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  • Singel Canal (canal, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam: City development: …by what are now the Singel and the Kloveniersburgwal canals. Three towers of the old fortifications still stand. Outside the Singel are the three main canals dating from the early 17th century: the Herengracht (Gentlemen’s Canal), Keizersgracht (Emperor’s Canal), and Prinsengracht (Prince’s Canal). These concentric canals, together with the smaller…

  • Singelgracht (canal, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam: City development: …by what are now the Singel and the Kloveniersburgwal canals. Three towers of the old fortifications still stand. Outside the Singel are the three main canals dating from the early 17th century: the Herengracht (Gentlemen’s Canal), Keizersgracht (Emperor’s Canal), and Prinsengracht (Prince’s Canal). These concentric canals, together with the smaller…

  • Singer Building (building, New York City, New York, United States)

    construction: Early steel-frame high-rises: The Singer Building (1907) by the architect Ernest Flagg rose to 47 stories (184 metres or 612 feet), Cass Gilbert’s Woolworth Building (1913) attained a height of 238 metres (792 feet) at 55 stories, and Shreve, Lamb & Harmon’s 102-story Empire State Building (1931) touched 381…

  • Singer Company (American corporation)

    Singer Company, corporation that grew out of the sewing-machine business founded in the United States by Isaac M. Singer. The company was incorporated in 1863 as the Singer Manufacturing Company, taking over the business of I.M. Singer & Company, which had been formed to market the sewing machine

  • Singer Manufacturing Company (American corporation)

    Singer Company, corporation that grew out of the sewing-machine business founded in the United States by Isaac M. Singer. The company was incorporated in 1863 as the Singer Manufacturing Company, taking over the business of I.M. Singer & Company, which had been formed to market the sewing machine

  • Singer, I. J. (American author)

    I.J. Singer, Polish-born writer of realistic historical novels in Yiddish. Singer’s father was a rabbi who was a fervent ?asid, and his mother was from a distinguished Mitnagged family. Singer began writing tales of ?asidic life in 1915 and then worked as a newspaper correspondent in Warsaw during

  • Singer, Isaac (American inventor)

    Isaac Singer, American inventor who developed and brought into general use the first practical domestic sewing machine. At the age of 19 Singer became an apprentice machinist, and in 1839 he patented a rock-drilling machine. Ten years later he patented a metal- and wood-carving machine. While

  • Singer, Isaac Bashevis (American author)

    Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born American writer of novels, short stories, and essays in Yiddish. He was the recipient in 1978 of the Nobel Prize for Literature. His fiction, depicting Jewish life in Poland and the United States, is remarkable for its rich blending of irony, wit, and wisdom,

  • Singer, Isaac Merritt (American inventor)

    Isaac Singer, American inventor who developed and brought into general use the first practical domestic sewing machine. At the age of 19 Singer became an apprentice machinist, and in 1839 he patented a rock-drilling machine. Ten years later he patented a metal- and wood-carving machine. While

  • Singer, Isadore Manuel (American mathematician)

    Isadore Manuel Singer, American mathematician awarded, together with the British mathematician Sir Michael Francis Atiyah, the 2004 Abel Prize by the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters for “their discovery and proof of the index theorem, bringing together topology, geometry and analysis, and

  • Singer, Israel Joshua (American author)

    I.J. Singer, Polish-born writer of realistic historical novels in Yiddish. Singer’s father was a rabbi who was a fervent ?asid, and his mother was from a distinguished Mitnagged family. Singer began writing tales of ?asidic life in 1915 and then worked as a newspaper correspondent in Warsaw during

  • Singer, Jerome (American psychologist)

    motivation: The Schachter-Singer model: …American psychologists Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer performed an experiment that suggested to them that elements of both the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories are factors in the experience of emotion. Their cognitive-physiological theory of emotion proposed that both bodily changes and a cognitive label are needed to experience emotion completely.…

  • Singer, Josh (American writer and producer)
  • Singer, Milton (American anthropologist)

    urban culture: Definitions of the city and urban cultures: …of Cities,” Robert Redfield and Milton Singer tried to improve on all previous conceptions of the city, including the one Redfield had himself used in his folk-urban model, by emphasizing the variable cultural roles played by cities in societies. Redfield and Singer delineated two cultural roles for cities that all…

  • Singer, Peter (Australian philosopher)

