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  • Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra (Russian orchestra)

    Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, symphony orchestra based in St. Petersburg. The Philharmonic Society was founded there in 1802, and its orchestra included musicians from eastern Europe as well as from Russia. After the Russian Revolution of February 1917, the society’s orchestra became the

  • Saint Petersburg porcelain (pottery ware)

    Saint Petersburg porcelain, pottery ware produced from 1744 to the present day by the principal Russian factory, the Imperial Porcelain Factory (from 1925, the M.V. Lomonosov State Porcelain Factory), in St. Petersburg. It was established under the patronage of the daughter of Peter I the Great,

  • Saint Petersburg State University (university, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Saint Petersburg State University, coeducational state institution of higher learning in St. Petersburg, founded in 1819 as the University of St. Petersburg. During World War II the university was evacuated to Saratov. The university’s buildings were severely damaged during the Siege of Leningrad

  • Saint Petersburg, Declaration of (Russia [1868])

    law of war: Law by treaty: In 1868 the Declaration of St. Petersburg prohibited the use of explosive projectiles weighing less than 400 grams, while in 1899 two major treaties were concluded at The Hague, one concerning asphyxiating gases and another concerned with expanding bullets. The second Hague conference, in 1907, proved to be…

  • Saint Petersburg, Protocol of (Greek history)

    Greece: Factionalism in the emerging state: In 1826, by the Protocol of St. Petersburg, Britain and Russia committed themselves to a policy of mediation, to which France became a party through the Treaty of London of 1827. A policy of “peaceful interference,” as the British prime minister Lord Canning described it, culminated in the somewhat…

  • Saint Petersburg, Treaty of (Russian history)

    Russia: The Petrine state: …successful war against Persia (Treaty of St. Petersburg, 1723).

  • Saint Petersburg, University of (university, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Saint Petersburg State University, coeducational state institution of higher learning in St. Petersburg, founded in 1819 as the University of St. Petersburg. During World War II the university was evacuated to Saratov. The university’s buildings were severely damaged during the Siege of Leningrad

  • Saint Phalle, Catherine Marie-Agnès Fal de (French artist)

    Catherine Marie-Agnès Fal de Saint Phalle, (“Niki”), French-born artist (born Oct. 29, 1930, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France—died May 21, 2002, La Jolla, Calif.), first gained public attention with her artworks at which darts were thrown or guns fired. Her best-known works, however, were her “

  • Saint Phalle, Niki (French artist)

    Catherine Marie-Agnès Fal de Saint Phalle, (“Niki”), French-born artist (born Oct. 29, 1930, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France—died May 21, 2002, La Jolla, Calif.), first gained public attention with her artworks at which darts were thrown or guns fired. Her best-known works, however, were her “

  • Saint Philip Neri (church, Rome, Italy)

    Francesco Borromini: An independent architect: The concave facade of St. Philip Neri represented to him the welcoming gesture of outstretched arms: the central unit stood for the chest, the two-part wings for arm and forearm.

  • Saint Polyeuktos, Church of (ancient building, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Western architecture: The early Byzantine period (330–726): …recently discovered remains of the church of St. Polyeuktos show. The church was founded by the princess Juliana Anicia (granddaughter of Valentinian III), whose name is known from an illuminated manuscript dated 512. The change was advanced still further some 30 years later, thanks to the patronage of the emperor…

  • Saint Ruprecht’s Church (church, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna: Layout and architecture: Vienna’s oldest church is St. Ruprecht’s. Dating from the 13th century with parts from the 11th century, it is believed to have originally been erected in 740.

