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  • sinking stage (mining)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Shaft sinking and drilling: …per day by utilizing a sinking stage of multiple platforms, which permits concurrent excavation and concrete lining. Excavation is by drilling and blasting with muck loaded into large buckets, with larger shafts operating four buckets alternately in hoisting wells extending through the platforms. Grouting is carried a few hundred feet…

  • Sinn Féin (political party, Ireland and United Kingdom)

    Sinn Féin, (Irish: “We Ourselves” or “Ourselves Alone”) political party that long was widely regarded as the political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), though from at least the 1990s both organizations emphasized their separateness. Organized in Northern Ireland and the Republic

  • Sinn Féin Pairti na nOibri (political party, Ireland and United Kingdom)

    Sinn Féin, (Irish: “We Ourselves” or “Ourselves Alone”) political party that long was widely regarded as the political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), though from at least the 1990s both organizations emphasized their separateness. Organized in Northern Ireland and the Republic

  • Sinn Féin The Workers (political party, Ireland and United Kingdom)

    Sinn Féin, (Irish: “We Ourselves” or “Ourselves Alone”) political party that long was widely regarded as the political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), though from at least the 1990s both organizations emphasized their separateness. Organized in Northern Ireland and the Republic

  • Sinn Féin–the Workers’ Party (political party, Ireland and United Kingdom)

    Sinn Féin, (Irish: “We Ourselves” or “Ourselves Alone”) political party that long was widely regarded as the political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), though from at least the 1990s both organizations emphasized their separateness. Organized in Northern Ireland and the Republic

  • Sinn und Form (German magazine)

    history of publishing: Continental Europe: Sinn und Form (founded 1949), a Marxist critical journal in Berlin, was subject to temporary suspensions for publishing such authors as Sartre, Kafka, and Hemingway, whose works had been banned in East Germany.

  • Sinne- en minnebeelden (work by Cats)

    Jacob Cats: His first book, Sinne- en minnebeelden (1618; “Portaits of Morality and Love”), contained engravings with text in Dutch, Latin, and French. Each picture has a threefold interpretation, expressing what were for Cats the three elements of human life: love, society, and religion. Perhaps his most famous emblem book…

  • Sinnepoppen (work by Roemer Visscher)

    Roemer Visscher: Visscher’s other main work, Sinnepoppen (1614; “Emblems”), is a collection of short moral pieces, again showing the writer’s preference for essentially Dutch themes and objects.

  • Sinners in Paradise (film by Whale [1938])

    James Whale: Films of the later 1930s: Sinners in Paradise (1938) was a tepid melodrama about a group of plane-crash survivors—each of them carrying a dark secret—stuck on a mysterious island.

  • Sinningia (plant)

    Gloxinia, (Sinningia speciosa), perennial flowering plant of the family Gesneriaceae. Gloxinias are native to Brazil and are now widely cultivated as garden and house plants. They grow 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) in height and produce large, tubular or bell-shaped flowers surrounded by attractive

  • Sinningia speciosa (plant)

    gloxinia: S. speciosa should not be confused with the genus Gloxinia, which contains about 15 species of plants that also belong to the family Gesneriaceae but are of lesser horticultural interest.

  • Sinnott, Michael (Canadian-American director and producer)

    Mack Sennett, creator of the Keystone Kops and the father of American slapstick comedy in motion pictures. A master of comic timing and effective editing, Sennett was a dominant figure in the silent era of Hollywood film production and was the first director of comedies to develop a distinctive

  • Sino-Austric languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: …based on premature speculations, is Sino-Austric. Yet other scholars see a relationship of Sino-Tibetan with the Athabaskan and other languages of North America, but proof of this is beyond reach at the present state of knowledge.

  • Sino-British supplementary treaty (1843)

    capitulation: …and such treaties as the Sino-British supplementary treaty (1843) and its later modifying enactments set up a system of provincial courts and a British supreme court in China to try all cases involving British subjects but granted no corresponding rights to Chinese residents in Britain.

