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  • Si?n Kempt (Welsh poet)

    Si?n Cent, Welsh religious poet who challenged the values of the bardic tradition. According to Si?n Cent, the traditional praise of the nobles was hollow flattery and lies. His writings (poems in cywydd metre) reflect the influence of the moralists of the European Middle Ages, treating of

  • Si?n y Cent (Welsh poet)

    Si?n Cent, Welsh religious poet who challenged the values of the bardic tradition. According to Si?n Cent, the traditional praise of the nobles was hollow flattery and lies. His writings (poems in cywydd metre) reflect the influence of the moralists of the European Middle Ages, treating of

  • SIOP (United States warfighting plan)

    Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP), U.S. strategic war-fighting plan for the use of nuclear weapons that contains the specifics of targeting orders, scheduling, and needed weapons. The first SIOP was approved in late 1960 as an attempt to develop a more systematic approach to the various

  • Siorpaes, Sergio (Italian bobsledder)

    Eugenio Monti: …Austria, Monti and his partner Sergio Siorpaes were the defending world champions and found themselves in heated competition with the British team of Anthony Nash and Robin Dixon. When a faulty axle on the British sled was sure to lead to their withdrawal, Monti took a part from his own…

  • Siouan languages

    Siouan languages, family of languages in North America spread primarily across the Great Plains, extending from Canada to Mississippi to North Carolina. The languages belonging to this family are classified as follows. The Catawban branch (formerly spoken in North and South Carolina) is the most

  • Siouan languages, Macro-

    Macro-Siouan hypothesis, a proposal, now mostly abandoned, of a distant family relationship (phylum, macro-family, or superstock) that would group together languages in North America of the Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan language families and the language isolate Yuchi. Earlier versions of the

  • Siouan-Catawban languages

    Siouan languages, family of languages in North America spread primarily across the Great Plains, extending from Canada to Mississippi to North Carolina. The languages belonging to this family are classified as follows. The Catawban branch (formerly spoken in North and South Carolina) is the most

  • Sioux (people)

    Sioux, broad alliance of North American Indian peoples who spoke three related languages within the Siouan language family. The name Sioux is an abbreviation of Nadouessioux (“Adders”; i.e., enemies), a name originally applied to them by the Ojibwa. The Santee, also known as the Eastern Sioux, were

  • Sioux City (Iowa, United States)

    Sioux City, city, seat (1856) of Woodbury county, northwestern Iowa, U.S. It lies on the Missouri River (bridged to South Sioux City, Nebraska) at the influx of the Big Sioux and Floyd rivers, where Iowa, South Dakota, and Nebraska meet. The former territory of Omaha, Sioux, and Oto peoples, the

  • Sioux City Cornhuskers (American baseball team)

    Chicago White Sox, American professional baseball team based in Chicago that plays in the American League (AL). The White Sox have won three World Series titles, two in the early 1900s (1906, 1917) and the third 88 years later, in 2005. They are often referred to as the “South Siders,” a reference

  • Sioux Falls (South Dakota, United States)

    Sioux Falls, city, seat (1868) of Minnehaha county, southeastern South Dakota, U.S. It lies on the Big Sioux River, near the Iowa and Minnesota state lines. Sioux Indians occupied the area when the town site, which was named for the falls of the river, was founded in 1857 by land speculators. In

  • Sioux Uprising (United States history)

    American frontier: How the West was won: history) during the Sioux Uprising (Dakota War) in southern Minnesota. Two years later, U.S. troops carried out the massacre of hundreds of surrendered and partially disarmed Cheyenne at the Sand Creek Massacre.

  • Sioux wars and treaties (United States history)

    Crazy Horse: …Sioux resistance to European Americans’ invasion of the northern Great Plains.