  • Saint Sauveur (French settlement, North America)

    Sir Samuel Argall: …a new French settlement at St. Sauveur. He destroyed the settlement and took some French prisoners and goods to Jamestown. The council of the Virginia Company then commissioned him to destroy all French settlements south of the 46th parallel, including Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia), which he captured…

  • Saint Saviour, Basilian Order of (religious order)

    Basilian: (3) St. Savior in the Melchite Rite was founded by the Archbishop of Tyre and Sidon in 1684 and placed under the rule of Basil in 1743. Members engaged in parochial ministry in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, and the city of Damascus prior to 1832. The Vatican…

  • Saint Sebastian (work by Perugino (1478))

    Perugino: Early work: …work by Perugino is a Saint Sebastian, at Cerqueto, near Perugia. This fresco (a mural painted on wet plaster with water-soluble pigments) dates from 1478 and is typical of Perugino’s style. He must have attained a considerable reputation by this time, since he probably worked for Pope Sixtus IV in…

  • Saint Servatius, Cathedral of (cathedral, Maastricht, Netherlands)

    Maastricht: The cathedral, dedicated to St. Servatius, was founded by Bishop Monulphus in the 6th century; it is the oldest church in The Netherlands, although rebuilt and enlarged from the 11th to the 15th century. The Protestant Church of St. John, with a 246-foot (75-metre) tower, originally…

  • Saint Servatius, Church of (church, Quedlinburg, Germany)

    Quedlinburg: …and by the former abbey church of St. Servatius (1070–1129, incorporating the remains of a 10th-century church). The church, castle, and old town were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1994. The poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and the geographer Carl Ritter were born in Quedlinburg. Pop. (2011) 20,539.

  • Saint Severus, Church of (church, Erfurt, Germany)

    Erfurt: …by the cathedral and the Church of St. Severus, which stand side-by-side atop a hill called Domberg (“Cathedral Hill”). The cathedral (1154–1476) contains 15th-century glass and numerous notable works of art. Other buildings of note in the city include the Augustinian monastery where Martin Luther was a monk (1505–08), now…

  • Saint Sophia (church, Ohrid, North Macedonia)
  • Saint Sophia (cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Hagia Sophia, cathedral built at Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in the 6th century ce (532–537) under the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. By general consensus, it is the most important Byzantine structure and one of the world’s great monuments. The Hagia Sophia was built in

  • Saint Sophia, Cathedral of (cathedral, Polatsk, Belarus)

    Belarus: Architecture: …in the country is the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Polatsk, dating from the 11th century and built in the Eastern Orthodox style. The church of Boris and Gleb (Barys and Hlyeb) in Hrodna dates from the 12th century. Most of the other early buildings that remain, mostly as ruins,…

  • Saint Sophia, Cathedral of (cathedral, Novgorod, Russia)

    Western architecture: Kievan Rus and Russia: …of Novgorod began with the cathedral of St. Sophia. It was built in 1045–52, replacing a wooden, 13-dome church of the same name. The new cathedral followed its Kievan namesake in plan, but the divergences from the Byzantine pattern are quite apparent; it has double aisles but only three apses.…

  • Saint Sophia, Cathedral of (cathedral, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Western architecture: Kievan Rus and Russia: The cathedral of St. Sophia is the only structure of this period that still stands and retains, at least in the interior, something of its original form. The central part of the cathedral was in the form of a Greek cross. The nave and four aisles…

  • Saint Stephen’s Basilica (church, Budapest, Hungary)

    József Hild: …designs that construction began on St. Stephen’s Basilica in Pest in 1848 (it was completed by Miklós Ybl in 1905), and he also designed the Eger Basilica (1831–36) and Szatmárnémeti (now Satu Mare, Rom.). One of the most notable of his large-scale ecclesiastical works was the reconstruction of the new…

  • Saint Stephen’s Cathedral (cathedral, Vienna, Austria)

    Saint Stephen’s Cathedral, cathedral in Vienna that was burned out in the course of the Battle of Vienna in April 1945 and was reconstructed by 1952. Saint Stephen’s was established in 1147; only the west facade remains of the late Romanesque edifice that burned in 1258. A Gothic nave was built

  • Saint Stephen’s Crown (Hungarian crown)

