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  • Sikorsky Aviation (American company)

    United Technologies Corporation: …aircraft- and aircraft-component-manufacturing companies including Sikorsky Aviation, Stearman Aircraft, Avion (later Northrop Aircraft), Chance Vought (aircraft), Hamilton (propellers and aircraft), and Pratt & Whitney (engines). In another two years it consolidated four smaller airlines into United Airlines and made it a subsidiary. In response to legislation prohibiting the affiliation of…

  • Sikorsky R-4 (helicopter)

    aerospace industry: Between the wars: Army in 1944, Sikorsky’s R-4 became the world’s first production helicopter.

  • Sikorsky, Igor (naturalized American engineer)

    Igor Sikorsky, pioneer in aircraft design who is best known for his successful development of the helicopter. Sikorsky’s father was a physician and professor of psychology. His mother also was a physician but never practiced professionally. Her great interest in art and in the life and work of

  • Sikorsky, Igor Ivan (naturalized American engineer)

    Igor Sikorsky, pioneer in aircraft design who is best known for his successful development of the helicopter. Sikorsky’s father was a physician and professor of psychology. His mother also was a physician but never practiced professionally. Her great interest in art and in the life and work of

  • ?ik?ā (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: The Vedangas: …were six such fields: (1) shiksa (instruction), which explains the proper articulation and pronunciation of the Vedic texts—different branches had different ways of pronouncing the texts, and these variations were recorded in pratishakhyas (literally, “instructions for the shakhas” [“branches”]), four of which are extant—(2) chandas (metre), of which there remains…

  • Siksika (people)

    Blackfoot, North American Indian tribe composed of three closely related bands, the Piegan (officially spelled Peigan in Canada), or Piikuni; the Blood, or Kainah (also spelled Kainai, or Akainiwa); and the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper (often referred to as the Northern Blackfoot). The three groups

  • Sikua, Derek (prime minister of Solomon Islands)

    Solomon Islands: Efforts toward recovery and reform and the 2006 and 2010 general elections: …a confidence vote in 2007, Derek Sikua became prime minister. Consideration of a new constitution was ongoing; it would address provincial and ethnic tensions by changing the governmental structure to that of a federation of states.

  • Sikuquanshu (Chinese literature)

    Qianlong: Contributions to the arts: The Sikuquanshu (“Complete Library in the Four Branches of Literature”) involved the scrutiny of entire libraries, both imperial and private, and was carried on for 10 years under the direction of the scholars Ji Yun and Lu Xixiong, the emperor himself intervening on several occasions in…

  • Sikwayi (Cherokee leader)

    Sequoyah, creator of the Cherokee writing system (see Cherokee language). Sequoyah was probably the son of a Virginia fur trader named Nathaniel Gist. Reared by his Cherokee mother, Wuh-teh of the Paint clan, in the Tennessee country, he never learned to speak, read, or write English. He was an

  • Sikya (African dance)

    African dance: Division between the sexes: …are common, as in the Sikya dance of the Akan of Ghana. The Bororo of western Cameroon celebrate the coming of the dry season with a dance for young men and women, and couples pair off at the climax of the performance. Among the Nupe of Nigeria ribald songs and…

  • Sikyatki (archaeological site, Arizona, United States)

    Sikyatki, (Hopi: “Yellow House”), ruined pueblo extending over 10 to 15 acres (4 to 6 hectares) in present Navajo county, northeastern Arizona, U.S. The site was occupied by members of the Firewood, or Kokop, clan of the Hopi during the Regressive Pueblo stage (c. ad 1300–1700) of the Ancestral

  • Sikyonela (Boer chief)

    Battle of Blood River: Context: …stolen by the rebel chief Sikyonela. Piet Retief, leader of the Voortrekkers, agreed to this, and he and his men completed the task that was asked of them. They also took additional horses, cattle, and guns from Sikyonela and his people to supplement the Voortrekkers’ supplies. Dingane demanded that Retief…

  • SIL (linguistics school)

    linguistics: Semantics: …American Bible Society and the Summer Institute of Linguistics, a group of Protestant missionary linguists. Because their principal aim is to produce translations of the Bible, they have necessarily been concerned with meaning as well as with grammar and phonology. This has tempered the otherwise fairly orthodox Bloomfieldian approach characteristic…

  • ?īla (Buddhism)