    Peter Singer, Australian ethical and political philosopher best known for his work in bioethics and his role as one of the intellectual founders of the modern animal rights movement. Singer’s Jewish parents immigrated to Australia from Vienna in 1938 to escape Nazi persecution following the

  • Singer, Peter Albert David (Australian philosopher)

    Peter Singer, Australian ethical and political philosopher best known for his work in bioethics and his role as one of the intellectual founders of the modern animal rights movement. Singer’s Jewish parents immigrated to Australia from Vienna in 1938 to escape Nazi persecution following the

  • Singer, Ronald (South African anthropologist)

    Hopefield: Under the direction of Ronald Singer of the University of Cape Town, more than 20,000 faunal remains and 5,000 artifacts were removed from the site. About 50 mammalian species, approximately half of them extinct, are represented among the fossil bones. The extinct species include an ancestral springbok, a sabre-toothed…

  • Singer, Sir Hans Wolfgang (British economist)

    Sir Hans Wolfgang Singer, German-born British economist (born Nov. 29, 1910, Elberfeld, Ger.—died Feb. 26, 2006, Brighton, East Sussex, Eng.), was a leading development economist noted for his groundbreaking work on poverty. Singer was educated (1929–33) at the University of Bonn but fled Nazi G

  • singer-songwriter (music)

    Singer-songwriters, professional troubadours performing autobiographical songs who ascended in the early 1970s to the forefront of commercial pop in the wake of the communal fervour of 1960s rock. For the baby boom generation that had chosen rock as a medium for political and social discourse, the

  • singerie (art)

    Singerie, (French: “monkey trick”) type of humorous picture of monkeys fashionably attired and aping human behaviour, painted by a number of French artists in the early 18th century. It originated with the French decorator and designer Jean Berain, who included dressed figures of monkeys in many of

  • Singers, The (work by Frank)

    Leonhard Frank: …in Das ochsenfurter M?nnerquartett (1927; The Singers). During the same period he wrote his masterpiece, Karl und Anna (1926; Carl and Anna), a realistic, if sentimental, account of a soldier who seduces his comrade’s wife.

  • Singh Bahadur, Banda (Sikh military leader)

    Banda Singh Bahadur, first Sikh military leader to wage an offensive war against the Mughal rulers of India, thereby temporarily extending Sikh territory. As a youth, he decided to be a samana (ascetic), and until 1708, when he became a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, he was known as Madho Das.

  • Singh Sabha (Sikhism)

    Singh Sabha, (Punjabi: “Society of the Singhs”) 19th-century movement within Sikhism that began as a defense against the proselytizing activities of Christians and Hindus. Its chief aims were the revival of the teachings of the Sikh Gurus (spiritual leaders), the production of religious literature

  • Singh, Atomba (Indian guru)

    South Asian arts: The manipuri school: …leading guru of the area, Atomba Singh, to teach at his school in Santiniketan. The supple movements of manipuri dance were suitable for Tagore’s lyrical dramas, and he therefore employed them in his plays and introduced the dance as a part of the curriculum at his institution.

  • Singh, Chait (Indian raja)

    India: The Company Bahadur: …(demands for money) of Raja Chait Singh of Varanasi and his deposition in 1781 and the pressuring of the Begums of Avadh (the mother and grandmother of the nawab ā?af al-Dawlah) for the same reason. Hastings’s financial difficulties at the time were great, but such actions were harsh and high-handed.

  • Singh, Charan (prime minister of India)

    Charan Singh, Indian politician who served briefly as prime minister (1979–80). Singh became a lawyer and in 1929 joined the Indian National Congress movement. He was jailed several times in the struggle for Indian independence. He served in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) state assembly

  • Singh, Chaudhuri Charan (prime minister of India)

    Charan Singh, Indian politician who served briefly as prime minister (1979–80). Singh became a lawyer and in 1929 joined the Indian National Congress movement. He was jailed several times in the struggle for Indian independence. He served in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) state assembly

  • Singh, Dara (Indian wrestler and actor)

    Dara Singh, (Dara Singh Randhawa), Indian wrestler and actor (born Nov. 19, 1928, Dharmchuk, Amritsar district, Punjab, British India—died July 12, 2012, Mumbai, India), captured his country’s affections as a champion wrestler and then as Bollywood’s first action-hero star, portraying heroic, noble