  • Sino-French War (1883–1885)

    Sino-French War, conflict between China and France in 1883–85 over Vietnam, which disclosed the inadequacy of China’s modernization efforts and aroused nationalistic sentiment in southern China. The French had already begun to encroach on Vietnam, China’s major protectorate in the south, and by

  • Sino-Indian region (faunal region)

    Asia: The Oriental region: The greater part of the Oriental region is tropical. The northwestern part is dry and partly desert, so animal life is chiefly confined to the forms related to those of the dry parts of the Ethiopian and Palearctic regions. Elsewhere, monkeys are…

  • Sino-Indian War (1962)

    Aksai Chin: …the factors leading to sharp border clashes between the two countries in 1962. At the conclusion of the conflict, China retained control of about 14,700 square miles (38,000 square km) of territory in Aksai Chin. The area remained a point of contention between the two countries.

  • Sino-Japanese region (biogeography)

    biogeographic region: East Asian region: The East Asian, or Sino-Japanese, region, which has about 300 endemic genera, extends from the slopes of the eastern Himalayas into northeastern China and the Russian Far East, including Taiwan, Japan, and Sakhalin Island (Figure 1). In this region, tropical rainforest to…

  • Sino-Japanese War, First (1894–1895)

    First Sino-Japanese War, conflict between Japan and China in 1894–95 that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea. Korea had long been China’s most

  • Sino-Japanese War, Second (1937–1945)

    Second Sino-Japanese War, (1937–45), conflict that broke out when China began a full-scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory (which had begun in 1931). The war, which remained undeclared until December 9, 1941, may be divided into three phases: a period of rapid

  • Sino-Korean paraplatform (geological formation)

    Asia: Chronological summary: In the North China paraplatform, Chinese geologists have identified a period of intense island-arc magmatism (a process by which molten rock, often formed by the melting of subducted oceanic crust, rises and solidifies to form igneous rock) between 3.5 and 3 billion years ago. Those arcs then…

  • Sino-Soviet dispute (political history)

    20th-century international relations: The Sino-Soviet split: A still more energetic U.S. riposte would await the end of Eisenhower’s term, but “Mr. Khrushchev’s boomerang” (as Dulles termed Sputnik) had an immediate and disastrous impact on Soviet relations with the other Communist giant, China. Under their 1950 treaty of friendship, solidarity,…

  • Sino-Soviet Friendship Association

    education: Education under communism: …the Soviet model was the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association (SSFA), inaugurated in October 1949, immediately after the new regime was proclaimed. Headed by no less a personage than Liu Shaoqi—the second highest Chinese Communist Party leader—the association extended its activities to all parts of the country, with branch organizations in schools,…

  • Sino-Soviet Treaty (1945)

    Chinese Eastern Railway: …Kai-shek’s Nationalist government negotiated the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Aug. 14, 1945, in which the Soviet Union agreed that it would not support the Communists in the Chinese civil war, receiving, in return, partnership in the Chinese Eastern Railway for a 30-year period. In 1953, however, the Soviet Union returned its…

  • Sino-Swedish expedition (1927–1933)

    Sven Anders Hedin: …initiate and conduct the important Sino-Swedish expedition of 1927–33, which located 327 archaeological sites between Manchuria and Xinjiang (westernmost China) and disclosed an extensive Stone Age culture in present-day desert and steppe areas. Signs of Old Stone Age culture were found, and artifacts from later Stone Age periods evidenced a…

  • Sino-Tibetan Chain (mountains, China)

    Daxue Mountains, great mountain range in western Sichuan province, southwestern China. These enormously high and rugged mountains were formed around the eastern flank of the ancient stable block of the Plateau of Tibet; their formation occurred during successive foldings that took place in the

  • Sino-Tibetan languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages, group of languages that includes both the Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages. In terms of numbers of speakers, they constitute the world’s second largest language family (after Indo-European), including more than 300 languages and major dialects. In a wider sense,

  • Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus (work by Benedict)

    Tibeto-Burman languages: History of scholarship: …an unpublished manuscript titled “Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus” (henceforth referred to as the Conspectus) in the early 1940s. In that work he adopted a more modest approach to supergrouping and subgrouping, stressing that many TB languages had so far resisted precise classification. Benedict’s structural insight enabled him to formulate sound…