    Sīla, in Buddhism, morality, or right conduct; sīla comprises three stages along the Eightfold Path—right speech, right action, and right livelihood. Evil actions are considered to be the product of defiling passions (see āsrāva), but their causes are rooted out only by the exercise of wisdom

  • sīla (Buddhism)

    Sīla, in Buddhism, morality, or right conduct; sīla comprises three stages along the Eightfold Path—right speech, right action, and right livelihood. Evil actions are considered to be the product of defiling passions (see āsrāva), but their causes are rooted out only by the exercise of wisdom

  • sílā (Arabian spirit)

    ghoul: … was often confused with the sílā, also female; the sílā, however, was a witchlike species of jinn, immutable in shape. A ghūl stalked the desert, often in the guise of an attractive woman, trying to distract travelers, and, when successful, killed and ate them. The sole defense that one had…

  • Sila, La (mountains, Italy)

    Calabria: …Crati River from the extensive La Sila massif (rising to 6,325 feet [1,928 m]). A narrow isthmus between the gulfs of Sant’Eufemia (west) and Squillace (east) separates the northern from the southern part of the region, in which the uplands continue as the Appennino Calabrese and culminate in the extreme…

  • silage (agriculture)

    Silage, forage plants such as corn (maize), legumes, and grasses that have been chopped and stored in tower silos, pits, or trenches for use as animal feed. Since protein content decreases and fibre content increases as the crop matures, forage, like hay, should be harvested in early maturity. The

  • silane (chemical compound)

    Silane, any of a series of covalently bonded compounds containing only the elements silicon and hydrogen, having the general formula SinH2n + 2, in which n equals 1, 2, 3, and so on. The silanes are structural analogues of the saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) but are much less stable. The term

  • Silao (Mexico)

    Silao, city, west-central Guanajuato estado (state), north-central Mexico. Founded in 1537, Silao lies along the Silao River at 5,830 feet (1,777 metres) above sea level. By virtue of its location in the Bajío region, known as the granary of Mexico, Silao is an important agricultural centre. A wide

  • Silappathikaram (Tamil epic poem by Adikal)

    Silappathikaram, (Tamil: “The Jeweled Anklet”) the earliest epic poem in Tamil, written in the 5th–6th century ad by Prince Ilanko Adikal (Ilango Adigal). Its plot is derived from a well-known story. The Silappathikaram tells of the young merchant Kovalan’s marriage to the virtuous Kannaki

  • Silappatikaram (Tamil epic poem by Adikal)

    Silappathikaram, (Tamil: “The Jeweled Anklet”) the earliest epic poem in Tamil, written in the 5th–6th century ad by Prince Ilanko Adikal (Ilango Adigal). Its plot is derived from a well-known story. The Silappathikaram tells of the young merchant Kovalan’s marriage to the virtuous Kannaki

  • Silas Marner (novel by Eliot)

    Silas Marner, novel by George Eliot, published in 1861. The story’s title character is a friendless weaver who cares only for his cache of gold. He is ultimately redeemed through his love for Eppie, an abandoned golden-haired baby girl, whom he discovers shortly after he is robbed and rears as his

  • Silas Marner: The Weaver of Raveloe (novel by Eliot)

    Silas Marner, novel by George Eliot, published in 1861. The story’s title character is a friendless weaver who cares only for his cache of gold. He is ultimately redeemed through his love for Eppie, an abandoned golden-haired baby girl, whom he discovers shortly after he is robbed and rears as his

  • Silas, Paul (American basketball player)

    Boston Celtics: …contributor, along with Dave Cowens, Paul Silas, and Jo Jo White, on teams coached by Heinsohn that won titles in 1973–74 and 1975–76. The second of those championships included a dramatic triple-overtime victory over the Phoenix Suns in game five of the finals. In 1978 the Celtics were involved in…

  • Silas, Saint (Christian prophet)

    Saint Silas, ; Western feast day July 13, Eastern feast day July 30), early Christian prophet and missionary, companion of the Apostle St. Paul. It is generally believed that the Silas in Acts and the Silvanus in 2 Corinthians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, and 1 Peter are the same. Acts 15:22 first

  • Silay (Philippines)

    Silay, city, northern Negros island, central Philippines. Situated on Guimaras Strait, just north of Bacolod, Silay is a busy commercial and fishing port and the site of a large sugar mill, which handles the crop of the Silay-Talisay area, one of the country’s leading sugarcane regions. The city is

  • Silbering, Norman J. (American paleontologist)