  • Singh, Dhulip (Sikh maharaja)

    Dalip Singh, Sikh maharaja of Lahore (1843–49) during his childhood. Dalip was the son of Ranjit Singh, the powerful “Lion of Lahore,” who controlled the Punjab for nearly 50 years. After Ranjit’s death (1839), assassinations and struggles for power prevailed, but the boy’s mother, Rani Jindan,

  • Singh, Ganesh Man (Nepalese activist)

    Ganesh Man Singh, Nepalese political activist who during some 50 years of struggle against Nepal’s monarchy was a leader in the fight for democracy (b. November 1915--d. Sept. 18,

  • Singh, Giani Zail (president of India)

    Zail Singh, Indian politician who was the first Sikh to serve as president of India (1982–87). He was an impotent bystander in 1984 when government troops stormed the complex of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in Amritsar, the Sikhs’ holiest shrine, in an effort to apprehend militants who had

  • Singh, Gobind (Sikh Guru)

    Gobind Singh, 10th and last Sikh Gurū, known chiefly for his creation of the Khālsā, the military brotherhood of the Sikhs. Gobind Singh inherited his grandfather Gurū Hargobind’s love of the military life and was also a man of great intellectual attainments. He was also the son of the ninth Guru,

  • Singh, Jagjit (Indian singer)

    Jagjit Singh, (Jagmohan Singh), Indian singer (born Feb. 8, 1941, Sri Ganganagar, Rajputana, British India—died Oct. 10, 2011, Mumbai, India), excelled at the semiclassical ghazal song, which he performed—solo and with his wife, ghazal singer Chitra Singh—on more than 40 albums, for movie sound

  • Singh, Jagmeet (Canadian lawyer and politician)

    Thomas Mulcair: …to lead the party until Jagmeet Singh was elected as his replacement in October 2017.

  • Singh, Jagmohan (Indian singer)

    Jagjit Singh, (Jagmohan Singh), Indian singer (born Feb. 8, 1941, Sri Ganganagar, Rajputana, British India—died Oct. 10, 2011, Mumbai, India), excelled at the semiclassical ghazal song, which he performed—solo and with his wife, ghazal singer Chitra Singh—on more than 40 albums, for movie sound

  • Singh, Jarnail (president of India)

    Zail Singh, Indian politician who was the first Sikh to serve as president of India (1982–87). He was an impotent bystander in 1984 when government troops stormed the complex of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in Amritsar, the Sikhs’ holiest shrine, in an effort to apprehend militants who had

  • Singh, Jarnail (Sikh leader)

    Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Sikh religious leader and political revolutionary whose campaign to establish a separate Sikh state led to a violent and deadly confrontation with the Indian military in 1984. Jarnail Singh was born into a Sikh peasant family in a village near Faridkot in what is

  • Singh, Khushwant (Indian writer and journalist)

    Khushwant Singh, Indian writer and journalist (born 1915, Hadali?, Punjab, British India [now in Pakistan]—died March 20, 2014, New Delhi, India), produced some of the most provocative and admired English-language fiction and nonfiction in post-World War II India. His debut novel, Train to Pakistan

  • Singh, Kushal Pal (Indian businessman)

    Kushal Pal Singh, Indian businessman who transformed Delhi Land & Finance Limited (DLF) into one of India’s largest real-estate development firms. After earning a degree in science from Meerut College, Singh studied engineering in the United Kingdom and then served as an officer in an elite cavalry

  • Singh, Manmohan (prime minister of India)

    Manmohan Singh, Indian economist and politician, who served as prime minister of India from 2004 to 2014. A Sikh, he was the first non-Hindu to occupy the office. Singh attended Panjab University in Chandigarh and the University of Cambridge in Great Britain. He later earned a doctorate in

  • Singh, Milkha (Indian athlete)

    Milkha Singh, Indian track-and-field athlete who became the first Indian male to reach the final of an Olympic athletics event when he placed fourth in the 400-metre race at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome. Orphaned during the partition of India, Singh moved to India from Pakistan in 1947. He eked

  • Singh, Raghubir (Indian photographer)

    Raghubir Singh, Indian photographer noted for his evocative documentation of the landscape and peoples of India. Educated in art at Hindu College in New Delhi, Singh was self-trained in photography. His own creative work was inspired by Henri Cartier-Bresson’s images of India, which Singh