  • Sino-Vietnamese War (1979)

    20th-century international relations: American uncertainty: …February 1979, its forces invaded Vietnam in strength. The Carter administration felt obliged to favour China (especially given residual American hostility to North Vietnam) and supported Peking’s offer to evacuate Vietnam only when Vietnam evacuated Cambodia. The Soviets reacted with threats against China, but Chinese forces performed abysmally even against…

  • sinoatrial node (nerve bundle)

    mammal: Circulatory system: …of specialized cells called the sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium near the junction with the venae cavae. A wave of excitation spreads from this node to the atrioventricular node, which is located in the right atrium near the base of the interatrial septum. From this point excitation is…

  • Sinocalycanthus (plant genus)

    Laurales: Distribution and abundance: …United States, and Chimonanthus and Sinocalycanthus occur in China. The single species of Idiospermum is a very rare evergreen species from Queensland, Austl. Gomortegaceae, or the queule family, consists of a single species, Gomortega keule, which is a rare species native to central Chile.

  • Sinofsky, Bruce (American director)

    West Memphis Three: Paradise Lost and prison release: …of filmmakers Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky, and their resulting documentary, Paradise Lost: The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills, aired on HBO in 1996. It raised serious doubts about the guilt of Echols, Baldwin, and Misskelley, and it brought national awareness to the three men, who had become known…

  • Sinoia (Zimbabwe)

    Chinhoyi, town, north-central Zimbabwe. It lies west of the Hunyani River and Falls and is located on highway and rail routes to the national capital, Harare (formerly Salisbury), and to Lusaka, Zambia. Chinhoyi is the centre of a productive agricultural area (tobacco, corn [maize], cattle) and a

  • Sinold von Schütz, Philipp Balthasar (German writer)

    encyclopaedia: Encyclopaedic dictionaries: …history, whereas the German writer Philipp Balthasar Sinold von Schütz’s Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon (“Lexicon of Government and News”) concentrated on geography, theology, politics, and contemporary history and had to be supplemented by the German economist Paul Jacob Marperger’s Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerk-, und Handlungslexikon (1712; “Curious Natural, Artistic,…

  • Sinon (Greek mythology)

    Trojan horse: …island of Tenedos, leaving behind Sinon, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (goddess of war) that would make Troy impregnable. Despite the warnings of Laoco?n and Cassandra, the horse was taken inside the city gates. That night Greek warriors emerged from it and opened…

  • Sinonatrix (reptile genus)

    water snake: …species of Asiatic water snakes, Sinonatrix, which may be closely related to Nerodia, are more aquatic than Natrix and are found throughout Southeast Asia, southern China, and parts of Indonesia. Sinonatrix typically grows to a length of about 1 metre (3 feet) and principally feeds upon fish. S. annularis, the…

  • Sinop (Turkey)

    Sinop, seaport on the southern coast of the Black Sea, northern Turkey. It lies on an isthmus linking the Boztepe Peninsula to the mainland and is shut off from the Anatolian Plateau to the south by high, forest-clad mountains. Because it has the only safe natural roadstead on the north coast of

  • Sinope (Turkey)

    Sinop, seaport on the southern coast of the Black Sea, northern Turkey. It lies on an isthmus linking the Boztepe Peninsula to the mainland and is shut off from the Anatolian Plateau to the south by high, forest-clad mountains. Because it has the only safe natural roadstead on the north coast of

  • Sinope (astronomy)

    Jupiter: Other satellites: Carme, Pasiphae, and Sinope— has retrograde orbits around Jupiter. The closer group—Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, and Elara—has prograde orbits. (In the case of these moons, retrograde motion is in the direction opposite to Jupiter’s spin and motion around the Sun, which are counterclockwise as viewed from above Jupiter’s north…

  • Sinope fragment (biblical manuscript)
  • Sinope, Battle of (Crimean War)

    naval warfare: The age of steam and big gun: …the Crimean War by the Battle of Sinope, November 30, 1853) compelled navies to adopt the iron sheathing of hulls. This pointed the way to all-metal hulls (iron, then steel), which in turn both permitted and demanded as a response the installation of rifled, breech-loaded guns of major calibre. Concurrently,…

  • sinopia (art history)

    drawing: With sinopia—the preliminary sketch found on a layer of its own on the wall underneath the fresco, or painting on freshly spread, moist plaster—one reaches the point at which a work that merely served as technical preparation becomes a formal drawing expressing an artistic intention.

