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  • signal troop (military)

    tactics: The armoured offensive: …one another, the Germans added signal troops (they were the first to develop a comprehensive mobile communication system based on two-way radio) as well as a headquarters. Thus, they created the first armoured divisions, which from 1940 became the very symbol of military might.

  • signal wave form (electronics)

    television: Distortion and interference: The signal wave form that makes up a television picture signal embodies all the picture information to be transmitted from camera to receiver screen as well as the synchronizing information required to keep the receiver and transmitter scanning operations in exact step with each other. The…

  • signal-to-noise ratio (communications)

    information theory: Continuous communication and the problem of bandwidth: …the quantity SN is the signal-to-noise ratio, which is often given in decibels (dB). Observe that the larger the signal-to-noise ratio, the greater the data rate. Another point worth observing, though, is that the log2 function grows quite slowly. For example, suppose SN is 1,000, then log2 1,001 = 9.97.…

  • signaling (behaviour)

    A. Michael Spence: …developed the theory of “signaling” to show how better-informed individuals in the market communicate their information to the less-well-informed to avoid the problems associated with adverse selection. In his 1973 seminal paper “Job Market Signaling,” Spence demonstrated how a college degree signals a job seeker’s intelligence and ability to…

  • Signaling System 7 (communications)

    telephone: Out-of-band signaling: …America, CCITT-7 was implemented as Signaling System 7, or SS7.

  • signals intelligence

    electronic warfare: …communications, which is known as signals intelligence (SIGINT) gathering. The purpose of jamming is to limit an enemy’s ability to exchange information by overriding radio transmissions or by sending signals to prevent radar detection or convey false information. Intelligence gathering has grown more significant in direct relation to the increased…

  • signature (book)

    bookbinding: …first folded into sections, or signatures (delivered often as folded sections of 64 pages, or as two 32-page sections, or as four 16-page sections). End sheets (or papers) may be attached to the first and last sections of the book, and systems are designed to sew sections together or fasten…

  • signature quilt (American soft furnishing)

    quilting: The golden age of American quilts: …as did its contemporary, the signature, or album, quilt, in which each block was made and signed by a different maker and the quilt given as a keepsake, for example, to a bride by her friends, to the minister by the women of the congregation, or to a young man…

  • Signes (France)

    C?te d'Azur: Signes, in Var, commemorates Saint Eligius during the fourth week in June, and the sailors of Antibes honour Saint Peter late in June. Menton hosts a festival of lemons in February; floats are decked with lemons and oranges.

  • signet (seal)

    sigillography: Seals in antiquity: …type until replaced by the signet ring in Roman times. In the Aegean, various types of stamp seals were used throughout the 2nd and much of the 1st millennium bc, until in Hellenistic and Roman times the signet ring became dominant.

  • Signet Office (chancery)

    diplomatics: The English royal chancery: …of the 14th century, the Signet Office was established, so called after the small seal (signet). The king’s secretary was also the head of this office. All these shifts made the issuing of royal documents increasingly complicated. From the end of the 14th century, the common procedure involved, first, the…

  • signet ring (jewelry)

    ring: The Egyptians primarily used signet, or seal, rings, in which a seal engraved on the bezel can be used to authenticate documents by the wearer. Egyptian seal rings typically had the name and titles of the owner deeply sunk in hieroglyphic characters on an oblong gold bezel. The ancient…

  • significance

    Meaning, In philosophy and linguistics, the sense of a linguistic expression, sometimes understood in contrast to its referent. For example, the expressions “the morning star” and “the evening star” have different meanings, though their referent (Venus) is the same. Some expressions have meanings

  • Significance of History, The (work by Turner)

    Frederick Jackson Turner: …his first professional paper, “The Significance of History” (1891), which contains the famous line “Each age writes the history of the past anew with reference to the conditions uppermost in its own time.” The controversial notion that there was no fixed historical truth, and that all historical interpretation should…

  • Significance of Sections in American History, The (work by Turner)

    Frederick Jackson Turner: …in American History (1920) and The Significance of Sections in American History (1932), for which he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1933. In these writings Turner promoted new methods in historical research, including the techniques of the newly founded social sciences, and urged his colleagues to study new…

  • Significance of the Increased Size of the Cerebrum in Recent as Compared with Extinct Animals, The (work by Lankester)

