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  • Saint Louis Zoo (zoo, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States)

    Saint Louis Zoo, zoo in St. Louis, Mo., U.S., built on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis World’s Fair) of 1904. Inspired by an enormous elliptical aviary built for the fair—which is now restored—the zoo opened in 1913. It is one of the few zoos in the world to have free

  • Saint Louis-San Francisco Railway Company (American railway)

    Saint Louis-San Francisco Railway Company, railroad with lines in nine southern and central U.S. states before it merged with Burlington Northern, Inc. The railroad was established in 1876 as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, but its antecedents go back to 1849; at that time the Missouri l

  • Saint Lucia (island country, West Indies)

    Saint Lucia, island state in the Caribbean Sea. It is the second largest of the Windward group in the Lesser Antilles and is located about 24 miles (39 km) south of Martinique and some 21 miles (34 km) northeast of Saint Vincent. Saint Lucia is 27 miles (43 km) long and has a maximum width of 14

  • Saint Lucia Game Reserve (game reserve, South Africa)

    Saint Lucia Game Reserve, sanctuary on the northeastern coast of KwaZulu/Natal province, South Africa. It encompasses Lake St. Lucia, a shallow, H-shaped lagoon and estuary system. Established in 1897, the reserve has an area of 142 square miles (368 square km). It is subtropical and is noted for

  • Saint Lucia Labour Party (political party, Saint Lucia)

    Saint Lucia: Independence: …elections following independence, the left-leaning Saint Lucia Labour Party (SLP) defeated the more conservative United Workers’ Party (UWP). The SLP governments favoured the socialist regimes of the Caribbean, establishing relations with Cuba and joining the nonaligned movement. They also helped form the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States in 1981.

  • Saint Lucia, flag of

    national flag consisting of a blue field (background) with a central triangular emblem of yellow, black, and white. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.For most of its colonial history under the French and British, Saint Lucia did not have a distinctive flag of its own. In August 1939,

  • Saint Luke’s (church, London, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: From the 19th to the early 20th century: …to which the commissioners contributed, St. Luke’s (1820–24), Chelsea, London, by James Savage, was splendidly vaulted in Bath stone, but meanness as well as meagreness progressively controlled the design of their churches. Of the 612 churches built for the commissioners, more than 550 were Gothic or some related style.

  • Saint Luke, Academy of (art school, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Allan Ramsay: …first circulating library (1726); the Academy of St. Luke, for instruction in painting and drawing (1729); and a theatre (1736–39), eventually closed by extremists in the Church of Scotland presbytery, who found legal justification in the 1737 Licensing Act. He retired in 1740 but remained active until his death.

  • Saint Luke, Academy of (art school, Rome, Italy)

    Federico Zuccaro: …the first president of the Academy of St. Luke in Rome, which is to some extent the parent body of modern art academies. His late paintings are much quieter and less mannered in style, and he lived to see Mannerism fade from the scene.

  • Saint Luke, Guild of (Dutch craft guild)

    pottery: The Netherlands: …town were organized into the Guild of St. Luke, which exercised a considerable amount of control over apprenticeships and established a school of design.

  • Saint Luke, Guild of (German art society)

    Nazarene, one of an association formed by a number of young German painters in 1809 to return to the medieval spirit in art. Reacting particularly against 18th-century Neoclassicism, the brotherhood was the first effective antiacademic movement in European painting. The Nazarenes believed that all

  • Saint Lusson, Simon Fran?ois d’Aumont, sieur de (French explorer)

    New France: In 1671 Simon Fran?ois d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) at Sault Ste. Marie took possession of all the interior of the North American continent for France as an extension of New France.