    Triassic Period: North American strata: …who, with the American paleontologist Norman J. Silberling, provided precisely defined stratotypes for all the recognized North American biozones. The North American zonal scheme is now accepted by most authorities as the standard for Triassic global biostratigraphy and allows Alpine (western Tethyan) and Boreal (Siberian) zones to be placed in…

  • Silberman, Jerome (American actor)

    Gene Wilder, American comic actor best known for his portrayals of high-strung neurotic characters who generally seemed to be striving unsuccessfully to appear more balanced than they were. In addition, his characters often shared a sort of tender vulnerability. As a youth in Milwaukee, Wilder was

  • Silbermann, Gottfried (German instrument manufacturer)

    Gottfried Silbermann, outstanding German builder of keyboard instruments and member of an important family of musical-instrument makers. Gottfried worked in Strasbourg in the shop of his brother Andreas, also a noted builder, before moving to Freiberg in 1710. There he made spinets, clavichords,

  • Silberner B?r (film award)

    Berlin International Film Festival: …film and short film and Silver Bear (Silberner B?r) awards for best director, actor, and actress. In 1978 the festival was moved from June to February. By the early 21st century, it was attended by about 300,000 film professionals and cinephiles. In addition to screening movies, the festival features various…

  • Silbury Hill (prehistoric mound, England, United Kingdom)

    Avebury: Nearby Silbury Hill, at 130 feet (40 metres) high the largest prehistoric mound in Europe, was not used as a burial site, and the reason for its construction remains unknown.

  • Silchar (India)

    Silchar, city, southern Assam state, northeastern India. It is situated on the Surma (Barak) River near the Bangladesh border. Under the Kachari rulers, Silchar was a village. During British rule, the city was the headquarters of Cachar (1832). The name originated from two words: shil (“rocks”) and

  • Silchester (England, United Kingdom)

    Silchester, village (parish), Basingstoke and Deane borough, in the northern part of the administrative and historic county of Hampshire, southern England, southwest of Reading. Near the small modern village is the deserted site of the important Roman British town of Calleva Atrebatum, a node of

  • silcrete (mineral)

    Silcrete, silica-rich duricrust, an indurated, or hardened, layer in or on a soil. It generally occurs in a hot, arid climate where infrequent waterlogging causes silica to dissolve and be redeposited to cement soil grains together. Silcrete is extremely hard and resistant to weathering and

  • silcrust (geology)

    duricrust: Factors involved in duricrust formation: Silcrust formation requires the selective concentration of silica, a fact that has led some experts to consider silcrusts as the lower parts of ferricrust profiles. The distributional contrast between silcrusts and ferricrusts is clear, however, and the transition between the types is well documented. Silcrusts…

  • sildenafil citrate (drug)

    Viagra, trade name of the first oral drug for male impotence, introduced by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer, Inc., in 1998. Also known by the chemical name sildenafil citrate, it is one of a category of drugs known as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. See also PDE-5

  • sileh rug

    Sileh rug, pileless floor covering from the southern Caucasus and parts of eastern Turkey. Formerly the term was used to refer to a type of flatweave whose name in its area of origin is vernehor verné, but it has now come to be used for a group of flatweaves, which may or may not be woven in two

  • Silence (film by Scorsese [2016])

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 2010s: Shutter Island, Hugo, and The Wolf of Wall Street: …and cowrote the feature film Silence (2016), which was based on a novel by Endō Shūsaku. The epic drama—which Scorsese had wanted to make for nearly 30 years—continued his exploration of faith. It centres on Jesuit missionaries in 17th-century Japan who face torture or death if they do not renounce…

  • Silence (novel by Endō)

    Endō Shūsaku: …most powerful novels, Chimmoku (1966; Silence), is a fictionalized account of Portuguese priests who traveled to Japan and the subsequent slaughter of their Japanese converts. This novel and Samurai (1980; The Samurai)—a fascinating account of a samurai’s journey on behalf of his shogun to open trade with Mexico, Spain, and…

  • Silence de Lorna, Le (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [2008])

    Dardenne brothers: Le Silence de Lorna (2008; Lorna’s Silence), which won best screenplay at Cannes, portrays the lengths to which a young Albanian woman will go to secure a measure of happiness. In the suspenseful Le Gamin au vélo (2011; The Kid with a Bike), the Dardennes focused on the poignant struggles…

  • Silence est d’or, Le (film by Clair)