  • Singh, Rajnath (Indian politician)

    Rajnath Singh, Indian politician and government official, who became a major figure in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP; Indian People’s Party). A soft-spoken man who generally kept a low public profile, he was one of the party’s staunchest advocates of its Hindutva ideology, which sought to define

  • Singh, Rana Pratap (ruler of Mewar)

    Rana Pratap Singh, Hindu maharaja (1572–97) of the Rajput confederacy of Mewar, now in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. He successfully resisted efforts of the Mughal emperor Akbar to conquer his area and is honoured as a hero in Rajasthan. The son and successor of the weak Rana Udai Singh,

  • Singh, V. P. (prime minister of India)

    V.P. Singh, politician and government official who was prime minister of India in 1989–90. Singh studied at Allahabad and Pune (Poona) universities and became a member of the legislative assembly of his home state of Uttar Pradesh in 1969 as a member of the Indian National Congress (Congress

  • Singh, Vishwanath Pratap (prime minister of India)

    V.P. Singh, politician and government official who was prime minister of India in 1989–90. Singh studied at Allahabad and Pune (Poona) universities and became a member of the legislative assembly of his home state of Uttar Pradesh in 1969 as a member of the Indian National Congress (Congress

  • Singh, Zail (president of India)

    Zail Singh, Indian politician who was the first Sikh to serve as president of India (1982–87). He was an impotent bystander in 1984 when government troops stormed the complex of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in Amritsar, the Sikhs’ holiest shrine, in an effort to apprehend militants who had

  • Singha Durbar (government residence, Nepal)

    Kathmandu: …imposing of which is the Singha Palace, once the official residence of the hereditary prime ministers and now housing the government secretariat. About 3 miles (5 km) northeast is the great white dome of Bodhnath, a Buddhist shrine revered by Tibetan Buddhists. The surrounding Kathmandu Valley, noted for its vast…

  • Singhalese (people)

    Sinhalese, member of a people of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) who constitute the largest ethnic group of that island. In the early 21st century the Sinhalese were estimated to number about 13.8 million, or 73 percent of the population. Their ancestors are believed to have come from northern India,

  • Singhalese language

    Sinhalese language, Indo-Aryan language, one of the two official languages of Sri Lanka. It was taken there by colonists from northern India about the 5th century bc. Because of its isolation from the other Indo-Aryan tongues of mainland India, Sinhalese developed along independent lines. It was

  • Singhalese literature

    South Asian arts: Sinhalese literature: 10th century ad to 19th century: The island nation of Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka), formally a part of South Asia, has been little noticed by the subcontinent, apart from the fact that according to an uncertain tradition it is celebrated in the…

  • Si?ghana (Indian ruler)

    Yadava dynasty: Under Bhillama’s grandson Singhana (reigned c. 1210–47) the dynasty reached its height, as the Yadava campaigned against the Hoysalas in the south, the Kakatiyas in the east, and the Paramaras and Chalukyas in the north.

  • Singhara nut (food)

    water chestnut: The fruit, sometimes called Singhara nut, is 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) in diameter and usually has four spiny angles. The ling nut (T. bicornis) is cultivated in most of East Asia.

  • Singhasari (historical kingdom, Indonesia)

    Singhasari, kingdom based in eastern Java that emerged in the first half of the 13th century after the decline of the kingdom of Kadiri. Singhasari’s first king, Ken Angrok (or Ken Arok), defeated the king of Kadiri, Kertajaya, in 1222. The last king of Singhasari, Kertanagara (reigned 1268–92),

  • Singidunum (Roman settlement, Serbia)

    Belgrade: …known by the Romans as Singidunum. It was destroyed by the Huns in 442 and changed hands among the Sarmatians, Goths, and Gepidae before it was recaptured by the Byzantine emperor Justinian. It was later held by the Franks and the Bulgars, and in the 11th century became a frontier…

  • Singin’ in the Rain (film by Donen and Kelly [1952])

    Singin’ in the Rain, American musical comedy film, released in 1952, that was a reunion project for the American in Paris directorial team of Stanley Donen and Gene Kelly, who was also the films’ star. Singin’ in the Rain emerged as a classic, considered by many to be the greatest Hollywood musical

  • Singin’ the Blues (work by Beiderbecke)