    Sir Edwin Ray Lankester: In “The Significance of the Increased Size of the Cerebrum in Recent as Compared with Extinct Animals” (1899), Lankester emphasized that an inherited ability to learn, allowing cultural advances to be transmitted between generations socially, was an important factor in human evolution. His discovery of flint…

  • significance test (statistics)

    statistics: Significance testing: In a regression study, hypothesis tests are usually conducted to assess the statistical significance of the overall relationship represented by the regression model and to test for the statistical significance of the individual parameters. The statistical tests used are based on the following…

  • significance, level of (statistics)

    statistics: Hypothesis testing: …type I error, called the level of significance for the test. Common choices for the level of significance are α = 0.05 and α = 0.01. Although most applications of hypothesis testing control the probability of making a type I error, they do not always control the probability of making…

  • significant form (art)

    Clive Bell: …was the theory of “significant form,” as described in his books Art (1914) and Since Cézanne (1922). He asserted that purely formal qualities—i.e., the relationships and combinations of lines and colours—are the most important elements in works of art. The aesthetic emotion aroused in the viewer by a painting…

  • Significant Others (work by Maupin)

    Armistead Maupin: …the City (1982), Babycakes (1984), Significant Others (1987), and Sure of You (1989), all but the last of which were initially serialized in San Francisco newspapers. Maupin chronicled the later vicissitudes and triumphs of his characters in Michael Tolliver Lives (2007), Mary Ann in Autumn (2010), and The Days of…

  • signifyin’ (sociology)

    Henry Louis Gates, Jr.: Gates developed the notion of signifyin’ in Figures in Black: Words, Signs, and the “Racial” Self (1987) and The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (1988). Signifyin’ is the practice of representing an idea indirectly, through a commentary that is often humourous, boastful, insulting, or provocative. Gates argued…

  • Signifying Monkey: Towards a Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism, The (critical work by Gates)

    Henry Louis Gates, Jr.: …the “Racial” Self (1987) and The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (1988). Signifyin’ is the practice of representing an idea indirectly, through a commentary that is often humourous, boastful, insulting, or provocative. Gates argued that the pervasiveness and centrality of signifyin’ in African and African American literature…

  • Signorelli, Luca (Italian painter)

    Luca Signorelli, Renaissance painter, best known for his nudes and for his novel compositional devices. It is likely that Signorelli was a pupil of Piero della Francesca in the 1460s. The first certain surviving work by him, a fragmentary fresco (1474) now in the museum at Città di Castello, shows

  • Signorelli, Luca d’Egidio di Ventura de’ (Italian painter)

    Luca Signorelli, Renaissance painter, best known for his nudes and for his novel compositional devices. It is likely that Signorelli was a pupil of Piero della Francesca in the 1460s. The first certain surviving work by him, a fragmentary fresco (1474) now in the museum at Città di Castello, shows

  • Signoret, Henri (French theatrical manager)

    puppetry: Styles of puppet theatre: …to Paris in 1888 when Henri Signoret founded the Little Theatre; this theatre used rod puppets mounted on a base that ran on rails below the stage, the movement of the limbs being controlled by strings attached to pedals. The plays presented were pieces by classic authors—Cervantes, Aristophanes, Shakespeare—and new…

  • Signoret, Simone (French actress)

    Simone Signoret, French actress known for her portrayal of fallen romantic heroines and headstrong older women. Her tumultuous marriage to actor Yves Montand and the couple’s championing of several left-wing causes often provoked controversy and brought her notoriety. Born in Germany to French

  • signoria (Italian medieval government)

    Signoria, (Italian: “lordship”), in the medieval and Renaissance Italian city-states, a government run by a signore (lord, or despot) that replaced republican institutions either by force or by agreement. It was the characteristic form of government in Italy from the middle of the 13th century

  • Signoria, Palazzo della (palace, Florence, Italy)

    Palazzo Vecchio, most important historic government building in Florence, having been the seat of the Signoria of the Florentine Republic in the 14th century and then the government centre of the Medici grand dukes of Tuscany. From 1865 to 1871 it housed the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of

  • Signorini, Francesca (Italian composer and singer)

    Francesca Caccini, Italian composer and singer who was one of only a handful of women in 17th-century Europe whose compositions were published. The most significant of her compositions—published and unpublished—were produced during her employment at the Medici court in Florence. Francesca Caccini,

  • Signorini, Telemaco (Italian artist)