    René Clair: …to France, where he made Le Silence est d’or, a masterful renewal of his Parisian past and his youth, which was to be his artistic testament. Though Clair’s subsequent films, such as La Beauté du diable (1949), which propounded the Faust theme, and Les Grandes Manoeuvres (1955), a seriocomedy in…

  • Silence of the Lambs, The (film by Demme [1991])

    The Silence of the Lambs, American suspense film, released in 1991, that was the first psychological thriller since Rebecca (1940) to win the Academy Award for best picture. The film’s tight direction and clever script, together with an indelible performance by Anthony Hopkins as a cannibalistic

  • Silence of the Sea, The (work by Vercors)

    Vercors: …Silence de la mer (1941; The Silence of the Sea), a patriotic tale of self-deception and of the triumph of passive resistance over evil. The novella was published clandestinely in Nazi-occupied Paris and served to rally a spirit of French defiance.

  • Silence, The (film by Bergman)

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …Glass Darkly, Winter Light, and The Silence, dealing with the borderline between sanity and madness and that between human contact and total withdrawal, was regarded by many as his crowning achievement. Through a Glass Darkly won an Academy Award for best foreign film.

  • Silence, Tower of (Zoroastrianism)

    Dakhma, (Avestan: “tower of silence”), Parsi funerary tower erected on a hill for the disposal of the dead according to the Zoroastrian rite. Such towers are about 25 feet (8 m) high, built of brick or stone, and contain gratings on which the corpses are exposed. After vultures have picked the

  • silencer (engine part)

    Muffler, device through which the exhaust gases from an internal-combustion engine are passed to attenuate (reduce) the airborne noise of the engine. To be efficient as a sound reducer, a muffler must decrease the velocity of the exhaust gases and either absorb sound waves or cancel them by

  • silencer (gun device)

    Hiram Percy Maxim: …that made possible the famous “silencer.” This invention brought him fame, and even notoriety, as editors, writers, and the general public mistakenly assumed that the device could be attached to the pistols of criminals; in actuality, it was usable only on a sealed-breech rifle and never found wide demand. The…

  • Silencers, The (film by Karlson [1966])

    The Silencers, American spy film, released in 1966, that was the first and arguably best of the Matt Helm movies, which were based on the spy novels of Donald Hamilton and starred Dean Martin. Former secret agent Matt Helm (played by Martin) is working as a world-famous glamour photographer when he

  • Silences (work by Olsen)

    Tillie Olsen: Major period: In Silences (1978) she collected these essays along with quotations from and comments on authors who suffered from the stultifying effects of discrimination and repression. Despite its patchwork form, Silences became enormously influential. Along with a series of early poems called “At Fourteen Years,” her early…

  • Silene (plant, genus Silene)

    Campion, common name for ornamental rock-garden or border plants constituting the genus Silene, of the pink, or carnation, family (Caryophyllaceae), consisting of about 720 species of herbaceous plants distributed throughout the world. Members of the genus Lychnis are included in Silene. Some

  • Silene vulgaris (plant)

    campion: Bladder campion (S. vulgaris) has large, white, drooping flowers, and it has subspecies in different habitats throughout Europe. Many species are cultivated. Maltese Cross, or Jerusalem Cross (S. chalcedonica), has flowers of such a bright scarlet that they can be difficult to integrate into border…

  • silent chain (device)

    chain: A silent chain is essentially an assemblage of gear racks, each with two teeth, pivotally connected to form a closed chain. The links are pin-connected, flat steel plates with straight teeth. Silent chains are quieter than roller chains, can operate at higher speeds, and can transmit…

  • Silent Close No. Six (novel by Maron)

    German literature: After reunification: …novel Stille Zeile Sechs (1991; Silent Close No. Six), set in the 1980s and ostensibly a story about the discovery of guilt incurred by an important East German party functionary during the Third Reich. By exploring the rift between actions and desires, the novel becomes an inquiry into the responsibility…

  • Silent Cry, The (novel by ōe Kenzaburō)

    The Silent Cry, novel by ōe Kenzaburō, published in Japanese in 1967 as Man’en gannen no futtōbōru (literally, “Football in the First Year of Man’en”) and awarded the Tanizaki Prize. The Silent Cry is a nonlinear and difficult work whose subject matter bears little relationship to the events

  • silent disco (music event)

    Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival: …dance all night at the Silent Disco. At this unique event, DJs play electronic music until the early morning hours, but nearby campers remain undisturbed, as the party is broadcast directly to wireless headsets worn by attendees.