  • Sinopoli, Giuseppe (Italian composer and conductor)

    Giuseppe Sinopoli, Italian conductor and composer (born Nov. 2, 1946, Venice, Italy—died April 20, 2001, Berlin, Ger.), performed with an intensity and daring that made him one of Europe’s most controversial orchestra leaders. Sinopoli simultaneously studied medicine, psychiatry, and anthropology a

  • Sinornis santensis (fossil bird)

    Paul Sereno: …able to reconstruct the dinosaur-like Sinornis santensis, thought to be among the first birds capable of sustained flight, from 135 million-year-old remains sent to him by a Chinese colleague in 1990.

  • Sinosauropteryx (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: Dinosaur descendants: …known in a compsognathid (Sinosauropteryx), a therizinosaurid (Beipiaosaurus), a dromaeosaur (Sinornithosaurus), and an alvarezsaurid (Shuvuuia). The filamentous structures on the skin of Sinosauropteryx are similar to the barbs of feathers, which suggests that feathers evolved from a much simpler structure that probably functioned as an insulator. True feathers of…

  • Sinowatz, Fred (chancellor of Austria)

    Austria: Restoration of sovereignty: …and the Socialists, under Chancellor Fred Sinowatz, entered into a coalition with the Freedom Party. The coalition stumbled from one scandal to another until it was finally brought down by the election of Kurt Waldheim, who was alleged to have been a Nazi war criminal, as president in 1986. Although…

  • Sinox (chemical compound)

    herbicide: History: Sinox, the first major organic chemical herbicide, was developed in France in 1896. In the late 1940s new herbicides were developed out of the research during World War II, and the era of the “miracle” weed killers began. Within 20 years over 100 new chemicals…

  • Sinqu River (river, Africa)

    Orange River: Physiography: …is officially recognized as the Sinqu (Senqu) River, which rises near the plateau’s eastern edge. The Seati (Khubedu) headwater rises near Mont-aux-Sources to the north. Still farther north is the lesser-known Malibamatso headwater, one site of the Lesotho Highland Project. The Lesotho headwaters flow over the turf soil that covers…

  • Sins of Lola Montes, The (film by Ophüls [1955])

    Max Ophüls: …Earrings of Madame De), and Lola Montès (1955; The Sins of Lola Montes). Despite a weak performance by Martine Carol in the title role, and despite the fact that a heavily edited version of the film is the most common, many critics cite Lola Montès as one of the greatest…

  • Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne’s Psychological Themes, The (work by Crews)

    Frederick C. Crews: …notice in academic circles with The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne’s Psychological Themes (1966), a book of criticism in which he claimed that Nathaniel Hawthorne’s work has little value unless read on a Freudian level. His implication that Hawthorne’s writing was merely a product of repressed impulses was a source…

  • sinsos?l (Korean literature)

    Korean literature: Transitional literature: 1894–1910: …the 1894 reforms were the sinsos?l (“new novel”) and the ch’angga (“song”). These transitional literary forms were stimulated by the adaptation of foreign literary works and the rewriting of traditional stories in the vernacular. The ch’angga, which evolved from hymns sung at churches and schools in the 1890s, became popular…

  • Sint Aldegonde, Philips van Marnix, heer van (Dutch theologian)

    Philips van Marnix, Heer Van Sint Aldegonde, Dutch theologian and poet whose translation of the Psalms is considered the high point of religious literature in 16th-century Holland. In exile (1568–72) and a prisoner of the Roman Catholics (1573–74), Marnix was in the thick of the political and

  • Sint Anna Baai (bay, Cura?ao)