  • Saint Marcus of L?wenberg, Association of (fencing guild)

    fencing: Emergence of swordsmanship and weapons: …notable of which was the Marxbrüder (the Association of St. Marcus of L?wenberg), which was granted letters patent by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick III in 1480. Early fencing methods as taught by the guilds were somewhat rough-and-tumble and included wrestling moves. The guilds jealously guarded their secret moves so…

  • Saint Margaret’s Church (church, London, United Kingdom)

    Saint Margaret’s Church, church in the London borough of Westminster, since 1614 the official church of the House of Commons. It stands near Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament. The church was founded by the abbot of Westminster in the early or mid-12th century, but the original

  • Saint Mark’s Basilica (cathedral, Venice, Italy)

    San Marco Basilica, church in Venice that was begun in its original form in 829 (consecrated in 832) as an ecclesiastical structure to house and honour the remains of St. Mark that had been brought from Alexandria. St. Mark thereupon replaced St. Theodore as the patron saint of Venice, and his

  • Saint Mark’s Square (square, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: The Piazza San Marco: Before the five arched portals of the basilica lies the Piazza San Marco, a vast paved and arcaded square. Napoleon called the piazza the finest drawing room in Europe. The northern and southern wings of the square are formed by two official…

  • Saint Mark’s Tower (architectural plan by Wright)

    Western architecture: The United States: …Company at Chicago (1920–25), and St. Mark’s Tower, New York City (1929). The last was to have been an 18-story apartment house comprising a concrete stem from which four arms branched outward to form the sidewalls of apartments cantilevered from the stem to an exterior glass wall. Unexecuted like most…

  • Saint Mark, Library of (building, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: The Old Library: The Campanile stands close to the 21 bays of the Old Library (1529, also called the National Marcian Library or the Library of St. Mark), on the western side of the piazzetta. The library was designed by Sansovino to house a great collection…

  • Saint Martial (abbey, Limoges, France)

    Latin literature: The 9th to the 11th century: The Quem quaeritis trope from St. Martial, an abbey at Limoges, was one of the earliest such pieces to demand dramatic performance. From this beginning developed the long tradition of liturgical drama, which, like the sequence, is centred upon the major feasts of the church year.

  • Saint Martin (Dutch dependency, West Indies)

    Sint Maarten, country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Lesser Antilles, northeastern Caribbean Sea. It occupies the southern third of the island of Saint Martin. The northern two-thirds of the island constitutes the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin. The capital of Sint

  • Saint Martin (island, West Indies)

    Saint Martin, island, lying at the northern end of the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The island extends about 12 miles (19 km) from north to south and about the same distance from east to west, including a narrow looping sand spit that extends westward from

  • Saint Martin (overseas collectivity, France)

    Saint-Martin, overseas collectivity of France on the island of Saint Martin, in the Lesser Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea. The collectivity of Saint-Martin occupies the northern two-thirds of the island; the southern third, named Sint Maarten, formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles, is an

  • Saint Martin (church, Tours, France)

    St. Gregory of Tours: …wholeheartedly promoted the cult of St. Martin, about whom he wrote four books of “miracle stories.”

  • Saint Martin’s Lent (Christianity)

    church year: Advent: Known as St. Martin’s Lent, the custom was extended to other Frankish churches by the Council of Macon in 581.

  • Saint Martin-in-the-Fields (church, London, United Kingdom)

    James Gibbs: His best-known work, St. Martin-in-the-Fields (designed 1720), with its lofty steeple and classical temple front, clearly demonstrates the intermingling of influences. Though criticized in its time—the French admired the portico and despised the steeple—St. Martin’s became the archetype of countless British and American churches. Gibbs’s other best-known buildings…

  • Saint Martin-in-the-Fields, Academy of (British chamber ensemble)

    Neville Marriner: …and recording extensively with the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, he also directed and conducted major symphony orchestras throughout the world, including the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra (1969–78), the Minnesota Symphony (1979–86), and the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra in Germany (1986–89). He also served as guest conductor for…

  • Saint Martinville (Louisiana, United States)

    Saint Martinville, city, seat (1811) of St. Martin parish, southern Louisiana, U.S. It lies on Bayou Teche, about 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Lafayette. Originally known as Poste des Attakapas (for a local Indian tribe), it was settled about 1760. A colony of Acadians, expelled by the British