    Bix Beiderbecke: …as “I’m Coming, Virginia” and “Singin’ the Blues,” both recorded with Trumbauer’s group in 1927, remain jazz classics. Beiderbecke’s approach lived on in the playing of Jimmy McPartland and Bobby Hackett, as well as in that of the many lesser players who formed almost a cult of hero worshipers, possibly…

  • singing (music)

    Singing, the production of musical tones by means of the human voice. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply, or bellows; on the larynx, which acts as a reed or vibrator; on the chest and head cavities, which

  • singing (animal communication)

    Birdsong, certain vocalizations of birds, characteristic of males during the breeding season, for the attraction of a mate and for territorial defense. Songs tend to be more complex and longer than birdcalls, used for communication within a species. Songs are the vocalizations of birds most

  • singing arc (musical instrument)

    electronic instrument: Precursors of electronic instruments: …electric means was William Duddell’s singing arc, in which the rate of pulsation of an exposed electric arc was determined by a resonant circuit consisting of an inductor and a capacitor. Demonstrated in London in 1899, Duddell’s instrument was controlled by a keyboard, which enabled the player to change the…

  • Singing Brakeman, the (American singer)

    Jimmie Rodgers, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, one of the principal figures in the emergence of the country and western style of popular music. Rodgers, whose mother died when he was a young boy, was the son of an itinerant railroad gang foreman, and his youth was spent in a variety of

  • Singing Cowboy, the (American actor, singer, and entrepreneur)

    Gene Autry, American actor, singer, and entrepreneur who was one of Hollywood’s premier singing cowboys and the best-selling country and western recording artist of the 1930s and early ’40s. Autry, who grew up in Texas and Oklahoma, had aspired to be a singer since before he acquired a guitar at

  • Singing Detective, The (teleplay by Potter)

    English literature: Drama: …best known for his teleplay The Singing Detective (1986), deployed a wide battery of the medium’s resources, including extravagant fantasy and sequences that sarcastically counterpoint popular music with scenes of brutality, class-based callousness, and sexual rapacity. Potter’s works transmit his revulsion, semireligious in nature, at what he saw as widespread…

  • Singing Fool, The (film by Bacon [1928])

    Lloyd Bacon: Warner Brothers: Bacon then helmed The Singing Fool (1928), the follow-up to Al Jolson’s The Jazz Singer (1927), which was the first feature-length movie with synchronized dialogue and marked the ascendancy of “talkies.” In Bacon’s production, Jolson again regaled audiences with his singing, and the film was enormously popular.

  • singing gallery (architecture)

    loft: In churches the rood loft is a display gallery above the rood screen, and a choir or organ loft is a gallery reserved for church singers and musicians. In theatres a loft is the area above and behind the proscenium.

  • Singing Leaves, The (work by Peabody)

    Josephine Preston Peabody: …tour in 1902 Peabody produced The Singing Leaves (1903), a collection of poems. Her early verse shows the influences of Shakespeare, Robert Browning, and the Pre-Raphaelites, especially Christina Rossetti; it is marked by delicacy, clarity, and a certain otherworldliness. In 1906 Peabody married Lionel S. Marks, a Harvard engineering professor.…

  • Singing Nun, The (film by Koster [1966])

    Debbie Reynolds: Minnelli’s Goodbye Charlie (1964), The Singing Nun (1966), and Divorce American Style (1967), with Dick Van Dyke. In 1973 she provided the voice of the main character in the animated Charlotte’s Web. In addition to her film work, she also headlined the TV series The Debbie Reynolds Show (1969–70).…

  • singing sands (geology)

    Singing sands, sands that emit audible sounds when in motion. This phenomenon occurs in many parts of the world and has been known for many years. Sound may be produced by a footstep or by the slippage of sand downslope. The sounds emitted may vary with different sands from a roar to a musical

  • Singing Sculpture (performance piece by Gilbert & George)

    Western painting: Body and performance art: …1969 they performed their famous Singing Sculpture in various European and American locations. Wearing suits, with their faces painted gold, they stood on a table and circled robotically to a recording of Flanagan and Allen’s music-hall song “Underneath the Arches.” By the 1970s and ’80s, however, they had abandoned live…

  • Singirok, Jerry (Papuan general)

