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  • single-electron transistor (electronics)

    nanotechnology: Single-electron transistors: At nanoscale dimensions the energy required to add one additional electron to a “small island” (isolated physical region)—for example, through a tunneling barrier—becomes significant. This change in energy provides the basis for devising single-electron transistors. At low temperatures, where thermal fluctuations are small,…

  • single-elimination tournament (sports and games event)

    tournament: …the losers in each test eliminated and the winners paired anew until only one remains as the champion of the tournament. In some tournaments, called double-elimination tournaments, the contestant is not eliminated until defeated a second time. In a third form, called a round robin, each contestant opposes every other…

  • single-field condenser-objective lens (optics)

    electron microscope: Operating principles: …tended toward production of a single-field condenser-objective lens of low aberrations. In such a lens, the upper part acts as a condenser and the lower as the objective; the specimen is inserted into the centre of the lens, where the axial magnetic field (the field along the axis of the…

  • single-frequency plane wave (physics)

    sound: Plane waves: …a plane wave of a single frequency passing through the air. A plane wave is a wave that propagates through space as a plane, rather than as a sphere of increasing radius. As such, it is not perfectly representative of sound (see below Circular and spherical waves). A wave of…

  • single-frequency signaling

    telephone: In-band signaling: Single-frequency tones were used in the switching network to signal availability of a trunk. Once a trunk line became available, multiple-frequency tones were used to pass the address information between switches. Multiple-frequency signaling employed pairs of six tones, similar to the signaling used in Touch-Tone…

  • single-function special district (United States government)

    special district: Single-function special districts are the most common type, examples of which include school building authorities, libraries, hospitals, health, highways, air transportation, fire protection, drainage or flood control, irrigation, sewerage, solid-waste management, water supply, cemeteries, and mosquito abatement. Multifunction special districts govern parks and recreation, housing…

  • single-gene Mendelian inheritance (genetics)

    human genetic disease: Diseases associated with single-gene Mendelian inheritance: The term Mendelian is often used to denote patterns of genetic inheritance similar to those described for traits in the garden pea by Gregor Mendel in the 1860s. Disorders associated with single-gene Mendelian inheritance are typically categorized as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive,…

  • single-gene non-Mendelian inheritance (genetics)

    human genetic disease: Diseases associated with single-gene non-Mendelian inheritance: Although disorders resulting from single-gene defects that demonstrate Mendelian inheritance are perhaps better understood, it is now clear that a significant number of single-gene diseases also exhibit distinctly non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance. Among these are such disorders that result from triplet repeat…

  • single-headed drum (musical instrument)

    Native American music: Membranophones: …indigenous groups in the Americas: single-headed drums, double-headed drums, and kettledrums. Single-headed drums consist of one drum head stretched across a frame. Shallow hand drums of this type are widespread in North America; for example, Plains peoples use a single-headed drum to accompany hand games, personal songs, or curing songs.…

  • single-impression printing

    Pierre Attaingnant: …of the earliest to use single-impression printing. (Earlier printers printed the staff and the notes in separate impressions.)

  • single-key cryptography (cryptology)

    Cipher, any method of transforming a message to conceal its meaning. The term is also used synonymously with ciphertext or cryptogram in reference to the encrypted form of the message. A brief treatment of ciphers follows. For full treatment, see cryptology. All ciphers involve either transposition

  • single-leaf pi?on (tree)

    pine: Major North American pines: The single-leaf pi?on (P. monophylla) occurs sporadically through northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. The Parry pi?on (P. quadrifolia) is the four-needle pi?on of southern California and northern Baja California. Nut pine, or pinyon pine (P. edulis), is the most widely distributed tree of this…

  • single-lens reflex camera

    technology of photography: The single-lens reflex: The ground-glass screen at the back of the studio, or view, camera slows down picture taking because the screen must be replaced by the film for an exposure. The single-lens reflex camera (Figure 2) has a screen, but the film remains constantly in…

  • single-masted ship

    ship: Types of sails: …Mediterranean and the north were single-masted until about 1400 ce and likely as well to be rigged for one basic type of sail. With experience square sails replaced the simple lateen sails that were the mainstay during the Middle Ages, particularly in the Mediterranean.