    Macchiaioli: …were the critic and theoretician Telemaco Signorini (1853–1901), who used colour with great sensitivity in his usually socially conscious scenes; Silvestro Lega (1826–95), who combined a clearly articulated handling of colour patches with a poetic feeling for his subject; and Raffaello Sernesi (1838–66) and Giuseppe Abbati (1836–68), both of whom…

  • Signorini-Malaspina, Francesca (Italian composer and singer)

    Francesca Caccini, Italian composer and singer who was one of only a handful of women in 17th-century Europe whose compositions were published. The most significant of her compositions—published and unpublished—were produced during her employment at the Medici court in Florence. Francesca Caccini,

  • Signs (film by Shyamalan [2002])

    Mel Gibson: …successful films—including Ransom (1996) and Signs (2002)—Gibson returned to directing with The Passion of the Christ (2004), an account of the last 12 hours of Jesus Christ’s life that was based primarily on the biblical Gospels, with dialogue in Aramaic and Latin (with English subtitles). Although The Passion was a…

  • Signs of Fire (work by Sena)

    Portuguese literature: After 1974: …published Sinais de fogo (1978; Signs of Fire), an impressive novel about the effects in Portugal of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). J. Cardoso Pires based Balada da praia dos c?es (1982; Ballad of Dogs’ Beach) on the account of a political assassination. The novels that constitute Almeida Faria’s Tetralogia…

  • Signs of Life (film by Coles [1989])

    Mary-Louise Parker: …appeared in her first film, Signs of Life, a drama in which she portrayed an abused girlfriend. This and later roles led some to describe her as the “long-suffering girl next door.” In 1990 Parker made her Broadway debut in Prelude to a Kiss, and her performance as Rita—a young…

  • Signs of the Times (work by Bunsen)

    Christian Karl Josias, baron von Bunsen: (1855; Signs of the Times), defended religious and personal freedom at a time when reaction was triumphant in Europe.

  • Signy Island (island, South Atlantic Ocean)

    South Orkney Islands: …are barren and uninhabited, but Signy Island is used as a base for Antarctic exploration. George Powell (British) and Nathaniel Palmer (American), both sealers, sighted and charted the islands in December 1821.

  • Sigourney, L. H. (American author)

    L.H. Sigourney, popular writer, known as “the sweet singer of Hartford,” who was one of the first American women to succeed at a literary career. Lydia Huntley worked as a schoolteacher and published her first work, Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse, in 1815. After her marriage in 1819 to Charles

  • Sigourney, Lydia Howard (American author)

    L.H. Sigourney, popular writer, known as “the sweet singer of Hartford,” who was one of the first American women to succeed at a literary career. Lydia Huntley worked as a schoolteacher and published her first work, Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse, in 1815. After her marriage in 1819 to Charles

  • Sigsbee Deep (submarine feature, Gulf of Mexico)

    Gulf of Mexico: Physiography and geology: …in the Mexico Basin (Sigsbee Deep), which is 17,070 feet (5,203 metres) below sea level. From the floor of the basin rise the Sigsbee Knolls, some of which attain heights of 1,300 feet (400 metres); these are surface expressions of the buried salt domes.

  • Sigsbee Knolls (salt domes, Gulf of Mexico)

    Mexico Basin: …middle of the basin, the Sigsbee Knolls form a series of hills that are believed to be reflections of underlying salt domes rising above the generally flat basin floor.

  • sigui (religious ceremony)

    Dogon: …by a ceremony called the sigui, which occurs when the star Sirius appears between two mountain peaks. Before the ceremony, young men go into seclusion for three months, during which they talk in a secret language. The general ceremony rests on the belief that some 3,000 years ago amphibious beings…

  • Siguiri (Guinea)

    Siguiri, town, northeastern Guinea. A port on the Niger River, it lies at the intersection of roads from Bamako (Mali), Kankan, and Dinguiraye and is 5 miles (8 km) north of the confluence of the Tinkisso River with the Niger. Siguiri is the chief market town for the cattle, corn (maize), millet,

  • Sigurd (Germanic literary hero)

    Siegfried, figure from the heroic literature of the ancient Germanic people. He appears in both German and Old Norse literature, although the versions of his stories told by these two branches of the Germanic tradition do not always agree. He plays a part in the story of Brunhild, in which he meets

  • Sigurd I Magnusson (king of Norway)

    Sigurd I Magnusson, king of Norway (1103–30) and the first Scandinavian king to participate in the Crusades. He strengthened the Norwegian church by building cathedrals and monasteries and by imposing tithes, which provided a reliable source of income for the clergy. An illegitimate son of the