  • Saint Mary College of Winchester (school, Winchester, England, United Kingdom)

    Winchester College, one of the oldest of the great public schools of England, in Winchester, Hampshire. Its formal name, St. Mary College of Winchester near Winchester, dates from 1382, when it was founded by Bishop William of Wykeham (q.v.) to prepare boys for his New College, Oxford, known as

  • Saint Mary of the Cross (Australian religious figure, educator, and social reformer)

    St. Mary MacKillop, ; canonized October 17, 2010; feast day August 8), religious figure, educator, and social reformer who was the first Australian beatified by the Roman Catholic Church and the first Australian to be recognized as one of its saints. MacKillop was born in Australia to Scottish

  • Saint Mary’s (county, Maryland, United States)

    Saint Mary’s, county, southern Maryland, U.S. It consists of a tidewater peninsula bordered by the Patuxent River to the northeast, Chesapeake Bay to the east, the Potomac River to the south, and the Wicomico River to the west. Landmarks include the Patuxent Naval Air Test Center (opened 1941) and

  • Saint Mary’s Abbey (abbey, York, England, United Kingdom)

    Western sculpture: Early Gothic: …with Sens cathedral survive from St. Mary’s Abbey, York, England (c. 1210). Rochester cathedral (c. 1150) has carved side figures, and Lincoln cathedral (c. 1140) once had them. The major displays of English early Gothic sculpture, however, took quite a different form. The chief surviving monument is the west front…

  • Saint Mary’s Academy (college, South Bend, Indiana, United States)

    University of Notre Dame: Mary’s Academy (later St. Mary’s College), was opened in 1844. The university added science, law, and engineering departments, an academic press, and a library in the 1860s and ’70s. In the 1920s the secondary school was discontinued, and the university was reorganized into colleges. It was in the…

  • Saint Mary’s Cathedral (cathedral, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tange Kenzō: …same period, Tange also designed St. Mary’s Cathedral in Tokyo, a bold cruciform design with stark, soaring roofs made of stainless steel.

  • Saint Mary’s College (college, South Bend, Indiana, United States)

    University of Notre Dame: Mary’s Academy (later St. Mary’s College), was opened in 1844. The university added science, law, and engineering departments, an academic press, and a library in the 1860s and ’70s. In the 1920s the secondary school was discontinued, and the university was reorganized into colleges. It was in the…

  • Saint Mary’s Falls Canal (canal, Canada)

    canals and inland waterways: United States: Later the St. Mary’s Falls Canal connected Lake Huron and Lake Superior. To provide a southern route around the Allegheny Mountains, the Susquehanna and Ohio rivers were linked in 1834 by a 394-mile canal between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. A unique feature of this route was the combination…

  • Saint Mary’s Island (island, The Gambia)

    The Gambia: European colonization: He purchased Banjul Island (St. Mary’s) from the king of Kombo, built barracks, laid out a town, and set up an artillery battery to control access to the river. The town, Bathurst (now Banjul), grew rapidly with the arrival of traders and workers from Gorée and upriver.…

  • Saint Mary, Anselm of (French genealogist)

    Anselm Of Saint Mary, genealogist and friar whose history of the French royal family and nobility is a valuable source of detailed and unusual information. Anselm entered the order of the Discalced Hermits of St. Augustine in 1644 and, remaining in their monastery (Couvent des Petits Pères),

  • Saint Mary, Cathedral of (cathedral, Truro, England, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: From the 19th to the early 20th century: Truro Cathedral, Cornwall, was built in 1880–1910 from designs by J.L. Pearson. After his death in 1897, it was completed by his son, Frank Loughborough Pearson, as was his last work, Brisbane Cathedral, Australia, the construction of which did not begin until 1901. Similarly, Sir…

  • Saint Mary, Cathedral of (cathedral, Kilkenny, Ireland)

    Kilkenny: The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary (1843–57) is a cruciform building with a 200-foot (60-metre) tower. A Dominican friary, founded in 1225, is still used; and the churches of St. Mary and St. John date from the 13th century. The Tholsel (1761) is used for corporation meetings.…

  • Saint Mary, Church of (church, Asmara, Eritrea)

    Asmara: …and the municipal buildings, and St. Mary’s (the main Ethiopian Orthodox church). Also the seat of Asmara University (founded 1958, university status 1968), the city has a public library and numerous secondary schools.