  • single-mode fiber (communications technology)

    telecommunications media: Optical fibres: …type of fibre, known as single-mode (SM) fibre, eliminates multimode dispersion by reducing the diameter of the core to a point at which it passes only light rays of the zeroth order mode. Typical SM core diameters are 10 micrometres or less, while standard SI core diameters are in the…

  • single-molecule spectroscopy

    W.E. Moerner: …invented, came to be called single-molecule spectroscopy. In most chemical experiments, many molecules are studied, and the behaviour of a single molecule is inferred. However, single-molecule spectroscopy enables the study of what individual molecules are doing.

  • single-move time limit (chess)

    chess: Origin of time controls: The principle of single-move time limits was abandoned in all but postal games (in which players had a preset number of days to respond to a move) and some forms of quick or speed chess—e.g., games in which players must move every 5 or 10 seconds.

  • single-origin theory (scientific theory)

    Homo erectus: Theories of gradual change: …by supporters of the “out of Africa” hypothesis, who find the threshold concept at variance with the modern genetic theory of evolutionary change.

  • single-parent family

    family law: The one-parent family: Since the 1970s, one-parent families have acquired an importance not adequately reflected in traditional law. It may be necessary to adapt the law to a greater extent to the needs of one-parent families in areas such as the organization of family and child-welfare…

  • single-party system (politics)

    political party: Single-party systems: There have been three historical forms of the single-party system: communist, fascist, and that found in the developing countries.

  • single-patient compassionate use (medicine)

    therapeutics: Indications for use: …and sometimes referred to as single-patient compassionate use, is granted if the situation is desperate and no other treatment is available. The FDA also sometimes grants approval to acquire drugs from other countries that are not available in the United States if a life-threatening situation seems to warrant this action.…

  • single-phase induction motor

    electric motor: Single-phase induction motors: The development of a rotating field in an induction machine requires a set of currents displaced in phase (as shown in the figure) flowing in a set of stator windings that are displaced around the stator periphery. While this is straightforward where…

  • single-phase synchronous motor

    electric motor: Single-phase synchronous motors: A revolving field can be produced in synchronous motors from a single-phase source by use of the same method as for single-phase induction motors. With the main stator winding connected directly to the supply, an auxiliary winding may be connected through a…

  • single-pitch roof (construction)

    saltbox: …of the hall into a lean-to constructed at the back of the house. The pitched roof was then extended downward over the new kitchen, creating the characteristic long-in-back silhouette that gave the house its name. Late in the 17th century the lean-to was often included as part of the original…

  • single-ply roof

    construction: Enclosure systems: In recent years the single-ply roof, made of plastic membranes of various chemistries, has found wide application. The seams between the pieces of membrane are heat- or solvent-welded together, and they are either ballasted with gravel or mechanically fastened to the underlying substrate, which is usually rigid foam insulation.…

  • single-point cutting tool

    machine tool: Cutting tools: A single-point cutting tool can be used for increasing the size of holes, or boring. Turning and boring are performed on lathes and boring mills. Multiple-point cutting tools have two or more cutting edges and include milling cutters, drills, and broaches.

  • single-species hypothesis (anthropology)

    Homo sapiens: Bodily structure: …its philosophy from the “single-species hypothesis” popular in the 1960s. This hypothesis held that two kinds of culture-bearing hominins could not, on principle, exist at any one time and that, as a result, all hominin fossils had necessarily to be accommodated within a single evolving lineage. By the mid-1970s,…

  • single-stage cluster sampling (statistics)

    statistics: Sample survey methods: In single-stage cluster sampling, a simple random sample of clusters is selected, and data are collected from every unit in the sampled clusters. In two-stage cluster sampling, a simple random sample of clusters is selected and then a simple random sample is selected from the units…

  • single-stage separation (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Single-stage versus multistage processes: As shown earlier, ease of separation in equilibrium methods is based on the value of the separation factor, α. When this value is large, separation is easy, requiring little input of work. Thus, if α lies between 100 and 1,000, a…

  • single-stage-to-orbit craft

    airplane: Takeoff and landing gear: Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) aircraft can take off and land on conventional runways but can also be flown into an orbital flight path.