    Papua New Guinea: National politics in the 1990s: Jerry Singirok, rejected the plan, captured the mercenaries, and demanded the resignations of the prime minister, his deputy, Chris Haiveta, and the defense minister, Mathias Ijape. The Australian government voiced strong opposition to both the mercenary plan and Singirok’s methods. The controversy built to a…

  • Singitic Gulf (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of Agíou Orous, inlet of the Aegean Sea, northeastern Greece. It is the larger and deeper of two gulfs (the other being Ierisoú Gulf) that extend into the peninsula of the historical region in Greece known as Macedonia (Makedonía). The silted-up remains of a canal completed by Persian king

  • single (phonograph record)

    phonograph: …afterward RCA Corporation introduced the 45-RPM disc, which could play for up to 8 minutes per side. These LP’s and “singles” supplanted 78s in the 1950s, and stereophonic (or “stereo”) systems, with two separate channels of information in a single groove, became a commercial reality in 1958. Stereo phonographs capable…

  • single (sports)

    baseball: Getting on base: …four kinds of hits: the single, which allows the batter to reach first base; the double, in which the batter reaches second; the triple, which sees the runner reach third base; and the home run, a hit that enables the batter to circle all the bases and score a run.…

  • single bond (chemical bonding)

    covalent bond: A single line indicates a bond between two atoms (i.e., involving one electron pair), double lines (=) indicate a double bond between two atoms (i.e., involving two electron pairs), and triple lines (≡) represent a triple bond, as found, for example, in carbon monoxide (C≡O). Single…

  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961)

    drug use: International controls: …the existing treaties, and a Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was drawn up in New York in 1961. This Convention drew into one comprehensive control regime all the earlier agreements, limited the use of coca leaves and cannabis to medical and scientific needs, and paved the way for the International…

  • single crystal (crystallography)

    Single crystal, any solid object in which an orderly three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms, ions, or molecules is repeated throughout the entire volume. Certain minerals, such as quartz and the gemstones, often occur as single crystals; synthetic single crystals, especially silicon and gallium

  • single curved molding (architecture)

    molding: Single curved: (1) The cavetto is a concave molding with a profile approximately a quarter-circle, quarter-ellipse, or similar curve. (2) A scotia molding is similar to the cavetto but has a deeper concavity partially receding beyond the face of the general surface that it ornaments.…

  • single cut (diamond cutting)

    diamond cutting: Faceting: A single cut is a simple form of cutting a round diamond with only 18 facets. Any style of diamond cutting other than the round brilliant or single cuts is called a fancy cut, or fancy shape; important fancy cuts include the marquise, emerald, oval, baguette,…

  • Single Electricity Market (Irish company)

    Northern Ireland: Resources and power: Indeed, in 2007 the Single Electricity Market (SEM) began operation, providing a single wholesale market for electricity for the whole island of Ireland. The Scotland to Northern Ireland Pipeline (SNIP) transmits natural gas, providing an important industrial and domestic energy source. A gas pipeline completed in 2006 runs from…

  • single embryo transfer (medicine)

    in vitro fertilization: Ethical issues: The technique of single embryo transfer (SET) is available, though less than 10 percent of women opt for SET because it has a lower rate of success relative to multiple embryo transfer—in many cases at least two cycles of SET are necessary for success. Furthermore, many women are…

  • Single European Act (1987)

    Single European Act (SEA), agreement enacted by the European Economic Community (EEC; precursor to the European Community and, later, the European Union) that committed its member countries to a timetable for their economic merger and the establishment of a single European currency and common

  • single foot (horse gait)

    horsemanship: Other gaits: The single foot is similar to the rack. In the pace, the legs on either side move and strike the ground together in a two-beat gait. The fox trot and the amble are four-beat gaits, the latter smoother and gliding.