    Sint Anna Bay, deep channel separating the two parts of Willemstad, capital of Cura?ao. The bay is a narrow waterway, about 1 mile (1.6 km) long and 300 to 1,000 feet (90 to 300 metres) wide. The south end opens into the Caribbean Sea, and the north end opens up into the Schottegat—a giant, deep

  • Sint Anna Bay (bay, Cura?ao)

    Sint Anna Bay, deep channel separating the two parts of Willemstad, capital of Cura?ao. The bay is a narrow waterway, about 1 mile (1.6 km) long and 300 to 1,000 feet (90 to 300 metres) wide. The south end opens into the Caribbean Sea, and the north end opens up into the Schottegat—a giant, deep

  • Sint Eustatius (island and Dutch special municipality, West Indies)

    Sint Eustatius, island and special municipality within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is in the Lesser Antilles, in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, about 16 miles (26 km) southeast of Saba and 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the island of Saint Kitts. Its capital is Oranjestad. Sint Eustatius

  • Sint Maarten (Dutch dependency, West Indies)

    Sint Maarten, country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Lesser Antilles, northeastern Caribbean Sea. It occupies the southern third of the island of Saint Martin. The northern two-thirds of the island constitutes the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin. The capital of Sint

  • Sint Maarten (island, West Indies)

    Saint Martin, island, lying at the northern end of the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The island extends about 12 miles (19 km) from north to south and about the same distance from east to west, including a narrow looping sand spit that extends westward from

  • Sint Maarten, flag of (Netherlands territorial flag)

    Netherlands territorial flag consisting of two equal horizontal stripes, red above blue, and at the hoist a white triangle containing, as an emblem, the coat of arms of Sint Maarten. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2:3.Sint Maarten, as a Dutch possession on the island of Saint Martin, had been

  • Sint Nicolaas (Aruba)

    San Nicolas, town, southeastern end of the island of Aruba, West Indies, in the southern Caribbean Sea. Its deepwater port, with facilities for cargo handling and fuel bunkering, serves a nearby oil refinery. Near San Nicolas is the coastal village of Sabaneta, which, under the name

  • Sint Nicolaas Church (church, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam: City development: Sint Nicolaas Church (1886), the Beurs (Stock Exchange; 1903), and the Shipping House (1916) date from this period, as do the Rijksmuseum (1876–85), the Concertgebouw (Concert Hall; 1888), the Stedelijk Museum (1895), the Olympic Stadium (1928), and the Amstel Station (1939).

  • Sint-Jans-Molenbeek (Belgium)

    Brussels: People: …notably in the communes of Molenbeek-Saint-Jean (Flemish: Sint-Jans-Molenbeek), Saint-Gilles (Sint-Gillis), Schaerbeek (Schaarbeek), and Saint-Josse-ten-Noode (Sint-Joost-ten-Node). All these immigrant groups brought increased ethnic and religious diversity to the historically Roman Catholic city. Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, for example, boasts an important Turkish community, and Schaerbeek has a relatively large number of mosques and

  • Sint-Joost-ten-Node (Belgium)

    Brussels: People: Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, for example, boasts an important Turkish community, and Schaerbeek has a relatively large number of mosques and several Eastern Orthodox churches. Geographic segregation, economic disparity, and, on the part of some groups, a lack of assimilation into Belgian society occasionally have contributed to tensions…

  • Síntagma Square (square, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: The city plan: …palace, a large garden square, Síntagma (Constitution) Square, was laid out. Today it is garnished in the tourist season with some of Europe’s most luxurious cafe chairs, and at all seasons it is hemmed in by tall new buildings and elderly luxury hotels. Broad avenues were created and are still…

  • Sintaxis (work by Maderna)

    Bruno Maderna: …Notturno for tape (1956) and Sintaxis for four different, unspecified electronic timbres (tone colours) display his interest in new sonorities. His oboe concerto (1962) reveals a more conventional viewpoint, although even in this he made use of small-scale aleatory (chance and improvisatory) operations.