  • Sip Canal (canal, Europe)

    Iron Gate: …until the construction of the Sip Canal in 1896. A joint development project of Romania and Yugoslavia on the Danube River (including a dam and hydroelectric power plant) was completed in 1972, providing equal amounts of energy to each country and quadrupling the annual tonnage of shipping. The name Iron…

  • sipahi (Ottoman cavalry)

    Sipahi, feudal cavalryman of the Ottoman Empire whose status resembled that of the medieval European knight. The sipahi (from Persian for “cavalryman”) was holder of a fief (timar; Turkish: t?mar) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan and was entitled to all of the income from it in return for

  • sipahiyan (Ottoman cavalry)

    Sipahi, feudal cavalryman of the Ottoman Empire whose status resembled that of the medieval European knight. The sipahi (from Persian for “cavalryman”) was holder of a fief (timar; Turkish: t?mar) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan and was entitled to all of the income from it in return for

  • Sipapo River (river, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: …Colombian Llanos, and the Guayapo, Sipapo, Autana, and Cuao rivers from the Guiana Highlands.

  • sipapu (American Indian symbol)

    kiva: …word for this element is sípapu. Although a kiva’s most important purpose is as a venue for rituals, kivas can also be used for political meetings and casual gatherings of the men of the village. Women perform their rituals in other venues and rarely enter kivas.

  • Sipapu Bridge (geological formation, Utah, United States)

    Natural Bridges National Monument: The largest bridge, Sipapu, rises 220 feet (67 metres) above the streambed and has a span of 268 feet (82 metres). The Kachina and Owachomo bridges are, respectively, 210 and 106 feet (64 and 32 metres) high with spans of 204 and 180 feet (62 and 55 metres).…

  • sipāra (section of Qur?ān)

    surah: …30 equal sections known as juz? (Persian and Urdu sipāra, or pāra). These break up the surahs arbitrarily, without regard to content, into 30 parts in order to facilitate the systematic reading of the entire Qur?ān in 30 days, or one lunar month.

  • Siparia (village, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Siparia, village, southwestern Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago, southeastern West Indies. Located 10 miles (16 km) south of the port of San Fernando, it lies in a cacao-growing region near large oil fields. Siparia originated as the site of a Spanish mission, and the village has a Capuchin pilgrimage

  • Siparuna cujabana (plant)

    Laurales: Other families: …decoction of the bark of Siparuna cujabana (family Siparunaceae) from Brazil is used by local residents to induce sweating and as an abortifacient.

  • Siparunaceae (plant family)

    Laurales: Distribution and abundance: The family Siparunaceae includes 75 species in two genera. Glossocalyx, from tropical West Africa, has four species. The remainder of the species in the family are in the genus Siparuna, found in Mexico, Central America, and tropical South America.

  • Síphnos (island, Greece)

    Siphnus, Greek island of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, consisting of a limestone ridge whose principal peaks, Profíts Ilías (2,277 feet [694 metres]) and áyios Simeón (1,624 feet [495 metres]), are crowned by Byzantine churches. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the South

  • Siphnus (island, Greece)

    Siphnus, Greek island of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, consisting of a limestone ridge whose principal peaks, Profíts Ilías (2,277 feet [694 metres]) and áyios Simeón (1,624 feet [495 metres]), are crowned by Byzantine churches. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the South

  • siphon (instrument)

    Siphon, instrument, usually in the form of a tube bent to form two legs of unequal length, for conveying liquid over the edge of a vessel and delivering it at a lower level. Siphons may be of any size. The action depends upon the influence of gravity (not, as sometimes thought, on the difference in

  • siphon (zoology)

    bivalve: Food and feeding: …prey into a funnellike inhalant siphon (Cuspidaria). Food is then pushed into the mouth by the palps and foot. Others evert the inhalant siphon, like a hood, over the prey (Poromya and Lyonsiella). Prey items include small bottom-dwelling crustaceans, polychaete worms, and larvae of other benthic animals.

  • Siphonaptera (insect)

    Flea, (order Siphonaptera), any of a group of bloodsucking insects that are important carriers of disease and can be serious pests. Fleas are parasites that live on the exterior of the host (i.e., are ectoparasitic). As the chief agent transmitting the Black Death (bubonic plague) in the Middle

  • Siphonariidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …or marine limpets with (Siphonariidae) gill-like structures or with a lung (Gadinidae). Superfamily Amphibolacea Operculum present; shell conical; with pulmonary cavity; brackish water; burrow in sand; 1 family. Superfamily Ellobiacea Conical shells; pulmonary chamber; in tidal