  • Saint Mary, Church of (church, Fairford, England, United Kingdom)

    Cotswold: …15th–16th century in the parish church of St. Mary at Fairford, 8 miles (13 km) east of Cirencester, were designed by Flemish artisans and are excellent examples of the period. Among the museums located in the district are the Corinium Museum in Cirencester, which has a large collection of antiquities…

  • Saint Mary, Church of (church, Harrow, London, United Kingdom)

    Harrow: The medieval Church of St. Mary stands on Harrow Hill and is a conspicuous landmark rising above flat clay country that was overspread by housing in the 20th century, following the development of the electrified suburban railways. Also on the hill is the eminent public (i.e., fee-paying)…

  • Saint Mary, Feast of (Roman Catholicism)

    church year: Roman Catholic Church: ” The ancient Roman Solemnity of Mary was restored to January 1, a new Feast of the Baptism of Christ was assigned to the first Sunday after Epiphany, and the Feast of Christ the King was shifted to the last Sunday of Ordinary Time. All octaves were eliminated. Fixed…

  • Saint Marylebone (neighbourhood, London, United Kingdom)

    Saint Marylebone, neighbourhood of the City of Westminster, London. Formerly (until 1965) part of the metropolitan borough of St. Marylebone, it is located to the south and west of Regent’s Park and north of Mayfair. From early times the area consisted of two manors, Lileston (Lisson) and Tyburn.

  • Saint Marys City (Maryland, United States)

    Saint Marys City, historic district and village, St. Mary’s county, southern Maryland, U.S., on St. Marys River some 15 miles (25 km) southeast of Leonardtown, the county seat. Established in 1634 by colonists led by Leonard Calvert and named for the Virgin Mary, it was Maryland’s first European

  • Saint Marys River (river, North America)

    Saint Marys River, outlet for Lake Superior, forming part of the boundary between Michigan, U.S., and Ontario, Can. Flowing east, then south, for 70 miles (110 km) into Lake Huron, it is an important link in the St. Lawrence Seaway. At Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., the river drops more than 20 feet (6 m)

  • Saint Matthew Island (island, Alaska, United States)

    Alaska: Plant and animal life: Lawrence, Nunivak, and St. Matthew islands and the Pribilof group. Those tundra-covered islands are surrounded by sea ice in winter and serve as protected refuges for the world’s largest herds of fur-bearing seals and sea otters, as well as sea lions and walrus. A protected group of musk…

  • Saint Maurice, Cathedral of (cathedral, Angers, France)

    Western sculpture: Early Gothic: …are found, for example, at Angers, Le Mans, Bourges, and Senlis cathedrals. There are stylistic connections with Burgundy and also with Provence. The fashion lasted from c. 1140 to 1180.

  • Saint Michael and All Angels, Feast of (Christian festival)

    Michaelmas, Christian feast of St. Michael the Archangel, celebrated in the Western churches on September 29. Given St. Michael’s traditional position as leader of the heavenly armies, veneration of all angels was eventually incorporated into his feast day. In the Roman Catholic Church, Michaelmas

  • Saint Michael and Saint George, The Most Distinguished Order of (British knighthood)

    The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, British order of knighthood founded in 1818 by the Prince Regent, later King George IV, to commemorate the British protectorate over the Ionian islands (now in Greece) and Malta, which came under British rule in 1814. Originally

  • Saint Michael and the Devil (sculpture by Epstein)

    Sir Jacob Epstein: …made monumental bronzes, such as St. Michael and the Devil (1956–58). In his later years, Epstein became a vehement opponent of abstract sculptors. He was knighted in 1954.

