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  • Simonov, Mikhail (Soviet aircraft designer)

    Mikhail Petrovich Simonov, Soviet aircraft designer (born Oct. 19, 1929, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died March 4, 2011, Moscow, Russia), was the chief designer of the Su-27 fighter jet, a mainstay of the Soviet Union’s defense industry and one of the most successful and respected military

  • Simons, Ed (British musician)

    the Chemical Brothers: Ed Simons (b. June 9, 1970, London, England) and Tom Rowlands (b. January 11, 1971, Oxfordshire) met at Manchester University in 1989. Already fans of hip-hop, the pair quickly became avid participants in the “Madchester” rave scene, then buzzing thanks to the synergy of house…

  • Simons, Elwyn (American anthropologist)

    Elwyn Simons, (Elwyn LaVerne Simons), American paleontologist (born July 14, 1930, Lawrence, Kan.—died March 6, 2016, Peoria, Ariz.), was regarded as the founder of the field of modern primate paleontology and led more than 90 expeditions that uncovered thousands of primate fossils. He was

  • Simons, Elwyn LaVerne (American anthropologist)

    Elwyn Simons, (Elwyn LaVerne Simons), American paleontologist (born July 14, 1930, Lawrence, Kan.—died March 6, 2016, Peoria, Ariz.), was regarded as the founder of the field of modern primate paleontology and led more than 90 expeditions that uncovered thousands of primate fossils. He was

  • Simons, Menno (Dutch priest)

    Menno Simons, Dutch priest, an early leader of the peaceful wing of Dutch Anabaptism, whose followers formed the Mennonite church. Little is known about Menno’s early life. He was born into a Dutch peasant family, and his father’s name was Simon. At an early age he was enrolled in a monastic

  • Simons, Raf (Belgian fashion designer)

    Raf Simons, Belgian fashion designer who served as creative director of the German label Jil Sander (2005–12), as artistic director of the French fashion house Christian Dior (2012–15), and as chief creative officer of the American brand Calvin Klein (2016–18). Simons studied industrial and

  • Simons, Walter (German jurist)

    Walter Simons, German jurist who served as interim president of the Weimar Republic, March to May 1925. After serving in the German foreign ministry from 1911 to 1921, he became president of the German Supreme Court (1922–29). When President Friedrich Ebert died, Simons became temporary president

  • Simonson, Lee (American set designer)

    Lee Simonson, designer influential in freeing American stage design from constraints imposed by traditional realism. In 1915, after studying at Harvard University and in Paris, Simonson began designing sets for the Washington Square Players in New York. Four years later, he helped found the Theatre

  • Simonson, Walt (American comics artist)

    Thor: The Simonson era: Fan favourite Walt Simonson took over as writer and penciller of Thor in 1983 with issue no. 337. In his first issue, Simonson upended the established order by having Thor suffer defeat at the hands of a bizarre-looking alien called Beta Ray Bill. In a stunning twist,…

  • Simonstad (South Africa)

    Simon’s Town, town and naval base, Western Cape province, South Africa. It is located on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula, on False Bay of the Atlantic Ocean, 25 miles (40 km) south of Cape Town. Named for Governor Simon van der Stel, it was a Dutch naval anchorage from 1741, and its harbour

  • Simonstown (South Africa)

    Simon’s Town, town and naval base, Western Cape province, South Africa. It is located on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula, on False Bay of the Atlantic Ocean, 25 miles (40 km) south of Cape Town. Named for Governor Simon van der Stel, it was a Dutch naval anchorage from 1741, and its harbour

  • Simonszoon, Menno (Dutch priest)

    Menno Simons, Dutch priest, an early leader of the peaceful wing of Dutch Anabaptism, whose followers formed the Mennonite church. Little is known about Menno’s early life. He was born into a Dutch peasant family, and his father’s name was Simon. At an early age he was enrolled in a monastic

  • simony (religion)

    Simony, buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. More widely, it is any contract of this kind forbidden by divine or ecclesiastical law. The name is taken from Simon Magus (Acts 8:18), who endeavoured to buy from the Apostles the power of conferring the