  • Siphonophora (invertebrate order)

    cnidarian: Annotated classification: Order Siphonophora Pelagic polypoid colonies with greatest degree of polymorphism in phylum; lack medusae. Oceanic; worldwide. Includes Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia. Order Stylasterina Hydrocorals. Resembling millepores; colonies erect and branching or prostrate. Commonly yellow, red, or purple. Reduced medusae not

  • Siphonopidae (amphibian family)

    Gymnophiona: Annotated classification: Family Siphonopidae Cretaceous (145.5–65.5 million years ago) to present; imperforate stapes and no inner mandibular teeth; oviparous; 7 genera, 19 species; South America. Family Typhlonectidae Cretaceous (145.5–65.5 million years ago) to present; tail absent; mouth recessed; premaxillae fused with nasals; prefrontals absent; squamosal articulating with

  • Siphonopoda (class of mollusks)

    Cephalopod, any member of the class Cephalopoda of the phylum Mollusca, a small group of highly advanced and organized, exclusively marine animals. The octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and chambered nautilus are familiar representatives. The extinct forms outnumber the living, the class having attained

  • siphonostele (plant structure)

    lower vascular plant: Vascular system: …common in fern stems are siphonosteles, having a pith in the centre with the vascular tissue forming a cylinder around it. Where a fern leaf is attached to a stem, a part of the vascular tissue of the stem goes into it (a leaf trace), making a slight gap, filled…

  • Siphonostomatoida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Order Siphonostomatoida Mouth tubelike or forms a sucker with styletlike mandibles; adult segmentation reduced or lost; parasites and commensals on fish and invertebrates; mostly marine, some freshwater. Order Monstrilloida Parasites on marine worms and mollusks; adults free-swimming; lack mouthparts and gut; biramous swimming legs; about 80…

  • siphuncle (invertebrate anatomy)

    seashell: …a porous tube called the siphuncle. The chambers contain quantities of water and gas that are adjusted by the siphuncle to achieve neutral buoyancy. Many seashells are brightly coloured in complicated designs by a variety of pigments secreted by special cells in the edge of the mantle. In some cases…

  • Siphunculata (insect)

    Sucking louse, (suborder Anoplura), any of some 500 species of small, wingless, flat lice (order Phthiraptera) that have piercing and sucking mouthparts and live on blood and tissue fluids of mammals as an ectoparasite (external parasite). The adult sucking louse, or true louse, glues her eggs, or

  • Sipiagin, Dmitry Sergeyevich (Russian minister)

    Dmitry Sergeyevich Sipyagin, conservative Russian minister of the interior (1900–02), known for his absolute allegiance to autocracy. Sipyagin was born into a family of the old nobility and graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1876, after which he entered government service in the

  • Sipil?, Juha (prime minister of Finland)

    Finland: Domestic affairs: The Centre Party, led by Juha Sipil?, fared best, capturing 49 seats, followed by the Finns (the renamed True Finns), who secured 38 seats, the NCP with 37 seats, and the Social Democrats with 34. When negotiations ended in May, Sipil? assumed the post of prime minister, having formed a…

  • Siping (China)

    Siping, city, southwestern Jilin sheng (province), northeastern China. It is located near the border with neighbouring Liaoning province. Siping is centrally situated in the northern Liao River portion of the Northeast (Manchurian) Plain. It was a place of little importance until the completion in

  • Sipingjie (China)

    Siping, city, southwestern Jilin sheng (province), northeastern China. It is located near the border with neighbouring Liaoning province. Siping is centrally situated in the northern Liao River portion of the Northeast (Manchurian) Plain. It was a place of little importance until the completion in

  • Siple, Paul A. (surveyor)

    Marie Byrd Land: …and surveyed by a coworker, Paul A. Siple, in 1935. The U.S. research base, Byrd Station, was opened in 1959 and has 20 to 30 people working there in the warmer months.

