Japanese monk)

    Sen Rikyū: …the utter simplicity practiced by Shukō, a 15th-century monk who founded the Japanese tea ceremony. He firmly established the concepts of wabi (deliberate simplicity in daily living) and sabi (appreciation of the old and faded) as its aesthetic ideals. During his time the teahouse became smaller (from Shukō’s 4 12-mat…

  • Shūkongōjin (Buddhist deity)

    Japanese art: Sculpture: The “secret” image of Shūkongōjin (733), a guardian deity, is secluded in a cordoned space behind the Fukūkenjaku Kannon and presented for viewing only once a year. A clay sculpture with its original gold leaf and polychromy largely intact, the thunderbolt-wielding deity is approximately life-size. Modeled on Chinese statues…

  • Shukrī Mu??afā (Egyptian agronomist)

    al-Takfīr wa al-Hijrah: …1971 by a young agronomist, Shukrī Mu??afā, who had been arrested in 1965 for distributing Muslim Brotherhood leaflets and was released from prison in 1971. Appealing to those who saw mainstream society—from which the group sought to flee (see Hijrah)—as weak, corrupt, and un-Islamic, it engaged in acts of terrorism,…

  • Shukri, Muhammad (Moroccan author)

    Muhammad Shukri, (Mohammed Choukri), Moroccan writer (born July 15, 1935, Beni Chikar, Mor.—died Nov. 15, 2003, Tangier, Mor.), was known for his autobiographical writings and for his friendships with other writers in Morocco. By Shukri’s own account, his father sold him as a boy to a hashish a

  • Shukriyah (people)

    Sudan: Ethnic groups: …the Juhaynah grouping are the Shukriyah, the Kababish, and the Baqqārah. All three of these tribes herd camels or cattle on the semiarid plains of western, central, and eastern Sudan.

  • Shuksan, Mount (mountain, Washington, United States)

    North Cascades National Park: Natural history: …in the north unit is Mount Shuksan in the west, at 9,131 feet (2,783 metres).

  • Shukshin, Vasily (Soviet author)

    Russia: The 20th century: …Rasputin and the short-story writer Vasily Shukshin. The morally complex fiction of Yury Trifonov, staged in an urban setting (e.g., The House on the Embankment [1976]), stands somewhat apart from the works of Rasputin and Shukshin that praise Russian rural simplicity. Nevertheless, as in the 1930s and ’40s, the most…

  • Shukūk ?alā Ba?lamyūs (work by Ibn al-Haytham)

    astronomy: The Islamic world: … criticized the equant point in Shukūk ?alā Ba?lamyūs (“Doubts About Ptolemy”). Ibn al-Haytham also objected to Ptolemy’s habit of defining motions with respect to immaterial points and lines as if they were real material bodies. (Complaints about the artificiality of Ptolemy’s constructions had been made even in late antiquity—for example,…

  • Shukulumbwe (people)

    Ila, a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting an area west of Lusaka, the national capital of Zambia. The Ila-Tonga cluster consists of about 12 dialect groups, including the Lozi, Koba, Lenje, Tonga, Totela, Ila, and others. The Ila combine agriculture with animal husbandry. Men hunt, fish, and clear

  • Shula, Don (American coach)

    Don Shula, American professional gridiron football player and coach, notably of the National Football League (NFL) Miami Dolphins (1970–95), who won more games (347) than any other NFL coach. At Harvey High School (Painesville, Ohio) he was an all-around athlete, playing baseball and basketball as

  • Shula, Donald Francis (American coach)

    Don Shula, American professional gridiron football player and coach, notably of the National Football League (NFL) Miami Dolphins (1970–95), who won more games (347) than any other NFL coach. At Harvey High School (Painesville, Ohio) he was an all-around athlete, playing baseball and basketball as

  • Shulgi (king of Ur)

    ancient Iran: The Old Elamite period: …virtual conquest of Elam by Shulgi of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (c. 2094–c. 2047 bc). Eventually the Elamites rose in rebellion and overthrew the 3rd Ur dynasty, an event long remembered in Mesopotamian dirges and omen texts. About the mid 19th century bc, power in Elam passed to a…