    Saint Stephen’s Crown, greatly venerated crown of Hungary, the symbol of Hungarian nationhood, without which no sovereign was truly accepted by the Hungarian people. It is made from an 11th-century jeweled circlet of Byzantine style, augmented early in the 12th century by the addition of arches

  • Saint Stephen’s Green (square, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: City layout: …of the city’s squares is St. Stephen’s Green, recorded in 1224 as common grazing land but enclosed and bordered with houses in the 1660s. Most of the imposing mansions now surrounding it were built in the 18th century. By 1887 the parkland was run down, and the Guinness family, whose…

  • Saint Stephen’s Tower (clock, London, United Kingdom)

    Big Ben, tower clock, famous for its accuracy and for its massive bell. Strictly speaking, the name refers to only the great hour bell, which weighs 15.1 tons (13.7 metric tons), but it is commonly associated with the whole clock tower at the northern end of the Houses of Parliament, in the London

  • Saint Stephen’s, Walbrook (church, London, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: England: …restrained but intricate form in St. Stephen’s, Walbrook, London (1672), with its multiple changing views and spatial and structural complexity. Wren’s greatest achievement, St. Paul’s Cathedral, London (1675–1711), owes much to French and Italian examples of the Baroque period; but the plan shows a remarkable adaptation of the traditional English…

  • Saint Stephen, Chapel of (chapel, United Kingdom)

    Western painting: International Gothic: …the decoration of the royal Chapel of St. Stephen’s (c. 1360) was apparently, for the period, outstandingly Italianate. (Surviving fragments are in the British Museum, London.) Subsequently, however, in the Chapter House of Westminster Abbey (probably executed c. 1370) there was strong Germanic influence, which has been tentatively compared with…

  • Saint Swithin’s Day (weather folklore)

    St. Swithin’s Day, (July 15), a day on which, according to folklore, the weather for a subsequent period is dictated. In popular belief, if it rains on St. Swithin’s Day, it will rain for 40 days, but if it is fair, 40 days of fair weather will follow. St. Swithin was bishop of Winchester from 852

  • Saint Swithun’s Day (weather folklore)

    St. Swithin’s Day, (July 15), a day on which, according to folklore, the weather for a subsequent period is dictated. In popular belief, if it rains on St. Swithin’s Day, it will rain for 40 days, but if it is fair, 40 days of fair weather will follow. St. Swithin was bishop of Winchester from 852

  • Saint Thomas (United States Virgin Islands)

    Charlotte Amalie, city, capital of the U.S. Virgin Islands and of St. Thomas Island, situated at the head of St. Thomas Harbor on the island’s southern shore. The largest city in the Virgin Islands, it is built on three low volcanic spurs called Frenchman Hill (Foretop Hill), Berg Hill (Maintop),

  • Saint Thomas (island, United States Virgin Islands)

    Saint Thomas, chief island of the U.S. Virgin Islands, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It lies 40 miles (64 km) east of Puerto Rico. The island is volcanic, rising to a maximum elevation of 1,550 feet (474 metres); a chain of rugged hills with little vegetation runs east-west. Temperatures vary

  • Saint Thomas (Ontario, Canada)

    Saint Thomas, city, seat of Elgin county, southeastern Ontario, Canada, on Kettle Creek, just north of Lake Erie. Founded in 1817 as Sterling, it was renamed after Colonel Thomas Talbot, who made it the capital of the extensive settlement that he founded in 1803. A major railway division point and

  • Saint Thomas Christians (Christian groups, India)

    Thomas Christians, indigenous Indian Christian groups who have traditionally lived in Kerala, a state on the Malabar Coast, in southwestern India. Claiming to have been evangelized by St. Thomas the Apostle, Thomas Christians ecclesiastically, liturgically, and linguistically represent one of the

  • Saint Thomas, Hospital of (hospital, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Caelian: The Hospital of St. Thomas, established at the same period, has disappeared save for its mosaic gateway, signed by Cosmate, of the Cosmati school of carvers and decorators, and by his father, Jacobus. Nearby stands the Arch of Dolabella (10 ce), and not far away are…

  • Saint Trinian’s (fictional school)

    Ronald Searle: …an imaginary school he called St. Trinian’s.