  • single-system recording (cinematic process)

    motion-picture technology: Double-system recording: …scene (a procedure known as single-system recording), there is greater flexibility if the sound track is recorded by a different person and on a separate unit. The main professional use for single-system recording is in filming news, where there is little time to strive for optimal sound or image quality.…

  • single-use zoning (land use)

    urban sprawl: Causes: …that weak planning laws and single-use zoning also contribute to urban sprawl.

  • single-walled carbon nanotube (chemical compound)

    fullerene: Carbon nanotubes: It was soon shown that single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) could be produced by this method if a cobalt-nickel catalyst was used. In 1996 a group led by Smalley produced SWNTs in high purity by laser vaporization of carbon impregnated with cobalt and nickel. These nanotubes are essentially elongated fullerenes.

  • single-wing formation (sports)

    Pop Warner: In the single wing the ball was snapped to a tailback lined up behind the centre about five yards deep, with the fullback, quarterback, and wingback to one side, each a little wider than the last and closer to the line. Warner generally used an unbalanced line;…

  • single-wire line (communications)

    telecommunications media: Wire media: …media found in telecommunications are single-wire lines, open-wire pairs, multipair cables, and coaxial cables. They are described below.

  • single-wire transmission line (communications)

    telecommunications media: Wire media: …media found in telecommunications are single-wire lines, open-wire pairs, multipair cables, and coaxial cables. They are described below.

  • singles (tennis)

    tennis: Principles of play: Opponents spin a racket or toss a coin to decide on side and service. The winner may decide to serve or receive service first (in which case the opponent chooses the side) or may decide on a choice of side (in which case the opponent…

  • singlestick (weapon)

    Singlestick, a slender, round stick of wood about 34 inches (slightly less than 1 m) long, thicker at one end than at the other, and used for attack and defense with the thicker end thrust through a cup-shaped hilt of basketwork to protect the hand. It originated as a practice sword in the 16th

  • singlet (physics)

    carbene: Electronic configuration and molecular structure.: …and are referred to as singlet states. In principle, carbenes can exist in either the singlet or triplet state (depending upon whether the electrons are in the same or different orbitals, respectively).

  • singlet oxygen (chemical element)

    human genetic disease: Ultraviolet radiation: …excited state, referred to as singlet oxygen, that can attack a variety of cellular compounds, including DNA. Diseases that have a photosensitizing component include lupus and porphyrias. In addition to photosensitizers that occur naturally in the human body, some foods and medicines (e.g., tetracycline) also act in this way, producing…

  • Singletary, Michael (American football player)

    Mike Singletary, American gridiron football player and coach who was the middle linebacker for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL) from 1981 to 1992. The remarkably durable Singletary played nearly every down and missed only two games in his 12-year career. Singletary’s father

  • Singletary, Mike (American football player)

    Mike Singletary, American gridiron football player and coach who was the middle linebacker for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL) from 1981 to 1992. The remarkably durable Singletary played nearly every down and missed only two games in his 12-year career. Singletary’s father

  • Singleton (New South Wales, Australia)

    Singleton, town, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the Hunter River. Founded in 1820, it was first known as St. Patrick’s Plain and then was renamed in 1822 for an early settler, Benjamin Singleton. It was proclaimed a town in 1836, became a municipality in 1866, and was

  • singleton (set theory)

    history of logic: Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF): …set (?), 1 with the singleton empty set—the set containing only the empty set—({?}), and so on.

  • Singleton, Anne (American anthropologist and author)

    Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist whose theories had a profound influence on cultural anthropology, especially in the area of culture and personality. Benedict graduated from Vassar College in 1909, lived in Europe for a year, and then settled in California, where she taught in girls’ schools.