  • Shulgin, Alexander (American biochemist and pharmacologist)

    Alexander Theodore Shulgin, (“Sasha”), American biochemist and pharmacologist (born June 17, 1925, Berkeley, Calif.—died June 2, 2014, Lafayette, Calif.), was most famous for the resynthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a hallucinogen and stimulant more commonly known as MDMA or Ecstasy,

  • Shulgin, Alexander Theodore (American biochemist and pharmacologist)

    Alexander Theodore Shulgin, (“Sasha”), American biochemist and pharmacologist (born June 17, 1925, Berkeley, Calif.—died June 2, 2014, Lafayette, Calif.), was most famous for the resynthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a hallucinogen and stimulant more commonly known as MDMA or Ecstasy,

  • Shul?an ?arukh (Jewish religious text)

    Shul?an ?arukh, (Hebrew: “Prepared Table”), a 16th-century codification of Jewish religious law and practice that is still the standard reference work for Orthodox observance. The Shul?an ?arukh, compiled and published by Joseph ben Ephraim Karo (1488–1575) as a compendium of his larger work Bet

  • Shuli (people)

    Acholi, ethnolinguistic group of northern Uganda and South Sudan. Numbering more than one million at the turn of the 21st century, they speak a Western Nilotic language of the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan family and are culturally and historically related to their traditional enemies,

  • Shull, Clifford G. (American physicist)

    Clifford G. Shull, American physicist who was corecipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physics for his development of neutron-scattering techniques—in particular, neutron diffraction, a process that enabled scientists to better explore the atomic structure of matter. He shared the prize with

  • Shull, Clifford Glenwood (American physicist)

    Clifford G. Shull, American physicist who was corecipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physics for his development of neutron-scattering techniques—in particular, neutron diffraction, a process that enabled scientists to better explore the atomic structure of matter. He shared the prize with

  • Shull, George Harrison (American botanist)

    George Harrison Shull, American botanist and geneticist known as the father of hybrid corn (maize). As a result of his researches, corn yields per acre were increased 25 to 50 percent. He developed a method of corn breeding that made possible the production of seed capable of thriving under various

  • Shulman, Alexander (Canadian surgeon)

    Alexander Shulman, Canadian-born surgeon who in the 1950s discovered the efficacy of using ice water to treat burns; he also helped to introduce improvements in the treatment of various other conditions, including the use of a minimally invasive procedure for hernia repair and the prescription of

  • Shulman, Evelyn (American singer)

    Evelyn Lear, (Evelyn Shulman), American soprano (born Jan. 8, 1926, Brooklyn, N.Y—died July 1, 2012, Sandy Spring, Md.), enthralled international audiences with her rich voice and compelling stage presence. She was best known for her passionate portrayals of the moody heroines found in contemporary

  • Shulman, Lee S. (American educational psychologist)

    Lee S. Shulman, American educational psychologist, educator, and reformer whose work focused on teaching and teacher education. Shulman attended the University of Chicago as an undergraduate student (B.A., 1959) and then studied educational psychology there from 1959 to 1963, receiving an M.A. and

  • Shulman, Max (American writer and humorist)

    Max Shulman, American writer and humorist best known for his mastery of satire. While attending the University of Minnesota, Shulman edited the campus humour magazine and was persuaded by a talent scout to pursue a writing career after graduation. His first novel, Barefoot Boy with Cheek (1943),

  • Shulmanu-Asharidu I (king of Assyria)

    Shalmaneser I, king of Assyria (reigned c. 1263–c. 1234 bc) who significantly extended Assyrian hegemony. While the Hittites warred with Egypt, Shalmaneser invaded Cappadocia (in eastern Asia Minor) and founded an Assyrian colony at Luha. By the defeat of Shattuara of Hani and his Hittite allies

  • Shulmanu-Asharidu III (king of Assyria)

    Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria (reigned 858–824 bc) who pursued a vigorous policy of military expansion. Although he conducted campaigns on the southern and eastern frontiers, Shalmaneser’s main military effort was devoted to the conquest of North Syria. His progress was slow. In 853 bc he fought

  • Shulmanu-Asharidu V (king of Assyria and Babylon)

    Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria (reigned 726–721 bc) who subjugated ancient Israel and undertook a punitive campaign to quell the rebellion of Israel’s king Hoshea (2 Kings 17). None of his historical records survive, but the King List of Babylon, where he ruled as Ululai, links him with

  • Shultz, George (American government official, economist, and business executive)

    George Shultz, American government official, economist, and business executive who, as a member of the presidential cabinets of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan, significantly shaped U.S. economic and foreign policy in the late 20th century. Shultz was raised in an affluent family in New Jersey.