  • Saint Ursula, Order of (religious order)

    Ursuline, Roman Catholic religious order of women founded at Brescia, Italy, in 1535, by St. Angela Merici. The order was the first institute for women dedicated exclusively to the education of girls. Inspired by a mystical vision that she would found a society of virgins, Angela and 28 companions

  • Saint Valentine’s Day (social custom)

    Valentine’s Day, holiday (February 14) when lovers express their affection with greetings and gifts. The holiday has origins in the Roman festival of Lupercalia, held in mid-February. The festival, which celebrated the coming of spring, included fertility rites and the pairing off of women with men

  • Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre (mass murder, Chicago, Illinois, United States [1929])

    Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre, (Feb. 14, 1929), mass murder of a group of unarmed bootlegging gang members in Chicago. The bloody incident dramatized the intense rivalry for control of the illegal liquor traffic during the Prohibition Era in the United States. Disguising themselves as policemen,

  • Saint Vincent (island, West Indies)

    Saint Vincent, island of the Windward group in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Saint Lucia and about 100 miles (160 km) west of Barbados. The island has an area of 133 square miles (344 square km). It is 18 miles (30 km) long and has a maximum

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (islands and nation, West Indies)

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, island country lying within the Lesser Antilles, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It consists of the island of Saint Vincent and the northern Grenadine Islands, which stretch southward toward Grenada. The island of Saint Vincent lies about 20 miles (32 km) southwest

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, flag of

    vertically striped blue-yellow-green national flag with three green lozenges (diamonds) in the centre. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.The coat of arms of Saint Vincent shows peace and justice represented by two women, one holding an olive branch (peace) and the other making a sacrifice

  • Saint Vincent de Paul, Daughters of Charity of (religious congregation)

    Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Roman Catholic religious congregation founded at Paris in 1633 by St. Vincent de Paul and St. Louise de Marillac. The congregation was a radical innovation by 17th-century standards: it was the first noncloistered religious institute of women devoted

  • Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of (Roman Catholic religious organization)

    Antoine Frédéric Ozanam: …and scholar who founded the Society of St. Vincent de Paul.

  • Saint Vincent Island (island, Cabo Verde)

    S?o Vicente Island, island of Cape Verde, in the Atlantic Ocean, between the islands of Santo Ant?o and Santa Luzia, about 400 miles (640 km) off the western African coast. It rises to Monte Verde (2,539 feet [774 metres]). The main economic activities are subsistence agriculture (corn [maize],

  • Saint Vincent, Cape (cape, Portugal)

    Cape Saint Vincent, cape, southwesternmost Portugal, forming with Sagres Point a promontory on the Atlantic Ocean. To the Greeks and Romans it was known, from the presence of a shrine there, as the Sacred Promontory. Tourism, pastoralism, and fishing are the economic mainstays of the region, which

  • Saint Vincent, Gulf (gulf, South Australia, Australia)

    Gulf Saint Vincent, triangular inlet of the Indian Ocean, on the southeast coast of South Australia, between Yorke Peninsula to the west and the mainland. About 90 mi (145 km) long and 45 miles (73 km) wide, it is linked with the ocean by Investigator Strait to the southwest, passing north of

  • Saint Vitus’s Cathedral (cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Bohemian school: …(Karl?tejn Castle, near Prague) and St. Vitus’s Cathedral (Prague). The cathedral and parts of Karl?tejn Castle were begun according to routine French design by the Flemish master mason Mathieu d’Arras; when Mathieu died in 1352, the work on both buildings was taken over by the influential German architect Petr Parlé?,…