  • Simonyi Karolyi (American software executive and space tourist)

    Charles Simonyi, Hungarian-born American software executive and space tourist. Simonyi left Hungary in 1966 to work at the Danish computer company Regnecentralen. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, with a degree in engineering mathematics and later earned a doctorate in

  • Simonyi, Charles (American software executive and space tourist)

    Charles Simonyi, Hungarian-born American software executive and space tourist. Simonyi left Hungary in 1966 to work at the Danish computer company Regnecentralen. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, with a degree in engineering mathematics and later earned a doctorate in

  • Simonyi-Semadam, Sándor (Hungarian statesman)

    Hungary: Revolution, counterrevolution, and the regency, 1918–45: …the Smallholders), took office under Sándor Simonyi-Semadam.

  • simoom (wind)

    Simoom, extremely hot and dry local wind in Arabia and the Sahara. Its temperature often reaches 55 °C (about 130 °F), and the humidity of the air sometimes falls below 10 percent. It is caused by intensive ground heating under a cloudless sky. Simoom is an Arabic word that means “poison wind.” It

  • sīmorgh (Islamic mythology)

    phoenix: …phoenix was identified with the ?anqā? (Persian: sīmorgh), a huge mysterious bird (probably a heron) that was originally created by God with all perfections but thereafter became a plague and was killed.

  • Simoun, Le (play by Lenormand)

    Henri-René Lenormand: Lenormand’s play Le Simoun (1920; “The Simoom”) depicts the demoralizing influence of the life and climate of the tropics on a European man who becomes obsessed with an incestuous passion for his adult daughter. Le Lache (1925; “The Coward”) is a psychological study of fear in a…

  • Simovi?, Du?an (Yugoslav Army officer)

    Prince Paul Karadjordjevi?: Du?an Simovi? and other air force officers. Paul fled to Greece, where he was captured by British forces. He spent the remainder of the war interred in Kenya and South Africa. After the war, he was declared an enemy of the state by the communist…

  • Simple (fictional character)

    Langston Hughes: Semple, familiarly called Simple, who appeared in Hughes’s columns in the Chicago Defender and the New York Post and later in book form and on the stage. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad and David Roessel, appeared in 1994. Some of his political exchanges…

  • Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America, The (work by Ward)

    Nathaniel Ward: …with the Mosaic law, and The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America (1647), a vigorously written pamphlet defending the status quo and attacking, among other things, tolerance.

  • simple continued fraction (mathematics)

    continued fraction: In a simple continued fraction (SCF), all the bi are equal to 1 and all the ai are positive integers. An SCF is written, in the compact form, [a0; a1, a2, a3, …]. If the number of terms ai is finite, the SCF is said to terminate,…

  • simple crater (landform)

    meteorite crater: The impact-cratering process: …resulting landform is called a simple crater. The smallest craters require no more than a few seconds to form completely, whereas craters that are tens of kilometres wide probably form in a few minutes.

  • simple dislocation (medicine)

    dislocation: A dislocation is called simple when the joint surfaces are not exposed to the air; it is called compound when the joint surfaces are exposed by the destruction of overlying skin or by the end of a bone piercing the skin.

  • Simple Dreams: A Musical Memoir (memoir by Ronstadt)

    Linda Ronstadt: …from Parkinson disease, she published Simple Dreams: A Musical Memoir. The following year she was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Also in 2014 she was awarded the National Medal of Arts. She received a Grammy Award for lifetime achievement in 2016. A documentary about her life…

  • Simple Figurative style (Oceanic art)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Australia: …engravings and paintings in the Simple Figurative style are widely found at sites in the north, east, and west of Australia but rarely in the interior. The style apparently followed the Panaramittee, but it cannot be dated precisely. It is characterized by somewhat loose silhouettes of human and animal forms…

  • simple fraction (mathematics)

    arithmetic: Rational numbers: …n/d and is called a common fraction. It may be considered as the quotient of n divided by d. The number d is called the denominator (it determines the fractional unit or denomination), and n is called the numerator (it enumerates the number of fractional units that are taken). The…