  • Sipo (division of SS, Nazi Germany)

    Gestapo: …of a new organization, the Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo; “Security Police”). Under a 1939 SS reorganization, the Sipo was joined with the Sicherheitsdienst, an SS intelligence department, to form the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (“Reich Security Central Office”) under Heydrich. In that bureaucratic maze, the functions of the Gestapo often overlapped with those of other…

  • Sipontum (ancient city, Italy)

    Manfredonia: …the site of the ancient Sipontum, conquered by the Romans in 217 bc and the see of a bishop from the 1st century ad. Abandoned in the 13th century because nearby stagnant lagoons had made the site unhealthy, Sipontum’s inhabitants settled in Manfredonia, founded about 1260 by Manfred, king of…

  • Sippar (Iraq)

    Sippar, ancient city of Babylonia, located southwest of present Baghdad, central Iraq. Sippar was subject to the 1st dynasty of Babylon, but little is known about the city before 1174 bc, when it was sacked by the Elamite king Kutir-Nahhunte. It recovered and was later captured by the Assyrian king

  • sippe (lineages)

    Germanic law: Tribal Germanic institutions: …institution was the “sib” (sippe), a term that meant both a clan—the extended family composed of all those related by blood, however remotely, and subject to a clan chief—and also a household or narrow family, whose members were under the mund (guardianship) of the family head. A boy remained…

  • ’Sippi (novel by Killens)

    John Oliver Killens: …at Fisk he also wrote ’Sippi (1967), which tells the story of a college student embroiled in the struggle to achieve the right to vote. Though its characters are from the South, the story takes place in New York City, Killens’s first novel to be set in the North. From…

  • Sippy, G. P. (Indian director and producer)

    G.P. Sippy, (Gopaldas Parmanand Sippy), Indian filmmaker (born Sept. 14, 1914, Hyderabad, British India—died Dec. 25, 2007, Mumbai [Bombay], India), was responsible for producing Sholay (“Flames,” 1975), the most commercially successful Bollywood film ever released. Sholay, which was inspired by

  • Sippy, Gopaldas Parmanand (Indian director and producer)

    G.P. Sippy, (Gopaldas Parmanand Sippy), Indian filmmaker (born Sept. 14, 1914, Hyderabad, British India—died Dec. 25, 2007, Mumbai [Bombay], India), was responsible for producing Sholay (“Flames,” 1975), the most commercially successful Bollywood film ever released. Sholay, which was inspired by

  • Sipri (India)

    Shivpuri, city, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated on an elevated watershed from which streams radiate in all directions, about 55 miles (90 km) southwest of Gwalior. Shivpuri formerly served as a summer capital of Gwalior princely state. In 1804 it was captured from the

  • Siptah (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: Last years of the 19th dynasty: His successor, Siptah, was installed on the throne by a Syrian royal butler, Bay, who had become chancellor of Egypt. Siptah was succeeded by Seti II’s widow Tausert, who ruled as king from 1193 to 1190 bce, counting her regnal years from the death of Seti II,…

  • Sipuel v. Board of Regents (law case)

    Sipuel v. Board of Regents, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 12, 1948, ruled unanimously (9–0) to force the University of Oklahoma law school to admit Ada Lois Sipuel, the school’s first African American student. Sipuel became the first African American woman to attend an all-white

  • Sipuel, Ada Lois (American attorney)

    Sipuel v. Board of Regents: …Oklahoma law school to admit Ada Lois Sipuel, the school’s first African American student. Sipuel became the first African American woman to attend an all-white law school in the South, earning a master’s degree from the University of Oklahoma in 1951.

  • sipuleucel-T (medicine)

    prostate cancer: Treatment: …with an agent known as sipuleucel-T (Provenge), which is designed to activate the immune system to attack cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2010, becoming the first immunotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T is tailored specifically for each patient.…

  • Sipuncula (marine worm)

    Peanut worm, any member of the invertebrate phylum Sipuncula, a group of unsegmented marine worms. The head bears a retractable “introvert” with the mouth at its end. The mouth is usually surrounded by one or more rings of tentacles. Peanut worms vary in length from a few to 500 millimetres (1.6

  • sipunculid (marine worm)

    Peanut worm, any member of the invertebrate phylum Sipuncula, a group of unsegmented marine worms. The head bears a retractable “introvert” with the mouth at its end. The mouth is usually surrounded by one or more rings of tentacles. Peanut worms vary in length from a few to 500 millimetres (1.6

  • Sipyagin, Dmitry Sergeyevich (Russian minister)