  • Saint Vladimir (cathedral, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Kyiv: City layout: …too is the cathedral of St. Volodymyr (still in use as a church), built in 1862–96 in Byzantine style and containing impressive paintings by Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Vrubel, and other artists. Notable among the many statues in central Kyiv are those that commemorate the Cossack leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the…

  • Saint Volodymyr (cathedral, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Kyiv: City layout: …too is the cathedral of St. Volodymyr (still in use as a church), built in 1862–96 in Byzantine style and containing impressive paintings by Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Vrubel, and other artists. Notable among the many statues in central Kyiv are those that commemorate the Cossack leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the…

  • saint’s play (dramatic genre)

    Miracle play, one of three principal kinds of vernacular drama of the European Middle Ages (along with the mystery play and the morality play). A miracle play presents a real or fictitious account of the life, miracles, or martyrdom of a saint. The genre evolved from liturgical offices developed d

  • Saint, Eva Marie (American actress)

    Eva Marie Saint, American film and television actress known for bringing emotional depth and complexity to her roles, in which she generally played women who appear fragile but have great inner strength. Saint began acting while she was a student at Bowling Green State University (B.A., 1946). She

  • Saint, Lucien (French general)

    Tunisia: The protectorate (1881–1956): In response, the resident general, Lucien Saint, surrounded the bey’s palace with troops, and the demand was withdrawn. Saint thus introduced restrictive measures, together with minor reforms, that pacified Tunisian sentiment and weakened the nationalist movement for several years.

  • Saint, the (fictional character)

    The Saint, fictional English gentleman-adventurer who was the protagonist of short stories and mystery novels by Leslie Charteris. A good-natured, gallant figure, Templar defies social convention and lives outside the law, and yet he emerges untarnished from his shadowy adventures. Meet the Tiger

  • Saint-Acheul (France)

    Saint-Acheul, locality near Amiens in the Somme River valley, Somme département, Picardy région, northern France. Saint-Acheul is the type locality at which a number of distinctive early Paleolithic hand axes were found. These axes characteristically are large, bifacially flaked, ovoid stone tools

  • Saint-Affrique (France)

    Saint-Affrique, town, Aveyron département, Occitanie région, southern France. The town is situated about 60 miles (96 km) northwest of Béziers on the southeastern coast and about 6 miles (10 km) from the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, which is noted for its production of ewes’-milk cheese.

  • Saint-Amand (France)

    Saint-Amand-les-Eaux, town and spa, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. It lies at the junction of the Elnon River with the canalized Scarpe River. It is situated 22 miles (35 km) southeast of Lille and 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Valenciennes, near the Belgian border.

  • Saint-Amand-les-Eaux (France)

    Saint-Amand-les-Eaux, town and spa, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. It lies at the junction of the Elnon River with the canalized Scarpe River. It is situated 22 miles (35 km) southeast of Lille and 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Valenciennes, near the Belgian border.

  • Saint-Amand-les-Eaux ware (earthenware and porcelain)

    Saint-Amand-les-Eaux ware, tin-glazed earthenware and porcelain made in the French town of that name in the 18th and 19th centuries. The factory was begun in 1718 by Pierre-Joseph Fauquez of nearby Tournai and was continued by P.-F.-J. Fauquez after 1741 and by Jean-Baptiste Fauquez from 1771 to

  • Saint-Amand-Mont-Rond (France)

    Saint-Amand-Montrond, town, Cher département, Centre région, central France. The town, which is situated some 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Bourges, grew up around a monastery founded by St. Amand, a follower of St. Columban, in the 7th century. The town is of historical significance, but its

  • Saint-Amand-Montrond (France)

    Saint-Amand-Montrond, town, Cher département, Centre région, central France. The town, which is situated some 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Bourges, grew up around a monastery founded by St. Amand, a follower of St. Columban, in the 7th century. The town is of historical significance, but its

  • Saint-Amant, Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de (French poet)

    Marc-Antoine Girard, sieur de Saint-Amant, one of the most original and interesting of French early 17th-century poets and one of the first members of the French Academy. The early poems of Saint-Amant are realistic and hilarious descriptions of the pleasures of the table and the tavern. A