  • simple fracture (pathology)

    fracture: A fracture is called simple (closed) when the overlying skin is not broken and the bone is not exposed to the air; it is called compound (open) when the bone is exposed. When a bone weakened by disease breaks from a minor stress, it is termed a pathological fracture.…

  • simple free-trade area (economics)

    economic integration: Simple free-trade area: The most basic type of economic integration is a simple free-trade area. In this form, attention is focused almost exclusively on a reduction of the tariffs and quotas that restrict trade. Emphasis is placed almost entirely on increasing the exchange of goods.…

  • simple fruit (botany)

    angiosperm: Fruits: Simple fruits develop from a single carpel or from a compound ovary. Aggregate fruits consist of several separate carpels of one apocarpous gynoecium (e.g., raspberries where each unit is a single carpel). Multiple fruits consist of the gynoecia of more than one flower and represent…

  • simple goitre (medical disorder)

    goitre: …common type of goitre is endemic goitre, caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is an essential nutrient that is required for the production of thyroid hormone. When iodine intake is low, thyroid hormone production is low, and in response the pituitary gland secretes greater quantities of the hormone thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone,…

  • simple graph (mathematics)

    graph theory: …two vertices is called a simple graph. Unless stated otherwise, graph is assumed to refer to a simple graph. When each vertex is connected by an edge to every other vertex, the graph is called a complete graph. When appropriate, a direction may be assigned to each edge to produce…

  • simple group (mathematics)

    algebra: New challenges and perspectives: …subgroups is known as a simple group. Simple groups are the basic components of group theory, and since Galois’s time it was known that the general quintic was unsolvable by radicals because its Galois group was simple. However, a full characterization of simple groups remained unattainable until a major breakthrough…

  • simple grouping system (numeral system)

    numerals and numeral systems: Simple grouping systems: In its pure form a simple grouping system is an assignment of special names to the small numbers, the base b, and its powers b2, b3, and so on, up to a power bk large enough to represent all numbers actually required…

  • simple halide (mineral)

    halide mineral: The simple halides are salts of the alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals. Most are soluble in water; the transition-metal halides are unstable under exposure to air. Halite, sodium chloride (NaCl), is the most familiar example; it often occurs with other evaporite minerals in enormous beds…

  • simple halide group (mineralogy)

    halide mineral: …modes of occurrence, include the simple halides, the halide complexes, and the oxyhydroxy-halides.

  • simple harmonic motion (physics)

    Simple harmonic motion, in physics, repetitive movement back and forth through an equilibrium, or central, position, so that the maximum displacement on one side of this position is equal to the maximum displacement on the other side. The time interval of each complete vibration is the same. The

  • simple harmonic oscillator (physics)

    mechanics: Simple harmonic oscillations: The potential energy of a harmonic oscillator, equal to the work an outside agent must do to push the mass from zero to x, is U = 12kx2. Thus, the total initial energy in the situation described above is 12kA2; and since the kinetic energy is always 12mv2, when the…

  • simple idea (philosophy)

    epistemology: Rationalism and empiricism: …dragon can be reduced to simple concepts (such as wings, the body of a snake, the head of a horse), all of which derive from impressions. On such a view, the mind is still considered primarily passive, but it is conceded that the mind has the power to combine simple…

  • simple leaf (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Leaves: …petiole, the leaf is called simple. Simple leaves may be variously lobed along their margins. The margins of simple leaves may be entire and smooth or they may be lobed in various ways. The coarse teeth of dentate margins project at right angles, while those of serrate margins point toward…

  • simple linear regression (statistics)

    statistics: Regression model: In simple linear regression, the model used to describe the relationship between a single dependent variable y and a single independent variable x is y = β0 + β1x + ε. β0 and β1 are referred to as the model parameters, and ε is a probabilistic…

  • simple machine

    Simple machine, any of several devices with few or no moving parts that are used to modify motion and force in order to perform work. The simple machines are the inclined plane, lever, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley, and screw. An inclined plane consists of a sloping surface; it is used for raising

  • simple mastectomy (surgery)

    mastectomy: Other mastectomy methods include simple mastectomy, or the removal of only the breast; simple mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection; and local incision, sometimes called “lumpectomy,” in which only the tumour is removed.

