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  • Siemens regenerative gas furnace (metallurgy)

    crucible process: After 1870 the Siemens regenerative gas furnace replaced the coke-fire furnace; it produced even higher temperatures. The Siemens furnace had a number of combustion holes, each holding several crucibles, and heated as many as 100 crucibles at a time. All high-quality tool steel and high-speed steel was long…

  • Siemens, Charles William (British inventor)

    Sir William Siemens, German-born English engineer and inventor, important in the development of the steel and telegraph industries. After private tutoring, Siemens was sent to a commercial school at Lübeck in order to enter his uncle’s bank. But his elder brother, Werner Siemens, deciding that

  • Siemens, Ernst Werner von (German electrical engineer)

    Werner von Siemens, German electrical engineer who played an important role in the development of the telegraph industry. After attending grammar school at Lübeck, Siemens joined the Prussian artillery at age 17 for the training in engineering that his father could not afford. While in prison

  • Siemens, Friedrich (German engineer)

    industrial glass: Glass melting: As pioneered by the brothers Friedrich and William Siemens, working with the Chance brothers in England about 1860, regenerator-equipped pot furnaces consumed only about one-tenth of the fuel of the old furnaces. It was in 1867 that Friedrich Siemens, working in his late brother Hans’ factory in Dresden, Ger., successfully…

  • Siemens, Karl Wilhelm (British inventor)

    Sir William Siemens, German-born English engineer and inventor, important in the development of the steel and telegraph industries. After private tutoring, Siemens was sent to a commercial school at Lübeck in order to enter his uncle’s bank. But his elder brother, Werner Siemens, deciding that

  • Siemens, Sir William (British inventor)

    Sir William Siemens, German-born English engineer and inventor, important in the development of the steel and telegraph industries. After private tutoring, Siemens was sent to a commercial school at Lübeck in order to enter his uncle’s bank. But his elder brother, Werner Siemens, deciding that

  • Siemens, Werner von (German electrical engineer)

    Werner von Siemens, German electrical engineer who played an important role in the development of the telegraph industry. After attending grammar school at Lübeck, Siemens joined the Prussian artillery at age 17 for the training in engineering that his father could not afford. While in prison

  • Siemens-Martin furnace (metallurgy)

    crucible process: After 1870 the Siemens regenerative gas furnace replaced the coke-fire furnace; it produced even higher temperatures. The Siemens furnace had a number of combustion holes, each holding several crucibles, and heated as many as 100 crucibles at a time. All high-quality tool steel and high-speed steel was long…

  • Siemens-Martin process (metallurgy)

    Open-hearth process, steelmaking technique that for most of the 20th century accounted for the major part of all steel made in the world. William Siemens, a German living in England in the 1860s, seeking a means of increasing the temperature in a metallurgical furnace, resurrected an old proposal

  • Siemianowice ?l?skie (Poland)

    Siemianowice ?l?skie, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), south-central Poland. It is a northern suburb of Katowice and is situated in the Upper Silesia coalfield and industrial district. Incorporated in 1932, it developed as a centre of coal mining, ironworking, and steelworking. Though heavy

  • Si?mréab (Cambodia)

    Si?mréab, city, northwestern Cambodia. It lies along the Si?mréab River and is linked to Phnom Penh, the national capital, and neighbouring areas by a national highway. The town has a pharmaceutical production centre, a hog-breeding facility, agricultural-machinery workshops, a crocodile farm, and

  • Siena (Italy)

    Siena, city, central Italy, in the Toscana (Tuscany) regione. It lies about 30 miles (48 km) south of Florence. The city was important in history as a commercial and banking city until surpassed by Florence in the 13th–14th century. The site of Siena was originally an Etruscan settlement that later

  • Siena, Palio of (Italian festival)

    Italy: Daily life and social customs: Corsa del Palio in Siena, Florence’s “football match” in 16th-century costume, and the regattas of Venice, while others commemorate historical events, such as the Lily Festival at Nola (near Naples), recalling the return of St. Paulinus of Nola in 394 after a long imprisonment in Africa, and the festival…

  • Siena, Universita Degli Studi di (university, Siena, Italy)

    University of Siena, coeducational autonomous state institution of higher learning at Siena, in central Italy. Like many other Italian universities, Siena was founded (1240) as a result of a 13th-century migration of students from the University of Bologna, which it emulated as a studium generale,