  • Singleton, Henry Earl (American engineer)

    Henry Earl Singleton, American engineer who was the cofounder of the semiconductor maker Teledyne Inc., guided it in its growth into a hundred-company conglomerate, and invested in other enterprises; he was one of the 400 richest people in the U.S. (b. Nov. 27, 1916, Haslet, Texas—d. Aug. 31, 1999,

  • Singleton, John (American director and screenwriter)

    John Singleton, American film director and screenwriter whose films often examined urban and racial tensions. He was best known for his directorial debut, Boyz n the Hood (1991). Singleton was raised near the violence-ridden south-central section of Los Angeles. While studying screenwriting at the

  • Singleton, John Daniel (American director and screenwriter)

    John Singleton, American film director and screenwriter whose films often examined urban and racial tensions. He was best known for his directorial debut, Boyz n the Hood (1991). Singleton was raised near the violence-ridden south-central section of Los Angeles. While studying screenwriting at the

  • Singleton, Ken (American baseball player)

    Doc Rivers: …the NBA, and another cousin, Ken Singleton, was a Major League Baseball player. Rivers went on to play at Marquette University, whose then assistant coach Rick Majerus nicknamed him “Doc” because Rivers had worn a “Dr. J” T-shirt (in honour of NBA star Julius Erving) at a summer basketball camp.

  • Singleton, Penny (American actress)

    Penny Singleton, (Mariana Dorothy Agnes Letitia McNulty), American actress (born Sept. 15, 1908, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Nov. 12, 2003, Sherman Oaks, Calif.), was best known for her portrayal of the comic-strip character Blondie on the radio and in 28 films between 1938 and 1950. Later, in the 1

  • Singora (Thailand)

    Songkhla, city, southern Thailand, located on the eastern coast of peninsular Thailand. Songkhla is a port at the outlet of Luang Lagoon. It is a regional centre for the Gulf of Thailand coastal area and is commercially oriented to Malaysia and Singapore. Rubber, tin, coconuts, peanuts

  • Singpho (people)

    Himalayas: People: …Momba, the Miri, and the Singpho. Linguistically, they are Tibeto-Burman. Each group has its homeland in a distinct river valley, and all practice shifting cultivation (i.e., they grow crops on a different tract of land each year).

  • Singschule (German song schools)

    meistersinger: …be taught, these fraternities became Singschulen (“song schools”), organized like craft guilds. Their main activity became the holding—still in church—of singing competitions. Composition was restricted to fitting new words to tunes ascribed to the old masters; subject matter, metre, language, and performance were governed by an increasingly strict code of…

  • singspiel (form of opera)

    Singspiel, 18th-century opera in the German language, containing spoken dialogue and usually comic in tone. The earliest singspiels were light plays whose dialogue was interspersed with popular songs. Resembling the contemporary English ballad opera and the French opéra-comique (both of which

  • SingStar (electronic game)

    SingStar, electronic game, or karaoke video game, developed by the Sony Corporation of Japan for two of its video-game consoles: the PlayStation 2 in 2004 and the PlayStation 3 in 2007. Designed to challenge the Guitar Hero and Rock Band market for music games, SingStar allows players to download

  • Singsurat, Medgoen (Thai boxer)

    Manny Pacquiao: …he lost the title to Medgoen Singsurat of Thailand in September 1999. Pacquiao moved up in weight class, and on June 23, 2001, in his first fight in the United States, he scored a sixth-round knockout of Lehlo Ledwaba to win the International Boxing Federation (IBF) junior featherweight title. Following…

  • Singui Matu (Shandong, China)

    Jining, city, southwestern Shandong sheng (province), China. In early times the seat of the state of Ren, it later became a part of the state of Qi, which flourished in the Zhou period (1046–256 bce). It underwent many changes of name and administrative status. The present name, Jining, first

  • singular integral (mathematics)