    Dmitry Sergeyevich Sipyagin, conservative Russian minister of the interior (1900–02), known for his absolute allegiance to autocracy. Sipyagin was born into a family of the old nobility and graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1876, after which he entered government service in the

  • Siq (geological feature, Jordan)

    Petra: …narrow gorge known as the Siq (Wadi Al-Sīq). Among the first sites viewed from the Siq is the Khaznah (“Treasury”), which is actually a large tomb. Al-Dayr (“the Monastery”) is one of Petra’s best-known rock-cut monuments; it is an unfinished tomb facade that during Byzantine times was used as a…

  • Siqueiros, David Alfaro (Mexican painter)

    David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mexican painter and muralist whose art reflected his Marxist political ideology. He was one of the three founders of the modern school of Mexican mural painting (along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco). A political activist since his youth, Siqueiros studied at the

  • Siquijor (island, Philippines)

    Siquijor, island, south-central Philippines. Part of the central Visayan Islands archipelago, it is located in the Bohol (Mindanao) Sea, 19 miles (30 km) southeast of Negros island. Siquijor town on the north coast is the largest settlement. It was called Isla de Fuegos (“Island of Fires”) by the

  • Sir Almost Right (British bacteriologist and immunologist)

    Sir Almroth Edward Wright, British bacteriologist and immunologist best known for advancing vaccination through the use of autogenous vaccines (prepared from the bacteria harboured by the patient) and through antityphoid immunization with typhoid bacilli killed by heat. Wright received his medical

  • Sir Barton (racehorse)

    Sir Barton, (foaled 1916), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 1919 became the first horse to win the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes. For that accomplishment he was retroactively named the first winner of the Triple Crown of American horse racing when that title

  • Sir Benfro (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembrokeshire, county of southwestern Wales, bounded on the northeast by Ceredigion, on the east by Carmarthenshire, on the south by the Bristol Channel, and on the west and northwest by St. Bride’s Bay and Cardigan Bay of St. George’s Channel. The county’s rugged and convoluted coastline forms a

  • Sir Charles (American basketball player)

    Charles Barkley, American professional basketball player and television personality whose larger-than-life character made him one of the most popular figures in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. Over the course of his 16-year NBA career, he became the fourth player to amass 20,000

  • Sir David’s long-beaked echidna (monotreme)

    echidna: Long-beaked echidnas: Sir David’s long-beaked echidna (Z. attenboroughi), first described scientifically in 1999, is about the size of a short-beaked echidna. It is distinguished from other long-beaked echidnas by its smaller size and by a shorter, straighter beak, although in other respects it resembles the western long-beaked…

  • Sir Ddinbych (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Denbighshire, county of northern Wales extending inland from the Irish Sea coast. The present county of Denbighshire includes the Vale of Clwyd along the River Clwyd and an inland area between the Clwydian Range in the east and the Clocaenog Forest in the west that ascends to the Berwyn mountains

  • Sir Douglas, Mount (mountain, Alberta, Canada)

    Banff National Park: Natural history: …11,365 feet (3,464 metres), and Mount Sir Douglas in the far southeast, with an elevation of 11,175 feet (3,406 metres). Banff contains active glaciers, including a portion of the extensive Columbia Icefield to the north, and montane wetlands and meadows, such as the valleys of the Bow and Red Deer…

  • Sir Drefaldwyn (former county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Montgomeryshire, historic county of north-central Wales, along the English border. Montgomeryshire is an area of wooded hills and valleys encircled by higher mountains, including Long Mountain in the east, Clifaesty Hill in the south, Plynlimon in the west, and the Berwyn mountains in the north. It

  • Sir Edward Pellew Group (islands, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Sir Edward Pellew Group, cluster of barren sandstone islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria, near the mouth of the McArthur River, in northeastern Northern Territory, Australia. The islands have a total area of 800 square miles (2,100 square km). Vanderlin, the largest, is 20 miles (32 km) long by 8

  • Sir Faesyfed (historical county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Radnorshire, historic county, east-central Wales, on the English border. It covers an area of mountainous terrain and highlands, including Radnor Forest, with a central valley formed by the River Wye. Radnorshire lies completely within the present county of Powys. Burial mounds and Iron Age hill