  • Siena, University of (university, Siena, Italy)

    University of Siena, coeducational autonomous state institution of higher learning at Siena, in central Italy. Like many other Italian universities, Siena was founded (1240) as a result of a 13th-century migration of students from the University of Bologna, which it emulated as a studium generale,

  • sienjaal, Het (work by Ostaijen)

    Paul van Ostaijen: His second, the humanitarian Het sienjaal (1918; “The Signal”), showed the influence of World War I and German Expressionism and inspired other Expressionist writers in Flanders. A political activist, van Ostaijen went into exile in Berlin from 1918 to 1921. The political and artistic climate there and the hardships…

  • Sienkiewicz, Bill (American artist)

    Elektra: …series teamed Miller with artist Bill Sienkiewicz to present an eight-issue prequel to Elektra’s Daredevil appearances. Sienkiewicz’s experimental art style and Miller’s scathing political commentary made Elektra: Assassin a controversial milestone for Marvel.

  • Sienkiewicz, Henryk (Polish writer)

    Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish novelist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905. Sienkiewicz’s family owned a small estate but lost everything and moved to Warsaw, where Sienkiewicz studied literature, history, and philology at Warsaw University. He left the university in 1871 without taking

  • Sienkiewicz, Henryk Adam Alexander Pius (Polish writer)

    Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish novelist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905. Sienkiewicz’s family owned a small estate but lost everything and moved to Warsaw, where Sienkiewicz studied literature, history, and philology at Warsaw University. He left the university in 1871 without taking

  • Sienpi (people)

    Mongolia: Ethnography and early tribal history: …important tribal groups are the Sienpi (Xianbi), who may however have been Tungus-speakers rather than Mongol, recorded in Han dynasty annals, and the Juan-juan (Rouran, or Geougen) of the 4th to 6th centuries. The latter have been identified by some scholars with the Avars, who migrated into Europe along the…

  • Siepi, Cesare (Italian opera singer)

    Cesare Siepi, Italian opera singer (born Feb. 10, 1923, Milan, Italy—died July 5, 2010, Atlanta, Ga.), won international acclaim with his warm, resonant bass voice and seductive stage presence, notably as the title character in Mozart’s Don Giovanni, which became his signature role. He sang in a

  • Sieradz (Poland)

    Sieradz, city, ?ódzkie województwo (province), central Poland. Sieradz is one of the oldest cities in Poland. About 1025 a fortified township was founded on the present site. Although reinforced in the 14th century, the fortress town was destroyed by Swedish invaders. Surviving examples of historic

  • Sierck, Claus Detlef (German-American director)

    Douglas Sirk, German-born American film director whose extremely popular melodramas offered cynical visions of American values. Though Sirk also directed comedies, westerns, and war films, he was most noted for his complicated family melodramas that showed frightful emotional warfare lurking

  • Sierck, Detlef (German-American director)

    Douglas Sirk, German-born American film director whose extremely popular melodramas offered cynical visions of American values. Though Sirk also directed comedies, westerns, and war films, he was most noted for his complicated family melodramas that showed frightful emotional warfare lurking

  • Sierck, Hans Detlef (German-American director)

    Douglas Sirk, German-born American film director whose extremely popular melodramas offered cynical visions of American values. Though Sirk also directed comedies, westerns, and war films, he was most noted for his complicated family melodramas that showed frightful emotional warfare lurking

  • Siero (town, Spain)

    Pola de Siero, town, north-central Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies on the Nora River, just northeast of Oveido city. Chartered in 1270 by Alfonso X of Castile, it is now a meatpacking centre, with brewing and tanning

  • Sieromco (Sierra Leonean company)

    Sierra Leone: Resources and power: The Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company (Sieromco) began open-cast bauxite mining at Mokanji Hills in 1964; the ore was shipped to Europe for reduction and refining into aluminum. Due to the dangers of operating in the midst of the civil war and to damage sustained…

  • sierozem (soil)

    Asia: Semidesert and desert: …while gray desert soils (sierozems) develop in the arid subtropics. A great deal of saline soil is present there, and agriculture is possible only with the use of irrigation, which gives rise to specific cultivated types of sierozems.