  • Single Integrated Operational Plan (United States warfighting plan)

    Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP), U.S. strategic war-fighting plan for the use of nuclear weapons that contains the specifics of targeting orders, scheduling, and needed weapons. The first SIOP was approved in late 1960 as an attempt to develop a more systematic approach to the various

  • Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It) (song by Beyoncé)

    Beyoncé: …hits, including the assertive “Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It),” and it contributed to Beyoncé’s dominance of the 2010 Grammy Awards. Her six awards, which included those for song of the year, best female pop vocal performance, and best contemporary R&B album, amounted to the most Grammys collected…

  • Single Man, A (film by Ford [2009])

    Tom Ford: …and his debut directorial effort, A Single Man, was released in 2009; he also penned the screenplay. The critically acclaimed drama, which was adapted from Christopher Isherwood’s novel, starred Colin Firth as a gay professor who contemplates suicide after his lover’s death. Ford next directed and wrote Nocturnal Animals (2016),…

  • Single Man, A (work by Isherwood)

    Christopher Isherwood: A Single Man (1964; film 2009), a brief but highly regarded novel, presents a single day in the life of a lonely middle-aged homosexual. His avowedly autobiographical works include a self-revealing memoir of his parents, Kathleen and Frank (1971); a retrospective biography of himself in…

  • single nucleotide polymorphism (genetics)

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), variation in a genetic sequence that affects only one of the basic building blocks—adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), or cytosine (C)—in a segment of a DNA molecule and that occurs in more than 1 percent of a population. An example of an SNP is the

  • single performance (theatre)

    theatrical production: The single performance: Single or limited performance of a presentation, as part of institutional or communal life, has been fairly common throughout the history of the theatre. The Greek city-state (polis), the medieval town, the Japanese temple, and the American high school are but a few…

  • single photon emission computed tomography (imaging technique)

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), imaging technique used in biomedical research and in diagnosis. SPECT is similar to positron emission tomography (PET), in which a compound labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide is injected into the body; however, its pictures are not as

  • single reed (wind instrument part)

    wind instrument: Flutes and reeds: The single reed for the clarinet is made from a slip cut from the stem of A. donax. After being trimmed, the reed is flattened on the inner side, while the end of the rounded outer side is scraped down to a feather edge. The thick…

  • single standard (monetary system)

    money: Standards of value: …bimetallic standard degenerated into a monometallic standard. If, for example, the quantity of silver designated as the monetary equivalent of 1 ounce of gold (15 to 1) was less than the quantity that could be purchased in the market for 1 ounce of gold (say 16 to 1), no one…

  • single tax (revenue)

    Single tax, originally a tax upon land values proposed as the sole source of government revenues, intended to replace all existing taxes. The term itself and the modern single-tax movement originated with the publication of the American economist Henry George’s Progress and Poverty in 1879. The

  • single transferable vote (politics)

    Single transferable vote (STV), multimember district proportional representation method of election in which a voter ranks candidates in order of preference. As candidates pass a specified electoral quota, they are elected and their surplus votes apportioned to the remaining candidates, until all

  • single yarn (textiles)

    textile: Single yarns: Single, or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness…

  • single-acting baking powder

    leavening agent: Single-acting baking powders, containing tartaric acid or cream of tartar, release carbon dioxide at room temperature, and mixtures in which they are used must be baked immediately to avoid loss of most of the gas. Slow-acting baking powders, containing phosphates, release part of their gas…

  • single-action accordion (musical instrument)

    accordion: …the earliest ones, are “single-action,” in which the paired reeds sound adjacent notes of the diatonic (seven-note) scale, so that a button will give, for instance, G on the press and A on the draw. With a single-action accordion, 10 buttons suffice for a range of more than two…

  • single-axle tractor (vehicle)

    tractor: The single-axle (or walking) tractor is a small tractor carried on a pair of wheels fixed to a single-drive axle; the operator usually walks behind, gripping a pair of handles. The engine is usually in front of the axle, and the tools are on a bar…

  • single-chambered eye (anatomy)

    photoreception: Single-chambered eyes: In most of the invertebrate phyla, eyes consist of a cup of dark pigment that contains anywhere from a few photoreceptors to a few hundred photoreceptors. In most pigment cup eyes there is no optical system other than the opening,…

  • single-channel analyzer (physics)

    radiation measurement: Counting systems: Alternatively, a differential discriminator (also known as a single-channel analyzer) will select only those pulses whose amplitudes lie within a preset window between a given minimum and maximum value. In this way, the accepted pulses can be restricted to those in which the charge Q from the…

  • single-copy DNA (genetics)

    heredity: Repetitive DNA: …categories of repetitive DNA: (1) single copy DNA, which contains the structural genes (protein-coding sequences), (2) families of DNA, in which one gene somehow copies itself, and the repeats are located in small clusters (tandem repeats) or spread throughout the genome (dispersed repeats), and (3) satellite DNA, which contains short…

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