  • Sir Frycheiniog (historical county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Brecknockshire, historic county, south-central Wales, named for Brychan, a 5th-century prince later known as Brycheiniog. Brecknockshire is mostly part of the present Powys county, although small areas in the south lie within the present Monmouthshire county and the county boroughs of Blaenau

  • Sir Fynwy (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Monmouthshire, county of southeastern Wales. The present county of Monmouthshire borders England to the east, the River Severn estuary to the south, the county boroughs of Newport, Torfaen, and Blaenau Gwent to the west, and the county of Powys to the north. The heart of the county is the plain of

  • Sir Gallahad III (racehorse)

    Gallant Fox: Breeding and early years: His sire was Sir Gallahad III and his dam was Marguerite. It was largely because of Gallant Fox’s illustrious accomplishments in horse racing three years later that Sir Gallahad III became one of the world’s leading stallions through the 1930s and ’40s. Gallant Fox’s owner, William Woodward, was…

  • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Middle English poem)

    Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight, Middle English alliterative poem of unknown authorship, dating from the second half of the 14th century (perhaps 1375). It is a chivalric romance that tells a tale of enchantment in an Arthurian setting. Its hero, Sir Gawayne (Gawain), is presented as a devout b

  • Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight (Middle English poem)

    Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight, Middle English alliterative poem of unknown authorship, dating from the second half of the 14th century (perhaps 1375). It is a chivalric romance that tells a tale of enchantment in an Arthurian setting. Its hero, Sir Gawayne (Gawain), is presented as a devout b

  • Sir John Hawkwood (painting by Uccello)
  • Sir John Richardson on Sir John Franklin

    When British exploration of the Arctic was at its peak during the first half of the 19th century, disasters were not uncommon. Many lives were lost in search of the Northwest Passage, a sea route through the North American Arctic. However, few doomed missions captured the popular imagination as

  • Sir Martin Mar-all (play by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Writing for the stage: …of Newcastle) under the title Sir Martin Mar-all.

  • Sir Patrick Spens (ballad)

    ballad: Disaster: …poetic of all ballads “Sir Patrick Spens” cannot be fixed, but “The Titanic,” “Casey Jones,” “The Wreck on the C & O,” and “The Johnstown Flood” are all circumstantially based on actual events.

  • Sir Roger de Coverley (dance)

    Virginia reel: …the English dance called the Sir Roger de Coverley. Brought to Virginia by English colonists, the Sir Roger de Coverley in time became the Virginia reel, the several versions of which range from the polished form danced in the ballrooms of 18th-century Virginia to the livelier present-day version.

  • Sir Roger Keyes, 1st Baronet (British admiral)

    Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, British admiral who planned and directed the World War I raid on the German base at Zeebrugge, Belg., April 22–23, 1918, and thus helped to close the Strait of Dover to German submarines. Keyes entered the Royal Navy in 1885. For bold action during the

  • Sir Sanford, Mount (mountains, Canada)

    Selkirk Mountains: …10,000 feet (3,000 metres), with Mount Sir Sanford (11,555 feet [3,522 metres]) being the highest. In many places the Selkirks rise abruptly more than 8,000 feet (2,400 metres) above adjacent valley floors, affording wild and magnificent scenery. Glacier and Mount Revelstoke national parks, in the northern part of the range,…

  • Sir Walter Scott on chivalry

    Britannica’s online article on chivalry is today dwarfed by that in the supplement to the fourth, fifth, and sixth editions (1815–24), which ran to 30 double-column pages—a simple but dramatic lesson in the mutability of ideas and institutions. However, that 30-page article—which is reproduced in

  • Sira puranam (work by Pulavar)

    Hinduism: Bhakti movements: …such as Umaru Pulavar’s Tamil Sira puranam (late 18th–early 19th century), which provides a detailed life of the Prophet, display the strong literary influence of Kamban’s Iramavataram (c. 9th–11th century), a rendering of the Ramayana in Tamil. While these works were strikingly similar in literary strategy and arrangement of chapters,…

  • Sirach (biblical literature)

    Ecclesiasticus, deuterocanonical biblical work (accepted in the Roman Catholic canon but noncanonical for Jews and Protestants), an outstanding example of the wisdom genre of religious literature that was popular in the early Hellenistic period of Judaism (3rd century bc to 3rd century ad). This