  • Sierpiński carpet (mathematics)

    number game: Pathological curves: The Sierpinski curve, the first few stages of which are shown in Figure 9, contains every point interior to a square, and it describes a closed path. As the process of forming the curve is continued indefinitely, the length of the curve approaches infinity, while the…

  • Sierpiński curve (mathematics)

    number game: Pathological curves: The Sierpinski curve, the first few stages of which are shown in Figure 9, contains every point interior to a square, and it describes a closed path. As the process of forming the curve is continued indefinitely, the length of the curve approaches infinity, while the…

  • Sierpinski gadget (mathematics)

    Pascal's triangle: …a fractal known as the Sierpinski gadget, after 20th-century Polish mathematician Wac?aw Sierpiński, will be formed.

  • Sierpiński gasket (mathematics)

    Pascal's triangle: …a fractal known as the Sierpinski gadget, after 20th-century Polish mathematician Wac?aw Sierpiński, will be formed.

  • Sierpiński, Wac?aw (Polish mathematician)

    Wac?aw Sierpiński, leading figure in point-set topology and one of the founding fathers of the Polish school of mathematics, which flourished between World Wars I and II. Sierpiński graduated from Warsaw University in 1904, and in 1908 he became the first person anywhere to lecture on set theory.

  • Sierra (county, New Mexico, United States)

    Sierra, county, southwestern New Mexico, U.S. Sierra county is in the Mexican Highland section of the Basin and Range Province. Its irregular western border is the Black Range, including Hillsboro and Reeds peaks, both rising to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). The Rio Grande, including large

  • Sierra (region, Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Relief: …the Costa (coastal region), the Sierra (highland region), and the Oriente (eastern region).

  • Sierra alder (Alnus rhombifolia)

    alder: …on their lower surfaces; the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia), an early-flowering tree with orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish, wartlike, porous markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller…

  • Sierra Blanca Peak (mountain, United States)

    Sacramento Mountains: The Sierra Blanca Peak (12,003 ft) is the highest in the group, and Guadalupe Peak (8,749 ft) is the highest in Texas. Features include the Carlsbad Caverns and Guadalupe Mountains national parks, the Lincoln National Forest, and the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation. The mountain region, generally…

  • Sierra Club (American conservation group)

    Sierra Club, American organization that promotes environmental conservation. Its headquarters are in Oakland, California. The Sierra Club was founded in 1892 by a group of Californians who wished to sponsor wilderness outings in “the mountain regions of the Pacific Coast.” The naturalist John Muir

  • Sierra de Guadarrama (mountain, Spain)

    Segovia: The northern watershed of the Sierra de Guadarrama spreads from east to west across the remainder of the province and is quarried for granite, marble, and limestone. Construction, food processing, forestry, and services are the main sources of income. Summer upland resorts are found at El Espinar and San Rafael,…

  • Sierra de Perijá (mountains, South America)

    Mountains of Perijá, mountain chain, the northward extension of the Andean Cordillera Oriental, forming part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela. The range extends for 190 miles (306 km) from the vicinity of Oca?a, Colombia, northward to the Guajira Peninsula. Its crest line rises to

  • Sierra Entertainment (American company)

    electronic adventure game: Graphic-based adventures: …husband, Ken Williams, who formed Sierra Entertainment (1979). In particular, beginning with King’s Quest (1984) for MS-DOS, Sierra released a steady stream of successful graphical adventure games throughout the 1980s and early ’90s. While the graphics consisted of nothing more than colourful static images that players could “point-and-click” on to…

  • Sierra evergreen chinquapin (plant)
  • Sierra Leone

    Sierra Leone, country of western Africa. The country owes its name to the 15th-century Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra, the first European to sight and map Freetown harbour. The original Portuguese name, Serra Lyoa (“Lion Mountains”), referred to the range of hills that surrounds the harbour.