  • silent feature film (motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: The silent years, 1910–27: Multiple-reel films had appeared in the United States as early as 1907, when Adolph Zukor distributed Pathé’s three-reel Passion Play, but when Vitagraph produced the five-reel The Life of Moses in 1909, the MPPC

  • silent film (motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: The silent years, 1910–27: Multiple-reel films had appeared in the United States as early as 1907, when Adolph Zukor distributed Pathé’s three-reel Passion Play, but when Vitagraph produced the five-reel The Life of Moses in 1909, the MPPC

  • silent heart attack (medicine)

    cardiovascular disease: Sudden death: …signs of having experienced a “silent” heart attack that went unnoticed. In rare instances sudden death occurs without a major degree of coronary artery disease.

  • Silent House (novel by Pamuk)

    Orhan Pamuk: …it with Sessiz ev (1983; Silent House), relying on multiple narrators to shape the story of a family gathering on the eve of the Turkish military coup of 1980. Pamuk first achieved international fame with Beyaz kale (1985; The White Castle), his third novel, which explores the nature of identity…

  • silent movie (motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: The silent years, 1910–27: Multiple-reel films had appeared in the United States as early as 1907, when Adolph Zukor distributed Pathé’s three-reel Passion Play, but when Vitagraph produced the five-reel The Life of Moses in 1909, the MPPC

  • Silent Movie (film by Brooks [1976])

    Mel Brooks: Films of the 1970s: Less successful was Silent Movie (1976), in which Brooks himself starred as a washed-up director who persuades the head of a motion-picture studio (played by Caesar) to make a silent picture. Without dialogue and loaded with sight gags, Silent Movie was less a spoof than an affectionate homage…

  • silent mutation (genetics)

    point mutation: These groupings are divided into silent mutations, missense mutations, and nonsense mutations. Silent mutations result in a new codon (a triplet nucleotide sequence in RNA) that codes for the same amino acid as the wild type codon in that position. In some silent mutations the codon codes for a different…

  • Silent Prophet, The (work by Roth)

    Joseph Roth: Der stumme Prophet (1966; The Silent Prophet), the story of a failed revolutionary, was written in 1929.

  • Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics, The (work by Inglehart)

    postmaterialism: …social scientist Ronald Inglehart in The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics (1977).

  • Silent Spring (work by Carson)

    Silent Spring, nonfiction book written by Rachel Carson that became one of the most-influential books in the modern environmental movement. Published in 1962, Silent Spring was widely read by the general public and became a New York Times best seller. The book provided the impetus for tighter

  • silent switch (electronics)

    electric switch: The so-called mercury, or “silent,” switch is used extensively for controlling home lighting circuits. The oil switch has its live parts immersed in oil to reduce arcing. The aggregate of switching or circuit-breaking equipment for a power station or a transforming station, frequently located in an outdoor…

  • silent system (penology)

    Auburn system, penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times. The silent system evolved during the 1820s at Auburn Prison in Auburn, N.Y., as an alternative to and modification of the

  • silent trade (commerce)

    Silent trade, specialized form of barter in which goods are exchanged without any direct contact between the traders. Generally, one group goes to a customary spot, deposits the goods to be traded, and withdraws, sometimes giving a signal such as a call or a gong stroke. Another group then comes to

  • Silent Unity (religious service)

    Unity: …started the service known as Silent Unity, which, through prayer and counselling, helps people by telephone, via mail, and online. As the work and the number of employees increased, Unity moved several times within Kansas City. After World War I, the Fillmores began developing Unity Village, 15 miles from Kansas…

  • silent way (education)

    foreign-language instruction: …methods of instruction include the silent way, in which students are encouraged to apply their own cognitive resources through silent prompts from the teacher; community language learning, in which the teacher acts as a facilitator for a self-directed group of language learners; total physical response, in which students respond physically…

  • Silent World, The (work by Cousteau and Dumas)

    underwater diving: …Le Monde du silence (1952; The Silent World), written with Frédéric Dumas, and in other writings and television and film productions. Clubs formed after 1943 as fast as scuba equipment became available; national associations were formed in France, Italy, Great Britain, Canada, and the United States; and in 1959 Cousteau…

  • Silenus (Greek mythology)