  • Sinte-galeshka (Sioux leader)

    Spotted Tail, chief of the Brule Teton Indians and, briefly, the Oglala Sioux who sought compromise and accommodation with the invading whites. Spotted Tail was not a member of a ruling family, but he won the chieftainship over the hereditary claimant on the basis of his prowess as a warrior. In

  • sinter (mineral)

    Sinter, mineral deposit with a porous or vesicular texture (having small cavities). At least two kinds are recognized: siliceous and calcareous. Siliceous sinter (geyserite; fiorite) is a deposit of opaline or amorphous silica that occurs as an incrustation around hot springs and geysers and

  • sintering (metallurgy)

    Sintering, the welding together of small particles of metal by applying heat below the melting point. The process may be used in steel manufacturing—to form complex shapes, to produce alloys, or to work in metals with very high melting points. In a steel-sintering plant a bed of powdered iron ore,

  • sintering machine (metallurgy)

    Sintering, the welding together of small particles of metal by applying heat below the melting point. The process may be used in steel manufacturing—to form complex shapes, to produce alloys, or to work in metals with very high melting points. In a steel-sintering plant a bed of powdered iron ore,

  • Sinterklaas (legendary figure)

    Santa Claus, legendary figure who is the traditional patron of Christmas in the United States and other countries, bringing gifts to children. His popular image is based on traditions associated with Saint Nicholas, a 4th-century Christian saint. Father Christmas fills the role in many European

  • Sinti (Roma confederation)

    Roma: …of entertainment), and (3) the Manush (French Manouches, also known as Sinti, mostly in Alsace and other regions of France and Germany, often traveling showmen and circus people). Each of these main divisions was further divided into two or more subgroups distinguished by occupational specialization or territorial origin or both.

  • Sinti (people)

    Roma, an ethnic group of traditionally itinerant people who originated in northern India but live in modern times worldwide, principally in Europe. Most Roma speak some form of Romany, a language closely related to the modern Indo-European languages of northern India, as well as the major language

  • Sintra (Portugal)

    Sintra, town, western Portugal. It is located about 15 miles (24 km) west-northwest of Lisbon. The town constitutes three parishes of Lisbon (Santa Maria e S?o Miguel, S?o Martinho, and S?o Pedro de Pennaferrim) and is within the much larger Sintra concelho (municipality). Sintra is picturesquely

  • Sintra Mountains (mountain range, Portugal)

    Sintra Mountains, mountain range, Lisboa distrito (“district”), western Portugal. It extends about 10 miles (16 km) from the resort of Sintra to the Cape da Roca on the Atlantic Ocean, reaching its highest point (1,736 feet [529 m]) just south of Sintra. The lush vegetation (both Mediterranean and

  • Sintra, Convention of (European history [1808])

    honour: …the Peninsular War, at the Convention of Cintra (1808), the French army under Andoche Junot was conveyed to France by British transports before being free to rejoin the combatant troops in the peninsula. By far the most usual case of the granting of the honours of war is in connection…

  • Sintra, Pedro de (Portuguese explorer)

    Liberia: History: …began with a Portuguese sailor, Pedro de Sintra, who reached the Liberian coast in 1461. Subsequent Portuguese explorers named Grand Cape Mount, Cape Mesurado (Montserrado), and Cape Palmas, all prominent coastal features. The area became known as the Grain Coast because grains of Melegueta pepper, then as valuable as gold,…

  • Sinuhe (Egyptian official)

    Sinuhe, protagonist of a literary tale set in the early 12th dynasty (1938–c. 1756 bce) who fled Egypt to settle in Syria. His story yields information about political and social conditions of the time. Sinuhe was an official of the harem maintained for Amenemhet I by his queen. While on an

  • Sinuhe, egyptil?inen (novel by Waltari)

    The Egyptian, historical novel by Mika Waltari, published in Finnish in 1945 as Sinuhe, egyptil?inen. The novel is set in Egypt during the 18th dynasty when Akhenaton, who ruled from 1353 to 1336 bce, established a new monotheistic cult. Narrated by its protagonist, a physician named Sinuhe who is

  • Sin?iju (North Korea)