  • Sierra Leone Development Company (Sierra Leonean company)

    Sierra Leone: Resources and power: The privately owned Sierra Leone Development Company mined iron ore at Marampa from 1933 to 1975. In 1981 the government reopened the mine at Marampa under the management of an Austrian company but soon encountered financial difficulties and suspended operations in 1985. The Sierra Leone Ore and Metal…

  • Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company (Sierra Leonean company)

    Sierra Leone: Resources and power: The Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company (Sieromco) began open-cast bauxite mining at Mokanji Hills in 1964; the ore was shipped to Europe for reduction and refining into aluminum. Due to the dangers of operating in the midst of the civil war and to damage sustained…

  • Sierra Leone Peninsula (peninsula, Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone: Relief: The Sierra Leone Peninsula, which is the site of Freetown, is a region of thickly wooded mountains that run parallel to the sea for about 25 miles (40 km). The Peninsula Mountains rise from the coastal swamps and reach some 2,900 feet (880 metres) at Picket…

  • Sierra Leone People’s Party (political organization, Sierra Leone)

    Sir Albert Margai: …Milton Margai, he formed the Sierra Leone People’s Party in 1951. He was then elected by the Protectorate Assembly to a seat in the Legislative Council. Margai held ministerial portfolios in education, local government, and social welfare. In 1957 he broke away from his brother, and the following year he…

  • Sierra Leone River (river, Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone River, river, an estuary on the Atlantic, in western Sierra Leone. Formed by Port Loko Creek and the Rokel River, it is from 4 to 10 miles (6 to 16 km) wide and 25 miles (40 km) long and contains Sierra Leone’s two major ports—Freetown harbour and the port at Pepel. The river is also

  • Sierra Leone, flag of

    horizontally striped green-white-blue national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.Sierra Leone, which was founded in the late 18th century as a home for freed slaves (hence Freetown, the capital), used a variety of flags under the British colonial regime. Only the badge in the British Blue

  • Sierra Leone, history of

    Sierra Leone: History: This discussion focuses on Sierra Leone from the 15th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see western Africa, history of.

  • Sierra Leone, University of (university, Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone: Education: The University of Sierra Leone consists of Fourah Bay College (founded in 1827), Njala University College (1964), and the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences (1987). Sierra Leone’s literacy rate is lower than the average in western Africa and is among the lowest in the…

  • Sierra Madre (mountain range, Philippines)

    Philippines: Relief: The Sierra Madre, extending along the Pacific coast from northern to central Luzon, is the longest mountain range in the country. That range and the Cordillera Central merge in north-central Luzon to form the Caraballo Mountains. To the north of the latter, and between the two…

  • Sierra Madre (mountain system, Mexico)

    Sierra Madre, mountain system of Mexico. It consists of the Sierra Madre Occidental (to the west), the Sierra Madre Oriental (to the east), and the Sierra Madre del Sur (to the south). These ranges enclose the great central Mexican Plateau, which itself is a part of the system—although the northern

  • Sierra Madre de Chiapas (mountain range, Mexico-Guatemala)

    Sierra Madre de Chiapas, mountain range in Chiapas state, southern Mexico. The Sierra Madre de Chiapas is a crystalline range of block mountains extending to the southeast along the Pacific coast from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec into western Guatemala (where it is called the Sierra Madre). Rising

  • Sierra Madre del Sur (mountain range, North America)

    Guerrero: …relief is defined by the Sierra Madre del Sur; the narrow river valleys between its spurs are mostly fertile and heavily forested but difficult to access. The principal river in the state is the Balsas, which is fed by numerous tributaries. The coast and lower river courses experience tropical downpours…

  • Sierra Madre Occidental (mountain range, North America)

    Mexico: Physiographic regions: The largely volcanic Sierra Madre Occidental, which forms the western border of the Mexican Plateau, has an average elevation of 8,000–9,000 feet (2,400–2,700 metres) and extends roughly 700 miles (1,100 km) from north to south. It has been highly incised by westward-flowing streams that have formed a series…

  • Sierra Madre Oriental (mountain range, North America)

    Mexico: Physiographic regions: The Sierra Madre Oriental, a range of folded mountains formed of shales and limestones, is situated on the eastern side of the Mexican Plateau. Often considered an extension of the Rocky Mountains (which are cut by the Rio Grande but continue in New Mexico and western…

  • Sierra National Forest (forest region, California, United States)

    Sierra National Forest, region of forests and streams in central California, U.S., extending along the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite and Kings Canyon national parks (north and southeast, respectively) and bordered by Inyo (northeast), Sequoia (south), and Stanislaus (northwest) national forests.