  • Saint Michael Island (island, Portugal)

    S?o Miguel Island, island, largest of the Azores archipelago of Portugal, in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is situated about 740 miles (1,190 km) west of Cape Roca on Portugal’s west coast. S?o Miguel is up to 40 miles (65 km) long and 9 miles (15 km) wide and has an area of 293 square miles (759

  • Saint Michael’s Anglican Cathedral (cathedral, Bridgetown, Barbados)

    Bridgetown: St. Michael’s Anglican Cathedral was built of coral rock, largely from the proceeds of a lottery to replace a building destroyed in a hurricane of 1780. The General’s House in Queen’s Park, northeast of the cathedral, is now used as a theatre and art gallery.…

  • Saint Michael’s Mount (island, England, United Kingdom)

    Saint Michael’s Mount, granite island about 400 yards (365 metres) offshore in Mount’s Bay on the English Channel, in the western part of the Cornwall unitary authority, Eng. At low tide only, a natural causeway links the island to the nearby community of Marazion. Edward the Confessor (reigned

  • Saint Michael’s Town (national capital, Barbados)

    Bridgetown, capital and port of the island-state of Barbados, in the West Indies, southeastern Caribbean Sea. It is on the southwestern end of the island, on the wide curve of Carlisle Bay. A built-up coastal strip stretches for several miles on each side of the town. The town, which was founded in

  • Saint Michael, Cathedral of (cathedral, Coventry, England, United Kingdom)

    Sir Basil Spence: …competition for the new Coventry cathedral (completed in 1962). This monumental, richly decorated structure incorporates the ruins of the bombed 14th-century cathedral. He gave his account of the project in Phoenix at Coventry (1962).

  • Saint Michael, Church of (church, Haworth, England, United Kingdom)

    Haworth: The Church of St. Michael contains their family memorials, and the adjacent parsonage (1779) has since 1928 housed the museum of the Bront? Society (founded 1893). The fictional manor houses of Wuthering Heights, Thrushcross Grange, and Ferndean Manor as depicted in the Bront? sisters’ novels are…

  • Saint Michael, Church of (church, Hildesheim, Germany)

    Ottonian art: St. Michael’s (founded c. 1001), Hildesheim, exemplifies this regularity, with two crypts, two apses, and two transepts, each with a crossing tower. The achievements of Ottonian artists provided background and impetus for the new monumentality distinguished as Romanesque.

  • Saint Michael, Sanctuary of (sanctuary, Monte Sant’Angelo, Italy)

    Monte Sant'Angelo: …around the famous Santuario di S. Michele (Sanctuary of St. Michael), founded c. 490 over a cave in which the archangel Michael is said to have appeared to St. Laurentius Maioranus, archbishop of Sipontum. The bronze doors were made in Constantinople in 1076, and the octagonal campanile dates from 1273.…

  • Saint Monday (British holiday)

    United Kingdom: Leisure: …observance of the weekly “Saint Monday,” when furious bouts of working were followed by equally furious bouts of enjoyment on a day supposedly given over to work. In the 1850s, in textiles, the leading sector of the economy, there was a more regular working day and week, and a…

  • Saint Moritz (Switzerland)

    Saint Moritz, town, or Gemeinde (commune), Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland. Saint Moritz lies in the Oberengadin (Upper Inn Valley) and is surrounded by magnificent Alpine peaks. The town consists of the Dorf (village), the Bad (spa), and the hamlets of Suvretta and Champfèr. Originally

  • Saint Nicholas Cathedral (cathedral, Fribourg, Switzerland)

    spire: At Fribourg (Switz.) cathedral (spire, 1270–88), a low, square tower with corner pinnacles carries a gabled, octagonal lantern that supports the spire of 385 feet (117 metres), a mere skeleton of openwork tracery with ornamented edges giving an amazingly light and delicate effect. This type of…

  • Saint Nicholas Island (island, Cabo Verde)