  • Sigurd II (king of Norway)

    Inge I Haraldsson: …jointly with his half brother, Sigurd II, at their father’s death. The brothers and their supporters then defeated the forces of Sigurd Slembi and the former ruler Magnus IV the Blind, who were both pretenders to the throne. In 1142 Inge and Sigurd II were joined by Eystein, who also…

  • Sigurd Jerusalemfarer (king of Norway)

    Sigurd I Magnusson, king of Norway (1103–30) and the first Scandinavian king to participate in the Crusades. He strengthened the Norwegian church by building cathedrals and monasteries and by imposing tithes, which provided a reliable source of income for the clergy. An illegitimate son of the

  • Sigurd Jorsalfare (king of Norway)

    Sigurd I Magnusson, king of Norway (1103–30) and the first Scandinavian king to participate in the Crusades. He strengthened the Norwegian church by building cathedrals and monasteries and by imposing tithes, which provided a reliable source of income for the clergy. An illegitimate son of the

  • Sigurd the Crusader (king of Norway)

    Sigurd I Magnusson, king of Norway (1103–30) and the first Scandinavian king to participate in the Crusades. He strengthened the Norwegian church by building cathedrals and monasteries and by imposing tithes, which provided a reliable source of income for the clergy. An illegitimate son of the

  • Sigureardóttir, Jóhanna (prime minister of Iceland)

    Jóhanna Sigureardóttir, Icelandic politician who served as prime minister of Iceland from 2009 to 2013. She was the country’s first female prime minister and the world’s first openly gay head of government (Per-Kristian Foss served briefly as acting prime minister of Norway in 2002). Sigureardóttir

  • Sigurdsson, Jón (Icelandic statesman)

    Jón Sigurdsson, Icelandic scholar and statesman who collected and edited many Old Norse sagas and documents. He was also the leader of the 19th-century struggle for Icelandic self-government under Denmark. Sigurdsson was educated in classical philology, ancient history, and political theory and

  • Sigurdsson, Sverrir (king of Norway)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson, king of Norway (1177–1202) and one of the best-known figures in medieval Norwegian history. By expanding the power of the monarchy and limiting the privileges of the church, he provoked civil uprisings that were not quelled until 1217. The son of Gunnhild, a Norwegian woman

  • Sigurimi (police organization, Albania)

    Albania: The Stalinist state: …State Security, known as the Sigurimi. To eliminate dissent, the government periodically resorted to purges, in which opponents were subjected to public criticism, dismissed from their jobs, imprisoned in forced-labour camps, or executed. Travel abroad was forbidden to all but those on official business. In 1967 the religious establishment, which…

  • Sigurjónsson, Jóhann (Icelandic writer)

    Jóhann Sigurjónsson, Icelandic playwright who became internationally famous for one play, Fjalla-Eyvindur (1911; Danish Bj?rg-Ejvind og hans hustru, 1911; Eyvind of the Mountains; filmed 1917, by Victor Sj?str?m), which created a sensation in Scandinavia and in Germany and was later produced in

  • Sigvatr (Norwegian poet)

    Icelandic literature: Skaldic verse: …of Norwegian kings, as did Sigvatr, counselor and court poet of Olaf II of Norway. Although the complexity of skaldic poetry has limited its modern readership, the orally transmitted poems of the 10th and 11th centuries became valuable sources for Icelandic historians in the following centuries.

  • Sihamoni, Norodom (king of Cambodia)

    Norodom Sihamoni, king of Cambodia who succeeded his father, King Norodom Sihanouk, in October 2004 after Sihanouk abdicated the throne. Sihamoni was the elder of Sihanouk’s two sons with his last queen, Monineath. At the time of Sihamoni’s birth, Cambodia was becoming independent of France (which

  • Sihanouk, Norodom (king of Cambodia)

    Norodom Sihanouk, twice king of Cambodia (1941–55 and 1993–2004), who also served as prime minister, head of state, and president. He attempted to steer a neutral course for Cambodia in its civil and foreign wars of the late 20th century. Sihanouk was, on his mother’s side, the grandson of King

  • Sihanoukville (Cambodia)

    Kampóng Sa?m, town, autonomous municipality, and the only deepwater port of Cambodia, situated on a peninsula of the Gulf of Thailand. The port is connected with Phnom Penh, the national capital, by two major highways. It was first opened to ocean traffic in 1956; initial facilities were capable of