  • Sierra Nevada (mountain, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: …the peaks of El Cóndor, Sierra Nevada, Llullaillaco, Galán, and Antofalla all exceed 19,000 feet. The two main ranges and several volcanic secondary chains enclose depressions called salars because of the deposits of salts they contain; in northwestern Argentina, the Sierra de Calalaste encompasses the large Antofalla Salt Flat. Volcanoes…

  • Sierra Nevada (mountains, United States)

    Sierra Nevada, major mountain range of western North America, running along the eastern edge of the U.S. state of California. Its great mass lies between the large Central Valley depression to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. Extending more than 250 miles (400 kilometres)

  • Sierra Nevada (mountain range, Spain)

    Sierra Nevada, mountain range in southeastern Spain, near the Mediterranean coast, the highest division of the Baetic Cordillera. The range itself is a domed mountain elongated for about 26 miles (42 km) from east to west. It is clearly defined by the faulted troughs of the vega (lowland) of

  • Sierra Nevada del Cocuy (mountain, Colombia)

    Colombia: Relief: …Oriental culminates in the towering Mount Cocuy (Sierra Nevada del Cocuy), which rises to 18,022 feet (5,493 metres). Beyond this point, near Pamplona, the cordillera splits into two much narrower ranges, one extending into Venezuela, the other, the Perijá Mountains, forming the northern boundary range between Colombia and Venezuela. The…

  • Sierra Nevada National Park (national park, Venezuela)

    Sierra Nevada National Park, national park occupying 1,067 square miles (2,764 square km) in the Cordillera de Mérida of the Andes Mountains in Mérida and Barinas estados (states), northwestern Venezuela. It was established in 1952. The highest point in Venezuela, Bolívar Peak (also known as La

  • Sierra Nevadas (mountains, United States)

    Sierra Nevada, major mountain range of western North America, running along the eastern edge of the U.S. state of California. Its great mass lies between the large Central Valley depression to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. Extending more than 250 miles (400 kilometres)

  • Sierra Pacaraima (mountains, South America)

    Pacaraima Mountains, central tabular upland of the Guiana Highlands in Brazil, Venezuela, and Guyana. The Pacaraima Mountains form the drainage divide between the Orinoco Valley to the north and the Amazon Basin to the south. Extending for 250 miles (400 km) in an east–west direction, the mountains

  • Sierra Parima (mountains, South America)

    Parima Mountains, range in northern Brazil and southern Venezuela. It is an outlying range of the Guiana Highlands and extends south-southeastward for about 200 miles (320 km), separating Venezuela from Brazil. Its peaks, largely unexplored, reach an elevation of 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) above sea

  • Sierra redwood (plant)

    Giant sequoia, (Sequoiadendron giganteum), coniferous evergreen tree of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), the largest of all trees in bulk and the most massive living things by volume. The giant sequoia is the only species of the genus Sequoiadendron and is distinct from the coast redwoods

  • Sierra San Pedro Mártir (mountain range, Mexico)

    Sierra San Pedro Mártir, mountain range in central Baja California state, northwestern Mexico. The range stretches southward about 90 miles (145 km) from southeast of Ensenada to San Fernando. Farther south the range becomes the Sierra de San Borja. The rugged, granitic mountains, forming the

  • Sierra Spanish (language)

    Ecuador: Languages: …between Sierra and Costa Spanish; Sierra Spanish has been influenced by Quichua. Quichua and Shuar (both of which are official intercultural languages) as well as other ancestral languages are spoken by the country’s indigenous people. More than 10 Indian languages exist in Ecuador, and several of these will likely persist…

  • Sierra Vista (Arizona, United States)

    Sierra Vista, city, Cochise county, southeastern Arizona, U.S. Located 70 miles (113 km) southeast of Tucson, Sierra Vista is the county’s commercial and residential centre. At first a hamlet outside the gates of Fort Huachuca, a U.S. cavalry command post during the Apache Wars and later a

  • Sierra wave (air current)

    lee wave: …spectacular lee waves is the Sierra wave, which occurs when westerly winds flow over the Sierra Nevada Range in California. It is best developed when the polar-front jet stream blows across the range. In it, gliders have soared to elevations of more than 14,000 metres.