  • Saint-André Cathedral (cathedral, Bordeaux, France)

    Bordeaux: …towers: that of Pey-Berland, near Saint-André Cathedral, and the Saint-Michel Tower, with a spire of 357 feet (109 metres). A late 20th-century urban development plan called for the renovation of the city centre and extension of new districts northward around a large lake and along the west bank of the…

  • Saint-André, André Jeanbon (French clergyman)

    André Jeanbon Saint-André, French Protestant clergyman who became a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94). The son of a Huguenot businessman named Jeanbon, André was a captain in the French merchant marine before he became

  • Saint-André, Jacques d’Albon, seigneur de (French official)

    Jacques d’Albon, seigneur de Saint-André, favourite of King Henry II of France, who made him successively member of the royal council, marshal of France, premier gentleman of the chamber, governor of Lyonnais, and ambassador to England. After the death of Francis II in 1560, he joined with Anne,

  • Saint-Andrew’s-cross (plant)

    Saint-Andrew’s-cross, (Hypericum hypericoides), plant of the family Hypericaceae, native to southeastern North America and Central America, sometimes cultivated for its four-petaled yellow flowers. It reaches 75 cm (2.5 feet) and has many branches, two-angled stems, oblong to narrow leaves, and

  • Saint-Apollinaire, Cathedral of (cathedral, Valence, France)

    Valence: …is dominated by the ancient cathedral of Saint-Apollinaire, which was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1095 and completed early in the 12th century. Damage done to the cathedral during the Wars of Religion (1569–98) was repaired in the 17th century. The Champ de Mars, a vast esplanade south of…

  • Saint-Arnaud, Armand-Jacques Leroy de (French military officer)

    Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud, army officer and later marshal of France who was minister of war under Napoleon III and commander in chief of the French forces in the Crimean War. In March 1833 he became aide-de-camp to Gen. Bugeaud de la Piconnerie. He later joined the Foreign Legion and

  • Saint-Barthélemy (island, West Indies)

    Saint-Barthélemy, island of the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea. An overseas collectivity of France since 2007, it was formerly a commune and, together with Saint-Martin, an arrondissement of the French overseas département of Guadeloupe. The island, 11 miles (17.5 km) long and 2.5

  • Saint-Bénézet Bridge (bridge, Avignon, France)

    Avignon: Four arches of the famed Saint-Bénézet bridge (of the song “Sur le pont d’Avignon”) still reach out from the town, its Romanesque St. Nicholas Chapel still perched on the second pier. The Rh?ne currents had defied bridging until St. Bénézet and his disciples built the bridge in the late 12th…

  • Saint-Bénézet, Pont (bridge, Avignon, France)

    Avignon: Four arches of the famed Saint-Bénézet bridge (of the song “Sur le pont d’Avignon”) still reach out from the town, its Romanesque St. Nicholas Chapel still perched on the second pier. The Rh?ne currents had defied bridging until St. Bénézet and his disciples built the bridge in the late 12th…

  • Saint-Beno?t-sur-Loire (France)

    Saint-Beno?t-sur-Loire, village, Loiret département, Centre région, north-central France. It lies on the right bank of the Loire River, 25 miles (40 km) east of Orléans. The splendid Romanesque basilica is the only survival of the Benedictine abbey of Fleury, founded about 651. The abbey acquired

  • Saint-Brieuc (France)

    Saint-Brieuc, town, capital of C?tes d’Armor département, Brittany région, northwestern France. It is situated on a promontory between the ravines of the Gou?t River and its tributary the Gou?dic, near Saint-Brieuc Bay on the English Channel. Saint-Brieuc is named after a Welsh monk, St. Briocus,

  • Saint-Césaire (anthropological and archaeological site, France)