  • simple metal

    crystal: Metallic bonds: The simple metals are bonded with sp-electrons. The electrons of these metal atoms are in filled atomic shells except for a few electrons that are in unfilled sp-shells. The electrons from the unfilled shells are detached from the metal ion and are free to wander throughout…

  • simple metre (music)

    metre: Simple metres are duple (e.g., 22, 24), triple (34, 38), or quadruple (44, 48). Compound metres are also duple (6

  • simple microscope (optics)

    microscope: The simple microscope: The simple microscope consists of a single lens traditionally called a loupe. The most familiar present-day example is a reading or magnifying glass. Present-day higher-magnification lenses are often made with two glass elements that produce a colour-corrected image. They can be…

  • simple multiple proportions, law of (chemistry)

    Law of multiple proportions, statement that when two elements combine with each other to form more than one compound, the weights of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers. For example, there are five distinct oxides of nitrogen, and the

  • simple oxide (mineral)

    oxide mineral: …minerals can be grouped as simple oxides and multiple oxides. Simple oxides are a combination of one metal or semimetal and oxygen, whereas multiple oxides have two nonequivalent metal sites. The oxide structures are usually based on cubic or hexagonal close-packing of oxygen atoms with the octahedral or tetrahedral sites…

  • simple pendulum (device)

    mechanics: Motion of a pendulum: …period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is proportional to the square root of its length and does not depend on its mass.

  • Simple Plan, A (film by Raimi [1998])

    Sam Raimi: …next projects, the crime drama A Simple Plan (1998) and the baseball romance For the Love of the Game (1999), were stylistic departures, but the former was a critical hit, and it earned a pair of Academy Award nominations.

  • simple pneumothorax (pathology)

    pneumothorax: …be described as either a simple pneumothorax, without effects on the heart or mediastinal structures, or as a tension pneumothorax, which is a life-threatening condition. Tension pneumothorax can occur as a result of trauma, lung infection, or medical procedures, such as high-pressure mechanical ventilation, chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR),…

  • simple random sample (statistics)

    statistics: Sampling and sampling distributions: …most fundamental type is a simple random sample.

  • simple random sampling (statistics)

    public opinion: Probability sampling: …of probability sampling, known as random sampling, requires that each member of the universe have an equal chance of being selected. This could be accomplished by assigning a number to each person in the universe or writing each person’s name on a slip of paper, placing all the numbered or…

  • simple reflexive stage (psychology)
  • simple schizophrenia (mental disorder)

    schizophrenia: Schizophrenia subtypes: The simple or undifferentiated subtype of schizophrenia typically is characterized by an insidious and gradual reduction in external relations and interests. The patient’s emotions lack depth, and ideation is simple and refers to concrete things. There are a relative absence of mental activity, a progressive lessening in the…

  • Simple Storage Service (data storage)

    Amazon.com: Beyond retailing: That same year, the Simple Storage Service (S3), which rents data storage over the Internet, became available.

  • simple sugar (chemical compound)

    Monosaccharide, any of the basic compounds that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones; that is, they are molecules with more than one hydroxyl group (―OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O) either at the terminal carbon atom (aldose) or at the

  • simple supposition (logic)

    history of logic: The theory of supposition: …to do with persons), (2) simple supposition, and (3) material supposition. These types are illustrated, respectively, by the occurrences of the term horse in the statements “Every horse is an animal” (in which the term horse refers to individual horses), “Horse is a species” (in which the term refers to…

  • simple system (musical instrument design)

    clarinet: The simple, or Albert, system, named for its Brussels maker, Eugène Albert, is a modernization of the earlier 13-key system of the clarinetist-builder Iwan Müller. It is used in German-speaking countries, with a complex accretion of auxiliary keywork but with conservative features in bore, mouthpiece, and reed (the…

  • simple tandem repeat (biochemistry)

    heredity: Repetitive DNA: Microsatellite DNA is composed of tandem repeats of two nucleotide pairs that are dispersed throughout the genome. Minisatellite DNA, sometimes called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), is composed of blocks of longer repeats also dispersed throughout the genome. There is no known function for satellite…

  • simple time (music)

    metre: Simple metres are duple (e.g., 22, 24), triple (34, 38), or quadruple (44, 48). Compound metres are also duple (6

  • simple tissue (biology)

    angiosperm: Vegetative structures: …performing only one function are simple tissues, while those composed of more than one cell type and performing more than one function, such as support and conduction, are complex tissues. Xylem and phloem are examples of complex tissues.