  • Sierra, Gregorio Martínez (Spanish dramatist)

    Gregorio Martínez Sierra, poet and playwright whose dramatic works contributed significantly to the revival of the Spanish theatre. Martínez Sierra’s first volume of poetry, El poema del trabajo (1898; “The Poem of Work”), appeared when he was 17. Short stories reflecting the Modernist concern with

  • Sierra, Justo (Mexican government official)

    científico: The learned Justo Sierra became minister of education and continued the educational reforms according to Positivist principles initiated in the 1870s by Gabino Barreda, a student of Comte and member of Benito Juárez’s government. In 1910 Sierra reopened the National University for the first time in almost…

  • Sierra, Sola (Chilean human rights activist)

    Sola Sierra, Chilean human rights activist who led a campaign to uncover the truth about the disappearance of hundreds of political dissidents in Chile during the 1974–1990 dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. After her husband was detained by police in 1976 and subsequently vanished, she

  • Sierre (Switzerland)

    Alps: Geology: …in the Pennine Alps, and Sierre, Switzerland, look up to peaks that tower a mile and a half above them. In the valley of the Arve River near Mont Blanc, the difference in relief is more than 13,100 feet.

  • siesta (period of sleep)

    Spain: Organization of the day: …followed by a nap—the famous siesta—but, because most people now commute between home and work, this custom is in decline. Supper, a lighter meal, is also taken late, between 9:00 and 10:00 pm, or even later during the hot summer months.

  • Siete Ciudades de Cíbola, Las (legendary cities, North America)

    Seven Cities of Cíbola, legendary cities of splendour and riches sought in the 16th century by Spanish conquistadores in North America. The fabulous cities were first reported by álvar Nú?ez Cabeza de Vaca who, after being shipwrecked off Florida in 1528, had wandered through what later became

  • siete colores (bird)

    tanager: An example is the paradise tanager (T. chilensis), called siete colores (Spanish) from its seven hues, including green, scarlet, and purple. The euphonias (Tanagra species) are found from Mexico southward; they should not be confused with Tangara species (above). Of the eight species of Thraupis, the blue, or blue-gray,…

  • Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana (work by Maríategui)

    José Carlos Mariátegui: …de la realidad peruana (1928; Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality). While emphasizing the economic aspects of Marxism, Mariátegui nonetheless does not repudiate the value of religion and myth in his treatment of the Indians. His views on literature, signaling the importance of indigenous themes and language while adhering to…

  • siete libros de la Diana, Los (work by Montemayor)

    The Two Gentlemen of Verona: …long Spanish prose romance titled Los siete libros de la Diana (1559?; The Seven Books of the Diana) by Jorge de Montemayor. Shakespeare is thought to have adapted the relationship of the two gentlemen of the title and the ending of the play from various possible sources, including Richard Edwards’s…

  • Siete Partidas, Las (Spanish code)

    Alfonso X: Siete partidas was the most important law code. It was based on Roman law and contained discourses on manners and morals and an idea of the king and his people as a corporation—superior to feudal arrangements—with the king as agent of both God and the…

  • Sieur de Monts National Park (national park, Maine, United States)

    Acadia National Park, national park on the Atlantic coast of Maine, U.S., astride Frenchman Bay. It has an area of 65 square miles (168 square km) and was originally established as Sieur de Monts National Monument (1916), named for Pierre du Guast, sieur (lord) de Monts. It became the first

  • sieva bean (vegetable)

    bean: Of Central American origin, the lima bean (P. lunatus), also known as the sieva bean, is of commercial importance in few countries outside the Americas. There is a wide range of pod size and shape and of seed size, shape, thickness, and colour in both bush and climbing forms. Pods…

  • sieve area (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Organization of the vascular tissue: …the cell walls known as sieve areas, which have either small pores or large pores; the latter are known as sieve plates. Sieve plates are mostly located on the overlapping adjacent end walls. As sieve-tube members differentiate, they lose their nucleus, ribosomes, vacuoles, and dictyosomes (the equivalent of the Golgi…

  • sieve element (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Structural basis of transport: …in the phloem are called sieve elements and consist of sieve cells and sieve-tube members, the latter differing in having some sieve areas specialized into sieve plates (generally on the end walls). Sieve-tube members are arranged end to end to form sieve tubes, a name derived from the sievelike end…

  • sieve plate (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Organization of the vascular tissue: …the latter are known as sieve plates. Sieve plates are mostly located on the overlapping adjacent end walls. As sieve-tube members differentiate, they lose their nucleus, ribosomes, vacuoles, and dictyosomes (the equivalent of the Golgi apparatus in animals); they are not dead, however, and remain metabolically active. Each sieve-tube member…

  • sieve tray

    petroleum refining: Fractional distillation: Sieve trays are simple perforated plates with small holes about 5 to 6 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inch) in diameter. Valve trays are similar, except the perforations are covered by small metal disks that restrict the flow through the perforations under certain process conditions.