    S?o Nicolau Island, island of Cape Verde, in the Atlantic Ocean, between the islands of Santa Luzia and Boa Vista, about 400 miles (640 km) off the West African coast. Of volcanic origin and mountainous, it rises to 4,277 feet (1,304 metres) at Mount Gordo. Settled since the 15th century, the

  • Saint Nicholas, Cathedral of (cathedral, Stockholm, Sweden)

    Stockholm: …Island contains the Royal Palace; Storkyrkan, also called the Cathedral, or Church, of St. Nicolas; the German Church; the House of Lords; the government offices; the Stock Exchange; and a number of other notable buildings. Riddar Island is dominated by the Riddarholm Church. The House of Parliament and the National…

  • Saint Nicodemus and Saint Joseph, Hospice of (building, Ramla, Israel)

    Ramla: …White Tower, are the Franciscan Hospice of St. Nicodemus and St. Joseph; the Great Mosque (Al-Jāmi? al-Kabīr), built on the foundations of the 12th-century crusader cathedral of St. John; and the Pool of St. Helena, an 8th-century reservoir (cistern) decorated with ornamental pillars and now used by small tourist boats.…

  • Saint Olaf College (college, Northfield, Minnesota, United States)

    Saint Olaf College, private coeducational institution of higher learning in Northfield, southeastern Minnesota, U.S. It is a liberal arts college affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Named for Olaf II, the patron saint of Norway, St. Olaf’s School was founded by Norwegian

  • Saint Pancras Station (train station, London, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: Construction in iron and glass: …stations in England such as St. Pancras, London (1864–68, by William H. Barlow), where the wrought-iron arches have a span of 243 feet (74 metres) and rise to a height of 100 feet (30 metres).

  • Saint Patrick’s Cathedral (cathedral, New York City, New York, United States)

    James Renwick: …Renwick, culminating with that for St. Patrick’s Cathedral (begun 1858) in New York City, an immense and eclectic twin-spired structure that mixed German, French, and English Gothic influences.

  • Saint Patrick’s Cathedral (cathedral, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: City layout: Its neighbour, St. Patrick’s, erected just outside the city walls, was also originally a Norse church that may have been built on an earlier Celtic foundation. Rebuilt by the Normans in 1191, it was enlarged and partially rebuilt over the centuries. It was in a state of…

  • Saint Patrick’s Church (church, Newry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Newry: St. Patrick’s Church, founded in Newry in 1578, was the first Protestant church to be built in Ireland. Newry is the seat of the Roman Catholic bishop of Dromore, and the Cathedral of Saints Patrick and Colman was completed in 1829. With the opening of…

  • Saint Patrick’s Day (feast day)

    Saint Patrick’s Day, feast day (March 17) of St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland. Born in Roman Britain in the late 4th century, he was kidnapped at the age of 16 and taken to Ireland as a slave. He escaped but returned about 432 to convert the Irish to Christianity. By the time of his death on

  • Saint Patroclus, cathedral of (cathedral, Soest, Germany)

    Soest: The cathedral of St. Patroclus (founded c. 955; extended 1166) adjoins the Baroque town hall (1713), which contains important Lutheran archives and an early Protestant theological library. The Gothic Wiesenkirche (“St. Mary of the Fields”; 1331–c. 1430) features a famous stained-glass window, the Westphalian Last Supper…

  • Saint Paul (Minnesota, United States)

    Saint Paul, city, capital of Minnesota, U.S., and seat of Ramsey county. Situated in the southeastern part of the state, St. Paul is at the head of navigation on the Mississippi River near its confluence with the Minnesota River. The city adjoins Minneapolis on the west, and together they form the

  • Saint Paul (work by Renan)

    Ernest Renan: Religious controversies: …Ap?tres (1866; The Apostles) and Saint Paul (1869), to follow the Vie de Jésus as parts of a series, Histoire des origines du christianisme (The History of the Origins of Christianity). Both these volumes, containing brilliant descriptions of how Christianity spread among the rootless proletariat of the cities of Asia…

  • Saint Paul Island (island, Indian Ocean)

    Saint Paul Island, island in the southern Indian Ocean, administratively a part of French Southern and Antarctic Territories. A volcanic island, the crater of which has been inundated by the sea, Saint Paul has an area of 2.7 square miles (7 square km) and a maximum elevation of 1,618 feet (493

  • Saint Paul monastery (monastery, Jarrow, England, United Kingdom)

    Saint Benedict Biscop: Peter (at Wearmouth) and Paul (at Jarrow on Tyne, nearby); he is considered to be the father of Benedictine monasticism in England.