  • simple tone (sound)

    sound: Dynamic range of the ear: …varying absolute intensities of a pure tone that has the same loudness to the ear at various frequencies. The determination of each curve, labeled by its loudness level in phons, involves the subjective judgment of a large number of people and is therefore an average statistical result. However, the curves…

  • simple triglyceride (chemical compound)

    fat: Chemical composition of fats: Simple triglycerides are those in which each molecule of glycerol is combined with three molecules of one acid—e.g., tripalmitin, C3H5(OCOC15H31)3, the glyceryl ester of palmitic acid, C15H31COOH. Only a few of the glycerides occurring in nature are of the simple type; most are mixed triglycerides…

  • simple wave (hydrology)

    wave: Wind waves and swell: …starts with the concept of simple waves, those forming a strictly periodic pattern with one wavelength and one wave period and propagating in one direction. Real waves, however, always have a more irregular appearance. They may be described as composite waves, in which a whole spectrum of wavelengths, or periods,…

  • Simplemente María (Peruvian television program)

    telenovela: The Peruvian telenovela Simplemente María (1969–71)—which centred on a main character who moved from a rural area to Lima, put herself through night school, became a seamstress, and eventually launched a successful fashion line—not only attracted audiences but also was credited with increased rural-to-urban migration and night-school class…

  • simplex method (linear programming)

    Simplex method, Standard technique in linear programming for solving an optimization problem, typically one involving a function and several constraints expressed as inequalities. The inequalities define a polygonal region (see polygon), and the solution is typically at one of the vertices. The

  • simplex uterus (anatomy)

    mammal: The female tract: Higher primates have a simplex uterus in which there is no separation between the horns and thus a single chamber.

  • Simplexvirus

    Elizabeth Stern: …linking a specific virus (herpes simplex virus) to a specific cancer (cervical cancer). For another phase of her research she studied a group of more than 10,000 Los Angeles county women who were clients of the county’s public family planning clinics. In a 1973 article in the journal Science,…

  • Simplicissimus (German periodical)

    caricature and cartoon: Germany: …of the Munich satirical publication Simplicissimus (from 1896) were all somewhat influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec in their use of white space, spatters, and often random outline; they all commented on those features of German life that were most disliked outside Germany—the didactic professor, the tourist, and the military dandy. Their caricatures…

  • Simplicissimus (novel by Grimmelshausen)

    Simplicissimus, novel by Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, the first part of which was published in 1669 as Der abentheurliche Simplicissimus Teutsch (“The Adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch”). Considered one of the most significant works of German literature, it contains a satirical and

  • simpliciter, conversion (syllogistic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …to be converted “simply” (simpliciter). But propositions of form A cannot be converted in this way; if every β is an α, it does not follow that every α is a β. It does follow, however, that some α is a β. Such propositions, which can be converted provided…

  • Simplicius of Cilicia (Greek philosopher)

    Simplicius Of Cilicia, Greek philosopher whose learned commentaries on Aristotle’s De caelo (“On the Heavens”), Physics, De anima (“On the Soul”), and Categories are considered important, both for their original content and for the fact that they contain many valuable fragments of pre-Socratic

  • Simplicius, Saint (Italian saint)

    Saint Simplicius, ; feast day March 10), pope from 468 to 483. He became Pope St. Hilary’s successor on March 3, 468, during a period that was turbulent ecclesiastically and politically. During Simplicius’ pontificate the Eastern church was torn between orthodoxy and Monophysitism, a doctrine

  • Simplon Pass (mountain pass, Switzerland)