  • sieve tube (plant structure)

    Sieve tube, in flowering plants, elongated living cells (sieve-tube elements) of the phloem, the nuclei of which have fragmented and disappeared and the transverse end walls of which are pierced by sievelike groups of pores (sieve plates). They are the conduits of food (mostly sugar) transport. In

  • sieve-tube member (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Structural basis of transport: …consist of sieve cells and sieve-tube members, the latter differing in having some sieve areas specialized into sieve plates (generally on the end walls). Sieve-tube members are arranged end to end to form sieve tubes, a name derived from the sievelike end walls through which passage of food from one…

  • Sieveking, Amalie (German religious leader)

    Christianity: Care for the sick: In 1823 Amalie Sieveking developed a sisterhood analogous to the Daughters of Charity and was active in caring for the cholera victims of the great Hamburg epidemic of 1831. She was an inspiration to Theodor Fliedner, who founded the first Protestant hospital in Kaiserswerth in 1836 and…

  • Sievershausen, Battle of (German history)

    Wilhelm von Grumbach: …Franconia, until their defeat at Sievershausen the following year enabled the bishop of Würzburg to confiscate Grumbach’s lands. Grumbach obtained an order of restitution from the imperial court of justice, but he was unable to execute it, and in 1558 some of his followers assassinated the bishop. Grumbach fled to…

  • sievert (physics)

    Sievert (Sv), unit of radiation absorption in the International System of Units (SI). The sievert takes into account the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation, since each form of such radiation—e.g., X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons—has a slightly different effect on living

  • Sievert, Hans (German athlete)

    decathlon: …of the United States, and Hans Sievert of Germany were leading competitors under the first table, with Sievert setting the final record of 8,790.46 points in 1934.

  • sieving (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Filtration and screening: In filtration, a porous material is used to separate particles of different sizes. If the pore sizes are highly uniform, separation can be fairly sensitive to the size of the particles, but the method is most commonly used to effect gross separations, as of…

  • Sieyès, Emmanuel-Joseph (French politician)

    Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, churchman and constitutional theorist whose concept of popular sovereignty guided the National Assembly in its struggle against the monarchy and nobility during the opening months of the French Revolution. He later played a major role in organizing the coup d’état that

  • Sīf Allāh (Arab Muslim general)

    Khālid ibn al-Walīd, one of the two generals (with ?Amr ibn al-?ā?) of the enormously successful Islamic expansion under the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors, Abū Bakr and ?Umar. Although he fought against Muhammad at U?ud (625), Khālid was later converted (627/629) and joined

  • Sif Mons (volcano, Venus)

    Venus: Volcanic features: Sif Mons is an example of such a volcano; there are more than 100 others distributed widely over the planet. Known as shield volcanoes, they reach heights of several kilometres above the surrounding plains and can be hundreds of kilometres across at their base. They…

  • sifaka (primate)

    Sifaka, (genus Propithecus), any of nine species of leaping arboreal lemurs found in coastal forests of Madagascar. Sifakas are about 1 metre (3.3 feet) long, roughly half the length being tail. They have a small head, large eyes, and large ears that in most species are partially hidden in their

  • Sifakis, Joseph (French computer scientist)

    Joseph Sifakis, Greek-born French computer scientist and cowinner of the 2007 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science. Sifakis earned a bachelor’s degree (1969) in electrical engineering from the National Technical University of Athens and a master’s degree (1972) and a docteur

  • Siferwas, John (British artist)

    Western painting: International Gothic: The style of John Siferwas, another painter active during this period, is similar, but his page decoration is usually more lavish; he produced a series of beautiful bird studies reminiscent of Lombard work. It should be noted, however, that this sort of realistic observation had long been a…

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