    Saint-Césaire, paleoanthropological site in southwestern France where in 1979 the remains of a young adult male Neanderthal were found buried in a small pit. The skeleton was recovered during archaeological salvage excavations at the back of the Roche-à-Pierrot rock shelter, near the village of

  • Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Treaty of (France [911])

    Norman: …III the Simple made the Treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte with Rollo, ceding him the land around the mouth of the Seine and what is now the city of Rouen. Within a generation the Vikings, or Normans, as they came to be known, had extended their rule westward to the districts…

  • Saint-Cloud (France)

    Saint-Cloud, town, Hauts-de-Seine département, ?le-de-France région, northern France. It is a western residential suburb of Paris, located on the left bank of the Seine River. The northern part is separated from Paris by Longchamps racecourse and by the Bois de Boulogne, the southern part by the

  • Saint-Cloud porcelain

    Saint-Cloud porcelain, soft-paste porcelain made in the town of Saint-Cloud, Fr., from the last quarter of the 17th century until 1766. Pierre Chicaneau began the manufacture, which passed by marriage to the family of Henri Trou (c. 1722 onward). Much of the porcelain, which was yellowish or

  • Saint-Cyr (military academy, Co?tquidan, France)

    Saint-Cyr, French national military academy at Co?tquidan, founded in Fontainebleau in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1808 Napoleon moved it to the town of Saint-Cyr-l’école near Versailles, on the site of a famous school founded in the 17th century by Madame de Maintenon, wife of Louis XIV. The

  • Saint-Cyr (convent, Saint-Cyr, France)

    education: Female education: …a school in 1686 at Saint-Cyr near Versailles—a higher school principally for orphan girls descended from noble families. Besides such basic subjects as reading and writing, the girls were prepared for their future lives as wives and mothers or as members of genteel professions. In 1692 this school was taken…

  • Saint-Cyran, Abbé de (French abbot)

    Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, abbé de Saint-Cyran, French abbot of Saint-Cyran and a founder of the Jansenist movement. His opposition to Cardinal de Richelieu’s policies caused his imprisonment. Duvergier studied theology at Leuven (Louvain), Belg., then settled in Paris after taking holy orders.

  • Saint-Denis (France)

    Saint-Denis, city, a northern suburb of Paris, Seine-Saint-Denis département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. The city lies on the right bank of the Seine River. Until the mid-19th century, when industries developed there, it was only a small township centred on its famous abbey church,

  • Saint-Denis (Réunion)

    Saint-Denis, town, capital of the French overseas département of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. The town lies in a basin at the mouth of the Saint-Denis River on the north coast of the island, wedged between the ocean and a mountain rising abruptly behind it. It was originally the main port

  • Saint-Denis, abbey church of (church, Saint-Denis, France)

    Saint-Denis: …township centred on its famous abbey church, which had been the burial place of the kings of France. The church is of major importance in the history of architecture, being the first major edifice marking the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic style and serving as a model for…

  • Saint-Denis, basilica of (church, Argenteuil, France)

    Argenteuil: Enshrined in the monastery’s Church of Saint-Denis is the putative seamless robe of Christ, which was given to the convent by Charlemagne after he had received it from the Byzantine empress Irene.

  • Saint-Denis, Battle of (French history [1567])

    France: The Wars of Religion: …Montmorency, was killed at the Battle of Saint-Denis (November 1567). The Peace of Longjumeau (March 1568) signaled another effort at compromise. This peace, however, proved little more than a truce; a third war soon broke out in September 1568. In an attempt to restore their authority, Catherine and King Charles…

  • Saint-Denis, Battle of (French history [1678])

    Battle of Saint-Denis, (14 August 1678). Saint-Denis was the last battle of the Franco-Dutch War, fought days after the Dutch and France had signed a peace treaty. France had not made peace with Spain, so when France besieged Mons, the Dutch-Spanish army engaged in battle. France triumphed, but was

  • Saint-Denis, Charles de Marguetel de (French author)