    Satyr and Silenus: Silenus, in Greek mythology, creatures of the wild, part man and part beast, who in Classical times were closely associated with the god Dionysus. Their Italian counterparts were the Fauns (see Faunus). Satyrs and Sileni were at first represented as uncouth men, each with a…

  • Silenus (companion of Dionysus)

    Midas: …myth, Midas found the wandering Silenus, the satyr and companion of the god Dionysus. For his kind treatment of Silenus Midas was rewarded by Dionysus with a wish. The king wished that all he touched might turn to gold, but when his food became gold and he nearly starved to…

  • Silenus silenus (primate)

    macaque: Species: Liontail macaques, or wanderoos (M. silenus), are black with gray ruffs and tufted tails; an endangered species, they are found only in a small area of southern India. Closely related to liontails are the pigtail macaques (M. nemestrina), which carry their short tails curved over…

  • Sileru River (river, India)

    Sileru River, river, southeast-central India. It is situated at the eastern limit of the Dandakaranya physiographic region and has a course of about 190 miles (305 km). The Sileru rises as the Machkund River in the Eastern Ghats in northeastern Andhra Pradesh state and flows northward into Jalaput

  • Siles Zuazo, Hernán (president of Bolivia)

    Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (born March 21, 1914, La Paz, Bol.—died Aug. 6, 1996, Montevideo, Uruguay), played a key role in the Bolivian National Revolution in 1952 and helped enact social reforms that modernized the country before serving two terms as president (1956-60, 1982-85). S

  • Siles, Jaime (Spanish poet)

    Spanish literature: Poetry: …upon the theme of death; Jaime Siles, whose abstract, reflexive poetry belongs to Spain’s so-called poesía de pensamiento (“poetry of thought”); and Luis Antonio de Villena, an outspoken representative of Spain’s gay revolution. Prominent women poets during the closing decades of the 20th century include María Victoria Atencia, known for…

  • Silesia (historical region, Europe)

    Silesia, historical region that is now in southwestern Poland. Silesia was originally a Polish province, which became a possession of the Bohemian crown in 1335, passed with that crown to the Austrian Habsburgs in 1526, and was taken by Prussia in 1742. In 1945, at the end of World War II, Silesia

  • Silesian (language)

    Polish language: are Great Polish and Pomeranian, Silesian, Little Polish, and Mazovian. Kashubian (Cassubian), often classified as a Polish dialect, is, historically, a separate language.

  • Silesian Autonomy Movement (European history)

    Silesia: …by the founding of the Silesian Autonomy Movement (Ruch Autonomii ?l?ska) in 1990 and the Union of People of Silesian Nationality (Zwi?zek Ludno?ci Narodowo?ci ?l?skiej) in 1996. Central to the controversial assertion of Silesian nationality were conflicting linguistic interpretations: some scholars (and Silesian nationalists) argued that Silesian was a language…

  • Silesian Lowland (region, Poland)

    Poland: The lake region and central lowlands: …divide the area into the Silesian (?l?ska) Lowland, which lies in the upper Oder; the southern Great Poland Lowland, which lies in the middle Warta River basin; and the Mazovian (Mazowiecka) and Podlasian (Podlaska) lowlands, which lie in the middle Vistula basin. Lower Silesia and Great Poland are important agricultural…

  • Silesian Nappe (geological feature, Europe)

    Carpathian Mountains: Geology: …it is formed by the Silesian Nappe, both of which are split by the longitudinal central Carpathian depression. Overthrust on the Silesian Nappe is the Magura Nappe, the counterparts of which in the east are the Chernogora (Chornohora) and the Tarc?u nappes.

  • Silesian Upland (region, Poland)

    Poland: The Little Poland Uplands: …region, and the landscape of Upper Silesia is highly urbanized. Katowice is the largest centre, and the region is closely linked with that around Kraków (Cracow). The Little Poland Uplands protect the Little Poland Lowlands, in which Kraków lies, from the colder air of the north. To the north the…

  • Silesian Uprisings (European history [1919–1921])

    Silesia: …staged the first of three Silesian Uprisings against the Germans. The First Silesian Uprising was put down by the Germans by August 24. The Second Silesian Uprising began a year later, on August 19–20, 1920, and was similarly suppressed within a few days, although it won the dissolution of the…

  • Silesian Wars

    Silesian Wars, 18th-century contests between Austria and Prussia for the possession of Silesia. The First Silesian War (1740–42) and the Second Silesian War (1744–45) formed parts of the great European struggle called the War of the Austrian Succession (see Austrian Succession, War of the). The