  • Saint Paul River (river, Africa)

    Saint Paul River, river rising in southeastern Guinea, western Africa. Its source is in the mountains east of Macenta, and its upper reach (the Diani, or Nianda, River) forms part of the border between Guinea and Liberia. It was first sighted by Portuguese navigators in the 15th century on St.

  • Saint Paul’s Cathedral (cathedral, London, United Kingdom)

    Saint Paul’s Cathedral, in London, cathedral of the Anglican bishop. It is located within the central City of London, atop Ludgate Hill and northeast of Blackfriars. A Roman temple to Diana may once have stood on the site, but the first Christian cathedral there was dedicated to St. Paul in ad 604,

  • Saint Paul’s Church (church, Melaka, Malaysia)

    Melaka: The Portuguese also built St. Paul’s Church (1521), now a ruin, which held the body of St. Francis Xavier until its removal in 1553 to Goa, India. The Stadthuys (Town Hall) is an example of mid-17th century Dutch architecture. Christ Church, St. John’s Fort, a cultural museum, Cheng Hoon…

  • Saint Paul’s Outside the Walls (basilica, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: San Paolo Fuori le Mura: San Paolo Fuori le Mura (St. Paul Outside the Walls), a basilica built by Constantine over the grave of St. Paul, the Apostle, was replaced starting in 386 by a structure mammoth for its time. It was faithfully restored after…

  • Saint Paul’s School (school, London, United Kingdom)

    Saint Paul’s School, one of the major public (i.e., privately endowed) schools in England. It was founded in 1509 by John Colet, dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in the City of London. Originally located in the cathedral churchyard, the school was destroyed in the Great Fire but rebuilt in 1670. The

  • Saint Peter and Saint Paul abbey (abbey, Bath, England, United Kingdom)

    Bath: Its 16th-century abbey church of St. Peter and St. Paul is late Perpendicular Gothic and is noted for its windows, but it is the wealth of classical Georgian buildings mounting the steep valley sides that gives Bath its distinction. The city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage…

  • Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks (archipelago, Brazil)

    Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks, archipelago lying about 685 miles (1,100 km) off the coast of northeastern Brazil, just north of the Equator. Under Brazilian sovereignty, it consists of six large islands, four smaller ones, and several rock tops. It is one of the most important fishing sites of

  • Saint Peter in Chains (church, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: San Pietro in Vincoli: Originally the Basilica Eudoxiana, San Pietro in Vincoli (St. Peter in Chains) minor basilica was built in 432–440 with money from the empress Eudoxia for the veneration of the chains of the apostle Peter’s Jerusalem imprisonment. Later his Roman chains were…

  • Saint Peter Port (Guernsey, Channel Islands)

    Saint Peter Port, chief town, resort, parish, and capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands, located on the east coast of the island of Guernsey where a narrow valley reaches the sea between moderately high cliffs. Early in the 13th century, Castle Cornet was built on an offshore tidal islet, reinforced

  • Saint Peter Street (street, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States)

    metalwork: United States: …structures, such as those on St. Peter Street, were built above the sidewalks. Balconies sometimes not only extended across an entire facade but continued around a corner.