  • sī?arfī (poetry)

    Islamic arts: Other poetic forms: …folk poetry, such as the sī?arfī (“golden alphabet”), in which each line or each stanza begins with succeeding letters of the Arabic alphabet. In Muslim India the bārā?āsa (“12 months”) is a sort of lovers’ calendar in which the poet, assuming the role of a young woman of longing, expresses…

  • Sihine, Sileshi (Ethiopian athlete)

    Tirunesh Dibaba: …men’s 10,000-metre Olympic silver medalist Sileshi Sihine. Injuries curtailed her activities during 2009–11. Several months after her triumphant return to the medals podium at the 2012 London Olympics—in addition to her gold in the 10,000 metres, she won a bronze in the 5,000 metres—she made her half marathon debut in…

  • Sihor (India)

    Sehore, city, western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is located on the northern edge of the Vindhya Range near the confluence of the Siwan and Latia rivers, about 20 miles (32 km) west of Bhopal. Sehore was a former British cantonment, and it served as the headquarters of the British

  • Sihot lohamin (work by kibbutzniks)

    Martin Buber: The final years.: Si?ot lo?amin (1967; The Seventh Day, 1970), published by them shortly after the Six-Day War, testifies to Buber’s living spirit by its self-searching attitude on ethical questions of war and peace and on Arab–Jewish relations.

  • Sihtricson, Anlaf (king of Denmark)

    Olaf Sihtricson, king of the Danish kingdoms of Northumbria and of Dublin. He was the son of Sihtric, king of Deira, and was related to the English king Aethelstan. When Sihtric died about 927 Aethelstan annexed Deira, and Olaf took refuge in Scotland and in Ireland until 937, when he was one of

  • sihu (Chinese instrument)

    huqin: jinghu, and the four-stringed sihu. Similar bowed fiddles are also found in Southeast Asia, Korea (see haeg?m), and, less prominently, Japan.

  • SII

    Japan: Economic change: …taken up in the so-called Structural Impediments Initiative (SII) in the late 1980s. By the end of the decade it was generally acknowledged that formal barriers to trade had been largely dismantled, though areas such as construction bidding were still closed, and many cultural barriers remained.

  • Siirt (Turkey)

    Siirt, city, southeastern Turkey. It lies along the Bühtan River in the southeastern foothills of the Taurus Mountains. Under the Ottoman Empire, Siirt was a major commercial centre for a large region that included northern parts of present-day Iraq and Syria. It is now a local market for the

  • Sijilmassah (medieval principality, North Africa)

    Tafilalt: …the Amazigh (Berber) stronghold of Sijilmassa, founded in ad 757 on the Saharan caravan route from the Niger River to Tangier. A prosperous city, it was destroyed in 1363, rebuilt by Mawlāy Ismā?īl (1672–1727), and devastated in 1818 by Ait Atta nomads. The only planned village of the oasis, Rissani,…

  • Sijistānī, Abū Dā?ūd al- (Muslim scholar)

    ?ilm al-?adīth: 875), Abū Dā?ūd (d. 888), at-Tīrmidhī (d. 892), Ibn Mājāh (d. 886), and an-Nasā?ī (d. 915)—came to be recognized as canonical in orthodox Islam, though the books of al-Bukhārī and Muslim enjoy a prestige that virtually eclipses the other four.

  • sijo (Korean verse form)

    Sijo, a Korean verse form appearing (in Korean) in three lines of 14 to 16 syllables. In English translation the verse form is divided into six shorter

  • ?ik, Ota (Czech economist)

    Ota ?ik, Czech economist who laid the economic groundwork for the reforms of the Prague Spring of 1968. ?ik studied art in Prague before World War II. After Germany invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939, he was involved with the resistance. In 1940 he was arrested and subsequently sent to the Mauthausen

  • sika (mammal)

    Sika, (Cervus nippon), small, forest-dwelling deer of the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla), which is native to China, Korea, and Japan, where it was long considered sacred. (Sika means “deer” in Japanese.) It is farmed in China for its antlers, which are used in traditional medicine. Mature

  • Sika (people)

    Sikanese, people inhabiting the mountains and coastal areas between the Bloh and Napung rivers in east-central Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in Indonesia. Numbering about 180,000 in the late 20th century, they speak a language related to Solorese, which belongs to the Timor-Ambon

  • sikana (plant)

    Musk cucumber, (Sicana odorifera), perennial vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to the New World tropics and grown for its sweet-smelling edible fruit. The fruit can be eaten raw and is commonly used in jams and preserves; immature fruits are sometimes cooked as a vegetable. In

  • Sikandar Lodī (Lodī sultan)

    India: Struggle for supremacy in northern India: Sikandar completed the pacification of Jaunpur (1493), campaigned into Bihar, and founded the city of Agra in 1504 as a base from which to launch his attempt to control Malwa and Rajasthan.