    Singular solution, in mathematics, solution of a differential equation that cannot be obtained from the general solution gotten by the usual method of solving the differential equation. When a differential equation is solved, a general solution consisting of a family of curves is obtained. For

  • singular point (complex functions)

    Singularity, of a function of the complex variable z is a point at which it is not analytic (that is, the function cannot be expressed as an infinite series in powers of z) although, at points arbitrarily close to the singularity, the function may be analytic, in which case it is called an isolated

  • singular proposition (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: Sometimes, and very often in the Prior Analytics, Aristotle adopted alternative but equivalent formulations. Instead of…

  • singular solution (mathematics)

    Singular solution, in mathematics, solution of a differential equation that cannot be obtained from the general solution gotten by the usual method of solving the differential equation. When a differential equation is solved, a general solution consisting of a family of curves is obtained. For

  • singularity (complex functions)

    Singularity, of a function of the complex variable z is a point at which it is not analytic (that is, the function cannot be expressed as an infinite series in powers of z) although, at points arbitrarily close to the singularity, the function may be analytic, in which case it is called an isolated

  • singularity (astronomy)

    black hole: …and infinite density called the singularity.

  • singularity (technology)

    Singularity, theoretical condition that could arrive in the near future when a synthesis of several powerful new technologies will radically change the realities in which we find ourselves in an unpredictable manner. Most notably, the singularity would involve computer programs becoming so advanced

  • Sinha, Satyendra Prassano, 1st Baron Sinha of Raipur (Indian statesman)

    Satyendra Prassano Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha of Raipur, Indian lawyer and statesman who had an extremely successful legal career, won high esteem in Indian nationalist circles, and was appointed to high office under the British government. Sinha was educated at the Presidency College, Calcutta (now

  • Sinha, Yashwant (Indian bureaucrat, politician, and government official)

    Yashwant Sinha, Indian bureaucrat, politician, and government official who rose to become a leading figure in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of India and twice served (1990–91 and 1998–2004) as a cabinet minister in the Indian government. Sinha was raised in a middle-class family in Patna in what

  • Sinhala

    Sinhalese language, Indo-Aryan language, one of the two official languages of Sri Lanka. It was taken there by colonists from northern India about the 5th century bc. Because of its isolation from the other Indo-Aryan tongues of mainland India, Sinhalese developed along independent lines. It was

  • Sinhala Maha Sabha (Ceylonese political group)

    Sinhala Maha Sabha, political group in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) that was founded in 1937 by S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike. It was a communally oriented group and promoted the interests of the Sinhalese sector of the population and of Buddhism. In 1945 Bandaranaike threw the support of the Sabha behind the

  • Sinhala Only Bill (1956, Sri Lanka)

    Sinhala Only Bill, (1956), act passed by the government of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) making Sinhalese the official language of the country. The bill was the first step taken by the new government of S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike to realize one of the main campaign promises that had brought about his landslide

  • Sinhalese (people)

    Sinhalese, member of a people of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) who constitute the largest ethnic group of that island. In the early 21st century the Sinhalese were estimated to number about 13.8 million, or 73 percent of the population. Their ancestors are believed to have come from northern India,

  • Sinhalese language

    Sinhalese language, Indo-Aryan language, one of the two official languages of Sri Lanka. It was taken there by colonists from northern India about the 5th century bc. Because of its isolation from the other Indo-Aryan tongues of mainland India, Sinhalese developed along independent lines. It was

  • Sinhalese literature

    South Asian arts: Sinhalese literature: 10th century ad to 19th century: The island nation of Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka), formally a part of South Asia, has been little noticed by the subcontinent, apart from the fact that according to an uncertain tradition it is celebrated in the…

  • Sinian sequence (geology)

    Precambrian: Orogenic belts: The Sinian sequence in China extends from 800 to 570 million years ago, toward the end of the Precambrian time. The sediments are terrigenous debris characterized by conglomerates, sandstone, siltstone, and shale, some of which are oxidized red beds, along with stromatolite-rich dolomite. Total thicknesses reach…