    Simplon Pass, mountain pass in southern Switzerland between the Pennine and Lepontine Alps at 6,581 ft (2,006 m) on the watershed between a north-flowing tributary of the Rh?ne and a south-flowing tributary of the Toce. It was not until the mid-13th century that the pass attained any importance as

  • Simplon Tunnel (tunnel, Italy-Switzerland)

    Simplon Tunnel, one of the longest railway tunnels in the world, about 12 12 miles (20 km) from Iselle, Italy, to Brig, Switz., and one of history’s great engineering feats. The Simplon Pass was an important trade route between northern and southern Europe from the 13th century. It was improved in

  • Simplon-Orient-Express (train)

    Orient-Express, luxury train that ran from Paris to Constantinople (Istanbul) for more than 80 years (1883–1977). Europe’s first transcontinental express, it initially covered a route of more than 1,700 miles (about 2,740 km) that included brief stopovers in such cities as Munich, Vienna, Budapest,

  • Simplot, J. R. (American agriculturist and entrepreneur)

    J.R. Simplot, American agriculturist and entrepreneur (born Jan. 4, 1909, Dubuque, Iowa—died May 25, 2008, Boise, Idaho), was renowned for developing (1946) commercial frozen French fries and building the J.R. Simplot Co. into a multibillion-dollar corporation. His enterprise helped to develop the

  • Simplot, John Richard (American agriculturist and entrepreneur)

    J.R. Simplot, American agriculturist and entrepreneur (born Jan. 4, 1909, Dubuque, Iowa—died May 25, 2008, Boise, Idaho), was renowned for developing (1946) commercial frozen French fries and building the J.R. Simplot Co. into a multibillion-dollar corporation. His enterprise helped to develop the

  • simply supported beam bridge

    bridge: Beam: …supports, it is called a simply supported beam bridge. If two or more beams are joined rigidly together over supports, the bridge becomes continuous.

  • simply-connected maze (mathematics)

    number game: Mazes: …detached walls—the maze is “simply connected”; otherwise the maze is “multiply connected.” A classic general method of “threading a maze” is to designate a place where there is a choice of turning as a node; a path or node that has not yet been entered as a “new” path…

  • Simpofu (work by Xulu)

    African literature: Zulu: …Zulu history are Muntu ’s uSimpofu (1969); L.S. Luthango’s uMohlomi (1938), a biography of Mohlomi, the adviser of the Sotho chief Moshoeshoe; and Imithi ephundliwe (1968; “Barked Trees”), an imaginative work by Moses Hlela and Christopher Nkosi based on the Zulu War. The historical trickster Chakijana, who became famous during…

  • simpoon (primate)

    sifaka: The larger diademed sifaka (P. diadema), silky sifaka (P. candidus), and Milne-Edwards’s sifaka (P. edwardsi) live in the rainforests of eastern Madagascar. Milne-Edwards’s sifaka is black or brown, generally with a white patch on the back and flanks, whereas the diademed sifaka, or simpoon, has a beautiful…

  • Simpson Desert (desert, Australia)

    Simpson Desert, largely uninhabited arid region covering some 55,000 square miles (143,000 square km) in central Australia. Situated mainly in the southeastern corner of the Northern Territory, it overlaps into Queensland and South Australia and is bounded by the Finke River (west), the MacDonnell

  • Simpson Desert Conservation Park (park, Australia)

    Simpson Desert: …it from South Australia are Simpson Desert Conservation Park (1967), covering 2,675 square miles (6,927 square km), and Simpson Desert Regional Reserve (1988), which stretches over 11,445 square miles (29,642 square km) of the desert’s vast southern plains. The 3,000-square-mile (7,770-square-km) Witjira National Park (1985), also in northern South Australia,…

  • Simpson Desert National Park (national park, Queensland, Australia)

    Simpson Desert: Simpson Desert National Park (1967) occupies 3,907 square miles (10,120 square km) in western Queensland. Adjoining it from South Australia are Simpson Desert Conservation Park (1967), covering 2,675 square miles (6,927 square km), and Simpson Desert Regional Reserve (1988), which stretches over 11,445 square miles…

  • Simpson Desert Regional Reserve (reserve, Australia)

    Simpson Desert: …miles (6,927 square km), and Simpson Desert Regional Reserve (1988), which stretches over 11,445 square miles (29,642 square km) of the desert’s vast southern plains. The 3,000-square-mile (7,770-square-km) Witjira National Park (1985), also in northern South Australia, covers an area on the western edge of the desert.