  • Shultz, George Pratt (American government official, economist, and business executive)

    George Shultz, American government official, economist, and business executive who, as a member of the presidential cabinets of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan, significantly shaped U.S. economic and foreign policy in the late 20th century. Shultz was raised in an affluent family in New Jersey.

  • Shumard oak (tree)

    red oak: nuttallii), and Shumard oak (Q. shumardii) are other valuable timber trees of eastern and southern North America. The scarlet oak has a short, rapidly tapering trunk and leaves with nearly circular sinuses; it is a popular ornamental because of its scarlet autumn foliage. The Nuttall oak is…

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    Shumen, town, northeastern Bulgaria. It lies in a valley in the eastern foothills of the Shumen limestone plateau. The town is a road and rail centre with such industries as tobacco processing, canning and brewing, furniture making, and the manufacture of enamelware. Shumen also has a factory that

  • Shumsky, Oleksander (Soviet government official)

    Ukraine: The New Economic Policy and Ukrainization: …the people’s commissar of education, Oleksander Shumsky. The policy, however, encountered strong resistance from the non-Ukrainian leaders of the CP(B)U and party functionaries. The national revival also aroused concern in Moscow, where Joseph Stalin was strengthening his grip over the party apparatus. In 1925 Stalin dispatched his trusted lieutenant Lazar…

  • Shumsky, Oscar (American musician)

    Oscar Shumsky, American violinist, conductor, and teacher (born March 23, 1917, Philadelphia, Pa.—died July 24, 2000, Rye, N.Y.), was a virtuoso violinist and one of the 20th century’s greatest interpreters of Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. He played the violin from the age of three, and at age eight h

  • Shumway, Norman E. (American surgeon)

    Norman E. Shumway, American surgeon and pioneer in cardiac transplantation, who on January 6, 1968, at the Stanford Medical Center in Stanford, California, performed the first successful human heart transplant in the United States. Shumway obtained an M.D. degree from Vanderbilt University (1949)

  • Shumway, Norman Edward (American surgeon)

    Norman E. Shumway, American surgeon and pioneer in cardiac transplantation, who on January 6, 1968, at the Stanford Medical Center in Stanford, California, performed the first successful human heart transplant in the United States. Shumway obtained an M.D. degree from Vanderbilt University (1949)

  • Shumyatsky, Boris (Soviet official)

    history of the motion picture: The Soviet Union: …over to the reactionary bureaucrat Boris Shumyatsky, a proponent of the narrowly ideological doctrine known as Socialist Realism. This policy, which came to dominate the Soviet arts, dictated that individual creativity be subordinated to the political aims of the party and the state. In practice, it militated against the symbolic,…

  • Shun (legendary emperor of China)

    Shun, in Chinese mythology, a legendary emperor (c. 23rd century bce) of the golden age of antiquity, singled out by Confucius as a model of integrity and resplendent virtue. His name is invariably associated with that of Yao, his legendary predecessor. Though Shun’s father repeatedly tried to

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    Shunzhi, reign name (nianhao) of the first emperor (reigned 1644–61) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12). The ninth son of Abahai (1592–1643), the great ruler of the Manchu kingdom of Manchuria, Fulin succeeded to the throne in 1643 at the age of five (six by Chinese reckoning) and ruled

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    Togon-temür, last emperor (reigned 1333–68) of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1206–1368) in China, under whom the population was provoked into rebellion. Togon-temür became emperor at the age of 13 but proved to be a weak ruler who preferred to spend his time exploring the religious cult of Lamaism and

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