  • Siniavsky, Andrey Donatovich (Russian writer)

    Andrey Donatovich Sinyavsky, Russian critic and author of novels and short stories who was convicted of subversion by the Soviet government in 1966. Sinyavsky graduated from Moscow University in 1952 and later joined the faculty of the Gorky Institute of World Literature. He contributed to the

  • Sinica, Academia (academy, Shanghai, China)

    Shanghai: Education: Chinese Academy of Sciences, China’s leading scientific research and development body, is located in Shanghai. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), practical applications of scientific work in agriculture and industry were encouraged. Since the late 1970s, extensive research investments have been made in such high-technology areas…

  • Sinigaglia (Italy)

    Senigallia, town and episcopal see, Marche regione, central Italy. Senigallia lies along the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Misa River. Founded by the Senonian Gauls in the 6th century bc, it became the Roman colony of Sena Gallica in 289 bc. In the 6th century it was one of the five cities of

  • Sining (China)

    Xining, city and capital of Qinghai sheng (province), western interior of China. Located in the eastern part of the province, it is situated in a fertile mountain basin in the valley of the Huang River (Huang Shui), a tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). The city lies about 60 miles (95 km)

  • Siniolchu (mountain, Asia)

    mountaineering: History: …a German party succeeded on Siniolchu (22,600 feet [6,888 metres]) in 1936, and the English climbed Nanda Devi (25,646 feet [7,817 metres]) the same year. In 1940–47The Alpine Journal of London, a reliable chronicler of ascents, listed for the first time no peaks ascended—a reflection, of course, of the imperatives…

  • Siniora, Fouad (prime minister of Lebanon)

    Saad al-Hariri: Education and early career: …prime minister; instead, he supported Fouad Siniora, a former finance minister and close ally of his father, for the position.

  • Siniora, Fuad (prime minister of Lebanon)

    Saad al-Hariri: Education and early career: …prime minister; instead, he supported Fouad Siniora, a former finance minister and close ally of his father, for the position.

  • Sinis (Greek mythology)

    Theseus: …Isthmus of Corinth he killed Sinis, called the Pine Bender because he killed his victims by tearing them apart between two pine trees. After that Theseus dispatched the Crommyonian sow (or boar). Then from a cliff he flung the wicked Sciron, who had kicked his guests into the sea while…

  • Sinise, Gary (American actor)

    Forrest Gump: …commanding officer, Lieutenant Dan (Gary Sinise). However, Bubba is killed, and Gump saves Lieutenant Dan in a battle in which Dan loses his legs and Gump is wounded. Gump is awarded the Medal of Honor. While he is recuperating, he learns to play table tennis well enough to defeat…

  • sinister (heraldry)

    heraldry: The elements and grammar of heraldic design: The terms dexter and sinister mean merely “right” and “left.” A shield is understood to be as if held by a user whom the beholder is facing. Thus the side of the shield facing the beholder’s left is the dexter, or right-hand side, and that opposite it is the…

  • Sinitic languages

    Chinese languages, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a

  • Sinjār Mountains (mountains, Iraq)

    Iraq: Al-Jazīrah: …prominent hill range is the Sinjār Mountains, whose highest peak reaches an elevation of 4,448 feet (1,356 metres). The main watercourse is the Wadi Al-Tharthār, which runs southward for 130 miles (210 km) from the Sinjār Mountains to the Tharthār (Salt) Depression. Mil?at Ashqar is the largest of several salt…

  • Sinjibu (Turkish leader)

    ancient Iran: Conflicts with the Turks and Byzantium: …with a Turkish leader called Sinjibu (Silzibul), Khosrow was able to inflict a decisive defeat on the Hephthalites, after which event a common frontier between the Turkish and Sāsānian empires was established. Inevitably, this alliance became a source of possible friction, and the Turks sometimes acted as an ally of…

  • Sinjohn, John (British writer)

    John Galsworthy, English novelist and playwright, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932. Galsworthy’s family, of Devonshire farming stock traceable to the 16th century, had made a comfortable fortune in property in the 19th century. His father was a solicitor. Educated at Harrow and New

  • sink (atmospheric science)

    evolution of the atmosphere: Processes: …the atmosphere, is called a sink.