    Charles de Marguetel de Saint-Denis, seigneur de Saint-évremond, French gentleman of letters and amateur moralist who stands as a transitional figure between Michel de Montaigne (d. 1592) and the 18th-century philosophes of the Enlightenment. Pursuing a military career in his early life, he won

  • Saint-Denis, Louis Juchereau de (French-Canadian explorer)

    Louis Juchereau de Saint-Denis, French-Canadian explorer and soldier, leader of a 1714 expedition from French-held Natchitoches, in the Louisiana Territory, to the Spanish town of San Juan Bautista (modern Villahermosa) on the Rio Grande. From 1703 to 1707 Saint-Denis explored the lower Mississippi

  • Saint-Denis, Michel (French director)

    Michel Saint-Denis, French director, producer, teacher, and theatrical innovator who was influential in the development of the British theatre for 40 years. Nephew of the famed French theatrical pioneer actor-director Jacques Copeau, Saint-Denis worked with Copeau for 10 years at the Théatre du

  • Saint-Denis-du-Sig (Algeria)

    Sig, town, northwestern Algeria, on the Wadi Sig just below the confluence of the Wadi el-Mebto?h and the Wadi Matarah. To the north, the Sig plains stretch 20 miles (32 km) to the Gulf of Arzew, and to the southeast Mount Touakas rises to 1,145 feet (349 metres). The town has wide streets,

  • Saint-Denys, Louis Juchereau de (French-Canadian explorer)

    Louis Juchereau de Saint-Denis, French-Canadian explorer and soldier, leader of a 1714 expedition from French-held Natchitoches, in the Louisiana Territory, to the Spanish town of San Juan Bautista (modern Villahermosa) on the Rio Grande. From 1703 to 1707 Saint-Denis explored the lower Mississippi

  • Saint-Dié (France)

    Saint-Dié, town, Vosges département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It lies on the Meurthe River, southeast of Nancy. A bishop’s see, it grew up around the monastery of Saint-Deodatus, or Dieudonné (7th century), from which its name is derived. It has a printing industry dating from the

  • Saint-Dié-des-Vosges (France)

    Saint-Dié, town, Vosges département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It lies on the Meurthe River, southeast of Nancy. A bishop’s see, it grew up around the monastery of Saint-Deodatus, or Dieudonné (7th century), from which its name is derived. It has a printing industry dating from the

  • Saint-Dizier (France)

    Saint-Dizier, town, Haute-Marne département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It is situated on the Marne River and the Canal de la Marne à la Sa?ne, northeast of Troyes. On the site of the Roman Desiderii Fanum, its Gigny and Saint-Martin churches date from the 13th century. The Church of

  • Saint-Domingue (French colony, West Indies)

    Haiti: Plantations and slaves: …to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue. The colony’s population and economic output grew rapidly during the 18th century, and it became France’s most prosperous New World possession, exporting sugar and smaller amounts of coffee, cacao, indigo, and cotton. By the 1780s nearly two-thirds of France’s foreign investments were based on…

  • Saint-étienne (cathedral, Sens, France)

    Western architecture: Early Gothic: In a building such as Sens Cathedral (begun c. 1140), the arcade is given prominence, but in Noyon (begun c. 1150) and Laon cathedrals the four elements mentioned above are all used, with the result that the arcade is comparatively small. Subsequently, the arcade came back into prominence with Bourges…

  • Saint-étienne (France)

    Saint-étienne, city, capital of Loire département, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes région, east-central France, on the northeast border of the Massif Central. From its beginning as a small community in a coal basin, huddled around the church from which it takes its name, it has developed as the nucleus of an

  • Saint-étienne (cathedral, Bourges, France)

    Bourges: …by the Gothic cathedral of Saint-étienne, which dominates the city. Begun at the end of the 12th century on the site of earlier sanctuaries, it was completed in 50 years, receiving later additions. The cathedral has five magnificently sculptured doorways and two asymmetrical towers. Its inner aisles are remarkably high,…

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