  • Silesius, Angelus (German poet)

    Angelus Silesius, religious poet remembered primarily as the author of Der cherubinischer Wandersmann (1674; “The Cherubic Wanderer”), a major work of Roman Catholic mysticism. The son of a Lutheran Polish nobleman, Scheffler was court physician to the duke of Oels in his native Silesia when his

  • Siletiteniz, Lake (lake, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakhstan: Drainage: Balkhash, Zaysan, Alak?l, Tengiz, and Seletytengiz (Siletiteniz). Kazakhstan also wraps around the entire northern half of the shrinking Aral Sea, which underwent terrible decline during the second half of the 20th century: as freshwater inflow was diverted for agriculture, the salinity of the sea increased sharply, and the receding shores…

  • SILEX (physics)

    nuclear reactor: Enrichment: …known generically as MLIS (molecular laser isotope separation)—or commercially as SILEX (separation of isotopes by laser excitation)—gaseous UF6 is exposed to high-powered lasers tuned to the correct frequencies to cause the molecules containing 235U (but not 238U) to lose electrons. In this (ionized) form, the 235U-containing molecules are separated…

  • Silhak (Korean political philosophy)

    Silhak, (Korean: “Practical Learning”), school of thought that came into existence in the midst of the chaotic conditions of 18th-century Korea, dedicated to a practical approach to statecraft, instead of the blind and uncritical following of Confucian teachings. The Silhak school attacked

  • Silhari (Rājput chief)

    Raisen: …as the 16th-century stronghold of Silhari, a Rajput (warrior caste) chief, and was an important administrative centre under the Mughals. Raisen lies in a region that was once part of Bhopal princely state.

  • silhouette (drawing)

    Silhouette, an image or design in a single hue and tone, most usually the popular 18th- and 19th-century cut or painted profile portraits done in black on white or the reverse. Silhouette also is any outline or sharp shadow of an object. The word was satirically derived from the name of the

  • silhouette animation (film)

    motion-picture technology: Noncellular animation: Other forms of animation include silhouette animation, developed by Lotte Reiniger in Germany during the 1920s. It uses jointed, flat-figure marionettes whose poses are minutely readjusted for each photographic frame. Movement is similarly simulated in puppet animation, which photographs solid three-dimensional figures in miniature sets. The puppets are often made…

  • Silhouette Island (island, Seychelles)

    Silhouette Island, granitic island, third largest of the Seychelles archipelago, Republic of Seychelles, in the western Indian Ocean. It has an area of 7.6 square miles (20 square km), rises to 2,467 feet (751 metres), and is 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Mahé Island. Virgin forests still grow in

  • Silhouette, étienne de (French minister)

    silhouette: …parsimonious mid-18th-century French finance minister étienne de Silhouette, whose hobby was the cutting of paper shadow portraits (the phrase à la Silhouette grew to mean “on the cheap”).

  • Siliana (town, Tunisia)

    Siliana, town in northern Tunisia located on the western edge of the Dorsale Mountains. The town is built not far from Maktar (Makthar), an ancient site with megalithic monuments, Numidian ruins, and Roman remains. Lying in a fertile region dominated by the Dorsale Mountains, which extend from the

  • silica (chemical compound)

    Silica, compound of the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, silicon and oxygen, SiO2. The mass of Earth’s crust is 59 percent silica, the main constituent of more than 95 percent of the known rocks. Silica has three main crystalline varieties: quartz (by far the most abundant), tridymite,

  • silica gel (chemical compound)

    Silica gel, a highly porous, noncrystalline form of silica used to remove moisture from gases and liquids, to thicken liquids, to impart a dull surface to paints and synthetic films, and for other purposes. Silica gel was known as early as 1640, but it remained a curiosity until its adsorbent

  • silica glass

    amorphous solid: Models of atomic scale structures: …glass is amorphous SiO2, or silica glass. (Quartz, which is present in sand, is a crystalline form of SiO2.) In amorphous SiO2 each silicon atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms, and each oxygen atom is bonded to two silicon atoms. This structure is difficult to represent in a two-dimensional…

  • silica mineral

    Silica mineral, any of the forms of silicon dioxide (SiO2), including quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite, lechatelierite, and chalcedony. Various kinds of silica minerals have been produced synthetically; one is keatite. Silica minerals make up approximately 26 percent of Earth’s

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