  • Saint Peter’s Basilica (church, Vatican City)

    St. Peter’s Basilica, present basilica of St. Peter in Vatican City (an enclave in Rome), begun by Pope Julius II in 1506 and completed in 1615 under Paul V. It is designed as a three-aisled Latin cross with a dome at the crossing, directly above the high altar, which covers the shrine of St. Peter

  • Saint Peter’s Basilica, Old (historical church, Rome, Italy)

    Old Saint Peter’s Basilica, first basilica of St. Peter’s in Rome, a five-aisled basilican-plan church with apsed transept at the west end that was begun between 326 and 333 at the order of the Roman emperor Constantine and finished about 30 years later. The church was entered through an atrium

  • Saint Peter’s Cathedral (cathedral, Peterborough, England, United Kingdom)

    Peterborough: …city site is dominated by St. Peter’s Cathedral, a structure begun in 1118 and consecrated in 1238. It is in part a good example of Late Norman style; but it was added to in virtually every succeeding architectural period, and the total effect is discordant. The cathedral contains the Hedda…

  • Saint Peter’s Church (church, Malm?, Sweden)

    Malm?: …a museum) and the 14th-century St. Peter’s Church (a fine example of early Baltic Gothic architecture). The city is home to Malm? College. Pop. (2005 est.) mun., 271,271.

  • Saint Peter’s College (school, London, United Kingdom)

    Westminster School, distinguished public (privately endowed) school near Westminster Abbey in the borough of Westminster, London. It originated as a charity school (1179) founded by Benedictine monks. In 1540 Henry VIII made it secular, and in 1560 it was refounded by Elizabeth I and extensively

  • Saint Peter’s Italian Church (church, London, United Kingdom)

    London: The historical base: St. Peter’s Italian Church (1863) was the first Italian church ever to be built outside Italy.

  • Saint Peter’s University (university, Jersey City, New Jersey, United States)

    Saint Peter’s University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S. It is a liberal arts college affiliated with the Jesuit order of the Roman Catholic Church. The college offers undergraduate degree programs in business, computer science, education,

  • Saint Peter, Cathedral of (cathedral, Worms, Germany)

    Worms: The Cathedral of St. Peter (also known as Worms Cathedral) ranks with those of Speyer and Mainz as one of the finest Romanesque churches of the Rhine. The original building was consecrated in 1018 and was completed and remodeled in the 12th century. Additions were made…

  • Saint Peter, Cathedral of (cathedral, York, England, United Kingdom)

    stained glass: England: The nave clerestory windows in York Minster contain some reused panels from a series of narrative windows, one of which depicted the life of St. Benedict (c. 1140–60). Another panel, a single figure of a king from a Jesse tree, shows some affinity in style with the glass at Saint-Denis…

  • Saint Peter, Church of (church, Louvain, Belgium)

    Leuven: The Church of St. Peter, which originally dated from the early 11th century, was twice destroyed before being rebuilt as a Gothic structure (1425–97), and it was again damaged in both world wars. The church contains two fine paintings by Dieric Bouts and ironwork and brasswork—much…

  • Saint Peter, monastery of (monastery, Wearmouth, England, United Kingdom)

    Saint Benedict Biscop: Peter (at Wearmouth) and Paul (at Jarrow on Tyne, nearby); he is considered to be the father of Benedictine monasticism in England.

  • Saint Peter, Republic of (historical region, Italy)

    Papal States, territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870. Included were the modern Italian regions of Lazio (Latium), Umbria, and Marche and part of Emilia-Romagna, though the extent of the territory, along with the degree of papal control, varied over the

  • Saint Peters (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Bathurst, city in Gloucester county, northeastern New Brunswick, Canada. It lies at the mouth of the Nepisiguit River, on Bathurst Harbour, a southern arm of Nepisiguit Bay. The original French settlement, founded in 1619, was called Nepisiguit and then St. Peters. After 1755 the British displaced

  • Saint Petersburg (Florida, United States)

    Saint Petersburg, city, Pinellas county, west-central Florida, U.S. It is situated at the southern tip of Pinellas Peninsula on Tampa Bay, about 15 miles (25 km) southeast of Clearwater and 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Tampa. Those three cities form one of the state’s largest metropolitan areas.

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