  • Sikanese (people)

    Sikanese, people inhabiting the mountains and coastal areas between the Bloh and Napung rivers in east-central Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in Indonesia. Numbering about 180,000 in the late 20th century, they speak a language related to Solorese, which belongs to the Timor-Ambon

  • Sikar (India)

    Sikar, city, north-central Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated in an upland region of the Rajasthan Steppe, about 60 miles (95 km) northwest of Jaipur. The city is a major rail and road junction and engages in agricultural trade. Its handicrafts include textiles, pottery, enamel

  • Sikasso (Mali)

    Sikasso, city, southern Mali, West Africa. Sikasso was a small village before becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Kénédougou in the late 19th century. Today it constitutes a centre for cotton ginning and textile manufacturing. A road links Sikasso with Bamako, the national capital. The

  • Sikelianós, Angelos (Greek poet)

    Angelos Sikelianós, one of the leading 20th-century Greek lyrical poets. Sikelianós’ first important work, the Alafroísk?otos (“The Light-Shadowed”), was published in 1909 and revealed his lyrical powers. It was followed by a group of outstanding lyrics. His next period was introduced by the

  • Sikeloi (people)

    Siculi, ancient Sicilian tribe that occupied the eastern part of Sicily. Old tales related that the Siculi once lived in central Italy but were driven out and finally crossed to Sicily, leaving remnants behind—e.g., at Locri. They are hard to identify archaeologically, although some words of their

  • Sikes, Bill (fictional character)

    Bill Sikes, fictional character, a violent, brutish thief and burglar in the novel Oliver Twist (1837–39) by Charles

  • Sikh Dharma (Sikh religious group)

    Sikhism: Sects: …to wear turbans is the Sikh Dharma of the Western Hemisphere, founded in the United States in 1971 by Harbhajan Singh, who was always known as Yogi Bhajan. It is commonly known as the 3HO movement (Healthy Happy Holy Organization), though this is, strictly speaking, the name only of its…

  • Sikh Diaspora

    Sikhism: The Sikh diaspora: Until well into the modern era, most migrant Sikhs were traders who settled in India outside the Punjab or in neighbouring lands to the west. In the late 19th century, the posting of Sikh soldiers in the British army to stations in Malaya…

  • Sikh fundamentalism (religious and political movement)

    fundamentalism: Sikh fundamentalism: Sikh fundamentalism first attracted attention in the West in 1978, when the fiery preacher Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale reportedly led a march to break up a gathering of the Sikh Nirankari movement (from Punjabi nirankar, “formless,” reflecting the movement’s belief in the

  • Sikh Gurdwara Act (Indian history [1925])

    Sikh Gurdwara Act, legislation passed in India unanimously by the Punjab legislative council in July 1925 to end a controversy within the Sikh community that had embroiled it with the British government and threatened the tranquillity of the Punjab. The controversy had emerged over a reforming

  • Sikh Rahit Marayada (Sikh literature)

    Sikhism: Rites and festivals: Sikh Rahit Marayada, the manual that specifies the duties of Sikhs, names four rituals that qualify as rites of passage. The first is a birth and naming ceremony, held in a gurdwara when the mother is able to rise and bathe after giving birth. A…

  • Sikh War, Second (1848–1849)

    Sikh Wars: The Second Sikh War began with the revolt of Mulraj, governor of Multan, in April 1848 and became a national revolt when the Sikh army joined the rebels on September 14. Indecisive battles characterized by great ferocity and bad generalship were fought at Ramnagar (November 22)…

  • Sikh Wars (Indian history)

    Sikh Wars, (1845–46; 1848–49), two campaigns fought between the Sikhs and the British. They resulted in the conquest and annexation by the British of the Punjab in northwestern India. The first war was precipitated by mutual suspicions and the turbulence of the Sikh army. The Sikh state in the