  • Simpson Miller, Portia (prime minister of Jamaica)

    Portia Simpson Miller, Jamaican politician who served as the country’s first female prime minister (2006–07; 2012–16). Portia Simpson received her early education at Marlie Hill Primary School and St. Martin’s High School. After her graduation from high school, she studied at the Jamaica Commercial

  • Simpson’s paradox (statistics)

    Simpson’s paradox, in statistics, an effect that occurs when the marginal association between two categorical variables is qualitatively different from the partial association between the same two variables after controlling for one or more other variables. Simpson’s paradox is important for three

  • Simpson, Albert B. (American minister)

    Christian and Missionary Alliance: …developed from the work of Albert B. Simpson (died 1919), a Presbyterian minister who left that church to become an independent evangelist in New York City. In 1887 Simpson and others organized two societies, one for home and one for foreign missions. The two societies were merged into the Christian…

  • Simpson, Cape (cape, Alaska, United States)

    permafrost: Effects of climate: …mean annual air temperatures at Cape Simpson and Prudhoe Bay are similar, but permafrost thickness is 275 metres at Cape Simpson and about 650 metres at Prudhoe Bay because rocks at Prudhoe Bay are more siliceous and have a higher conductivity and a lower geothermal gradient than rocks at Cape…

  • Simpson, Christopher (British composer)

    Christopher Simpson, English composer, teacher, theorist, and one of the great virtuoso players in the history of the viol. A Roman Catholic, he fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War (1643–44) and subsequently became tutor to the son of a prominent Catholic, Sir Robert Bolles. During

  • Simpson, Don (American film producer)

    Jerry Bruckheimer: … (1983), which he coproduced with Don Simpson. The two men formed a production company and went on to create a string of blockbusters, including the comedy Beverly Hills Cop (1984), which featured Eddie Murphy, Top Gun (1986), which established Tom Cruise as a star, and Bad Boys (1995). After he…

  • Simpson, Elizabeth (English author and actress)

    Elizabeth Inchbald, English novelist, playwright, and actress whose successful prose romances, A Simple Story (1791) and Nature and Art (1796), are early examples of the novel of passion. At 18 Simpson ran away to London to seek her fortune on the stage, married Joseph Inchbald, an actor, and

  • Simpson, George Gaylord (American paleontologist)

    George Gaylord Simpson, American paleontologist known for his contributions to evolutionary theory and to the understanding of intercontinental migrations of animal species in past geological times. Simpson received a doctorate from Yale University in 1926. He chose for the subject of his thesis

  • Simpson, Harriette Louisa (American author)

    Harriette Arnow, American novelist, social historian, short-story writer, and essayist, known primarily for the novel The Dollmaker (1954), the story of a Kentucky hill family that moves north to Detroit during World War II. Arnow is an important writer who is often overlooked because of her

  • Simpson, Jessica (American singer and actress)

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: …boy band 98 Degrees) and Jessica Simpson; and Surreal Life (WB/VH1, 2003–06), a sort of Real World populated by where-are-they-now? personalities. Most of these shows were created with a heavy sense of irony, inviting the viewer to watch with a sense of affectionate mockery.

  • Simpson, Joanne (American scientist)

    weather modification: Precipitation modification: This approach was employed by Joanne Simpson of the U.S. Environmental Science Services Administration and others to test the effects of heavy doses of silver iodide on cumulonimbus clouds. She found that the effects of ice nuclei on large convective clouds conformed closely with theoretical predictions. Certain specified clouds were…

  • Simpson, Juli (American golfer)

    Juli Inkster, American golfer who was one of the leading players on the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tour. She attended San Jose State University, and in 1980 she married Brian Inkster, a golf instructor. Several weeks later she won the U.S. Women’s Amateur championship title; she

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