    Sin?iju, city, capital of North P’y?ngan do (province), northwestern North Korea. It was developed during the Japanese occupation (1910–45) at the Korean terminus of a railway bridge across the Yalu (Amnok) River, 7 miles (11 km) west of the old city of ?iju (Sin?iju means “New ?iju”). An open port

  • sinuous rille (lunar feature)

    Moon: Effects of impacts and volcanism: …long, winding channel, called a sinuous rille, emerged to flow across the mare. Other sinuous rilles are found nearby, including the largest one on the Moon, discovered by the German astronomer Johann Schr?ter in 1787. Named in his honour, Schr?ter’s Valley is a deep, winding channel, hundreds of kilometres long,…

  • sinus (anatomy)

    Sinus, in anatomy, a hollow, cavity, recess, or pocket; a large channel containing blood; a suppurating tract; or a cavity within a bone. Two types of sinus, the blood-filled and the air-filled sinuses, are discussed in this article. The cranial venous sinuses are spaces between the layers of dura

  • sinus bradycardia (medicine)

    cardiovascular disease: Bradycardia and heart block: Bradycardia (low heart rate) can arise from two general mechanisms. The sinoatrial node may not function properly either as a result of slow generation of impulses or of blocking of the propagation of impulses. As a result, other pacemakers in the heart become responsible for…

  • sinus gland (anatomy)

    crustacean: Hormones: … passes its secretions to the sinus gland, which acts as a release centre into the blood. Hormones liberated from the sinus gland have been shown to influence molting, gonad development, water balance, blood glucose, and the expansion and contraction of pigment cells both in the general body and in the…

  • sinus node (nerve bundle)

    mammal: Circulatory system: …of specialized cells called the sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium near the junction with the venae cavae. A wave of excitation spreads from this node to the atrioventricular node, which is located in the right atrium near the base of the interatrial septum. From this point excitation is…

  • sinus of Valsalva (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Blood supply to the heart: …from the right and left aortic sinuses (the sinuses of Valsalva), which are bulges at the origin of the ascending aorta immediately beyond, or distal to, the aortic valve. The ostium, or opening, of the right coronary artery is in the right aortic sinus and that of the left coronary…

  • sinus rhythm (anatomy)

    cardiovascular disease: Bradycardia and heart block: …will not take up normal sinus rhythm. This results in a profound bradycardia that may cause fainting (syncope), a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome.

  • sinus squeeze (pathology)

    Sinus squeeze, pain, inflammation, and possible bleeding of the membranes lining the sinus cavities in the head, caused by a difference between the pressure inside the sinuses and that outside. Sinus squeeze is a common malady of persons flying in unpressurized aircraft and of divers. The sinuses,

  • sinus venosus (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Chordata: A large sac, the sinus venosus, is situated below the posterior of the pharynx and collects blood from all parts of the body. The blood passes forward through the subpharyngeal ventral aorta, from which branches carry it to small, accessory, branchial hearts that pump it upward through the gill…

  • sinus, venous (anatomy)

    Venous sinus, in human anatomy, any of the channels of a branching complex sinus network that lies between layers of the dura mater, the outermost covering of the brain, and functions to collect oxygen-depleted blood. Unlike veins, these sinuses possess no muscular coat. Their lining is

  • sinusitis (pathology)

    Sinusitis, acute or chronic inflammation of the mucosal lining of one or more paranasal sinuses (the cavities in the bones that adjoin the nose). Sinusitis commonly accompanies upper respiratory viral infections and in most cases requires no treatment. Purulent (pus-producing) sinusitis can occur,

  • sinusoid (anatomy)

    Sinusoid, irregular tubular space for the passage of blood, taking the place of capillaries and venules in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The sinusoids form from branches of the portal vein in the liver and from arterioles (minute arteries) in other organs. The walls of the sinusoids are

  • sinusoidal wave (physics)

    mathematics: Mathematical astronomy: …to what is actually a sinusoidal variation.) While observations extending over centuries are required for finding the necessary parameters (e.g., periods, angular range between maximum and minimum values, and the like), only the computational apparatus at their disposal made the astronomers’ forecasting effort possible.

  • Sinxo, Guybon (South African author)

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