  • Sikharulidze, Anton (Russian figure skater)

    Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Winter Games: …than Russians Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze, who had made several errors in their performance. After the competition, a judge admitted that she had been coerced into voting for the Russian pair by a skating official but later recanted her story. The resulting uproar from the public and the IOC…

  • Sikhism (religion)

    Sikhism, religion and philosophy founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in the late 15th century. Its members are known as Sikhs. The Sikhs call their faith Gurmat (Punjabi: “the Way of the Guru”). According to Sikh tradition, Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) and

  • Sikhote-Alin (mountains, Russia)

    Sikhote-Alin, mountain complex in the Russian Far East, fronting the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan for 750 miles (1,200 km) northeast-southwest. Major geologic fault lines bound the area, and the structural trench of the Ussuri River valley lies along the northwest. The relief is complicated;

  • Sikión (ancient city, Greece)

    Sicyon, ancient Greek city in the northern Peloponnese about 11 miles (18 km) northwest of Corinth. Inhabited in Mycenaean times and later invaded by Dorians, Sicyon was subject to Argos for several centuries. In the 7th century bc, Sicyonian independence was established by non-Dorian tyrants, t

  • sikke (hat)

    religious dress: Islam: …tall camel’s hair hat (sikke) represents the headstone. Underneath are the white “dancing” robes consisting of a very wide, pleated frock (tannūr), over which fits a short jacket (destegül). On arising to participate in the ritual dance, the dervish casts off the blackness of the grave and appears radiant…

  • Sikkim (state, India)

    Sikkim, state of India, located in the northeastern part of the country, in the eastern Himalayas. It is one of the smallest states in India. Sikkim is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and northeast, by Bhutan to the southeast, by the Indian state of West Bengal to the

  • Sikkim rat (rodent)

    rat: General features: …Sulawesian white-tailed rat and the Sikkim rat (R. remotus) of India, long and slender guard hairs resembling whiskers extend 4 to 6 cm beyond the coat on the back and rump. Very few Rattus species have spiny fur. Hoffman’s rat also exhibits the basic colour pattern seen in the genus—upperparts…

  • Siklós (Hungary)

    Baranya: In Siklós is a 13th-century castle with a fine Gothic and Renaissance interior. Szigetvár gained special significance in 1566 when the fortress there was put under siege by the invading Ottoman Turks. The Hungarian defenders, led by Nicholas Zrínyi, set fire to the fort rather than…

  • Siklós, Albert (Hungarian cellist)

    Albert Siklós, Hungarian cellist, composer, and musicologist. Siklós began composing at the age of six and started studying the pianoforte and music theory at seven. He took up the cello in 1891 and began lecturing while a student at the Hungarian Music School in 1895. He joined the staff of the

  • Sikma, Jack (American basketball player)

    Oklahoma City Thunder: …Williams, as well as centre Jack Sikma—winning the rematch in five games to capture the franchise’s first NBA championship. Seattle advanced to the conference finals again in 1979–80 but was eliminated by a Lakers team featuring rookie sensation Magic Johnson.

  • Sikorski, Józef (Polish composer and music critic)

    Józef Sikorski, Polish composer and writer on music. He spent his entire career in Warsaw, where he had mastered the piano and music theory; his compositions included cantatas and church music. He exerted his major influence as a music critic and as the editor and author of numerous musical

  • Sikorski, W?adys?aw (Polish statesman)

    W?adys?aw Sikorski, Polish soldier and statesman who led Poland’s government in exile during World War II. Born and educated in Austrian Poland, Sikorski served in the Austrian army. In 1908 he founded a secret Polish military organization, in which Józef Pi?sudski was also prominent. During World

  • Sikorski, W?adys?aw Eugeniusz (Polish statesman)

    W?adys?aw Sikorski, Polish soldier and statesman who led Poland’s government in exile during World War II. Born and educated in Austrian Poland, Sikorski served in the Austrian army. In 1908 he founded a secret Polish military organization, in which Józef Pi?sudski was also prominent. During World

  • Sikorski-Maysky accord (Polish history)

    Poland: World War II: …the Soviet Union through the Sikorski-Maysky accord, accepting the annulment of the Ribbentrop-Molotov treaty without an explicit Soviet renunciation of annexed Polish territory. The Soviets promised to release the deported Poles—more than 230,000 Poles had been prisoners of war since 1939—and agreed to the creation of a Polish army under…

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