  • sink (biology)

    angiosperm: Process of phloem transport: …sugars from sieve tubes in sink regions—i.e., those in which sugars are removed or imported for growth and storage—lowers it. Thus a pressure gradient from the area of photosynthesis (source) to the region of growth or storage (sink) is established in sieve tubes that would allow solution flow. The electroosmotic…

  • sink (geology)

    Sinkhole, topographic depression formed when underlying limestone bedrock is dissolved by groundwater. It is considered the most-fundamental structure of karst topography. Sinkholes vary greatly in area and depth and may be very large. There are two main varieties, one caused by the collapse of the

  • sink-and-float separation

    mineral processing: Gravity separation: In heavy-media separation (also called sink-and-float separation), the medium used is a suspension in water of a finely ground heavy mineral (such as magnetite or arsenopyrite) or technical product (such as ferrosilicon). Such a suspension can simulate a fluid with a higher density than water. When…

  • Sinkaietk (people)

    Plateau Indian: Language: …area and include the Okanagan, Sinkaietk, Lake, Wenatchee, Sanpoil, Nespelim, Spokan, Kalispel, Pend d’Oreille, Coeur d’Alene, and Flathead peoples. Some early works

  • sinker (fishing tackle)

    fishing: Methods: …with what is called a ledger in Britain and a sinker in the United States, usually of lead. In this type of fishing, the angler simply holds the rod or lays it down and waits for the telltale tug of the fish to be transmitted through the line. Bait may…

  • sinkhole (geology)

    Sinkhole, topographic depression formed when underlying limestone bedrock is dissolved by groundwater. It is considered the most-fundamental structure of karst topography. Sinkholes vary greatly in area and depth and may be very large. There are two main varieties, one caused by the collapse of the

  • Sinkholes: The Human Impact

    Sinkholes appeared prominently in the news in 2013, in part because of the tragic death of Jeff Bush, a suburban Tampa, Fla., man who was swallowed up when a sinkhole formed directly beneath his bedroom. This incident was followed by several others in Pennsylvania, Illinois, Massachusetts, and

  • Sinkin’ in the Bathtub (cartoon by Harman and Ising)

    Looney Tunes: …first animated film for Schlesinger, Sinkin’ in the Bathtub (1930), featured Bosko, a wide-eyed character that bore an uncanny resemblance to Otto Messmer’s Felix the Cat. Sinkin’ in the Bathtub’s bawdy humour was a hit with moviegoers, and the cartoon concluded with Bosko addressing the audience with a phrase that…

  • sinking fund (finance)

    Sinking fund, fund accumulated and set aside by a corporation or government agency for the purpose of periodically redeeming bonds, debentures, and preferred stocks. The fund is accumulated from earnings, and payments into the fund may be based on either a fixed percentage of the outstanding debt

  • Sinking of the Lusitania, The (animated film by McCay)

    Winsor McCay: …produce another animated film until The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918), which was one of the first films to utilize cel animation—the process in which individual elements of a scene are drawn on clear celluloid sheets rather than paper, which thereby eliminates the need for multiple drawings of backgrounds and…

  • Sinking of the Sewol, The

    On April 16, 2014, the South Korean ferry Sewol, traveling its usual route from the port city of Inchon to the resort island of Jeju and carrying 476 passengers and crew, unexpectedly began listing to port and within two and a half hours was completely submerged. Of the 304 people who died on the

  • Sinking of the Titanic: The 100th Anniversary, The

    The year 2012 marked the 100-year anniversary of the sinking on April 14–15, 1912, of the British luxury passenger liner Titanic. The Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Titanic sank during its maiden voyage, en route to New York City from Southampton, Eng., killing more than 1,500 passengers and ship personnel.

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