  • Siracusa (Italy)

    Syracuse, city, on the east coast of Sicily, 33 miles (53 km) south of Catania. It was the chief Greek city of ancient Sicily. Syracuse was settled about 734 bc by Corinthians led by the aristocrat Archias, and the city soon dominated the coastal plain and hill country beyond. The original Greek

  • Sīrāf (Iran)

    Islamic arts: Other classic mosques: …Nīshāpūr (Neyshābūr) in northeastern Iran, Sīrāf in southern Iran, Kairouan in Tunisia, and Córdoba in Spain, it can indeed be considered as the classic early Islamic type. Its masterpieces occur in Iraq and in the West. The monumentalization of the early Iraqi hypostyle is illustrated by the two ruined structures…

  • Sīrah (work by Ibn Is?āq)

    Ibn Is?āq: Guillaume, The Life of Mu?ammad, 1955, and partial trans. by Edward Rehatsek as edited by Michael Edwardes, The Life of Muhammad Apostle of Allah, 1964). This extensive biography covers Mu?ammad’s genealogy and birth, the beginning of his mission and of the revelation of the Qur?ān, his…

  • sīrah (Islamic literature)

    Arabic literature: Belles lettres and narrative prose: …raids during his lifetime) and sīrah (biographies of the Prophet). Beyond these specific genres, however, the logical structure of the khabar was replicated in a wide variety of other generic contexts. It is even possible to see the maqāmah genre (see below The concept of adab: Narratives of the imagination)…

  • Siraiki language

    Siraiki language, Indo-Aryan language spoken in Pakistan. The Siraiki-speaking region spreads across the southwestern districts of Punjab province, extending into adjacent regions of the neighbouring provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. There were probably at least 20 million

  • Siraiki movement (Pakistan linguistic movement)

    Siraiki language: The Siraiki movement: The modern Siraiki movement, which barely predates the 1960s, has always been importantly fueled by a keen sense of the marginal status of the region in terms of its economic development and political influence when compared with the powerful position of Punjab’s eastern…

  • Sirāj al-Dawlah (Indian ruler)

    Sirāj al-Dawlah, ruler, or nawab, of Bengal, India, under the nominal suzerainty of the Mughal emperor. His reign marked the entry of Great Britain into India’s internal affairs. The nawab’s attack on Calcutta (now Kolkata) resulted in the Black Hole of Calcutta incident, in which a number of

  • Sirajganj (Bangladesh)

    Sirajganj, city in central Bangladesh. It lies just west of the Jamuna River (the name of the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh) and is about 70 miles (110 km) northwest of Dhaka. Sirajganj is an important jute collection, processing, and trade centre that has road, rail, and river connections to

  • SIRAL (radar technology)

    CryoSat: Its primary instrument is the SAR Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), which is designed to measure changes of less than 1 cm (0.4 inch) per year in the height of ice. (SAR stands for Synthetic Aperture Radar, a technique that uses short radar bursts to make an image.) By measuring ice…

  • Sirat Baybars (Islamic literature)

    Baybars I: The Sirat Baybars, a folk account purporting to be his life story, is still popular in the Arabic-speaking world.

  • Sīrat Mu?ammad rasūl Allāh (work by ibn Hishām)

    Muhammad: Biographical sources: …al-Malik ibn Hishām’s (died 833–834) Sīrat Mu?ammad rasūl Allāh (“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”). Ibn Is?āq’s original book was not his own composition but rather a compilation of autonomous reports about specific events that took place during the life of Muhammad and also prior to it, which Ibn…

  • Siraya language

    Austronesian languages: Size and geographic scope: Siraya and Favorlang, which are now extinct, are attested from fairly extensive religious texts compiled by missionaries during the Dutch occupation of southwestern Taiwan (1624–62). All the roughly 160 native languages of the Philippines are Austronesian, although it is likely that the now highly marginalized…

  • sirdabs (cellars)

    Najaf: …remains, as do the deep sirdābs (vaulted cellars) that sometimes connect multiple houses and extend, in places, beyond the city’s limits. These have provided both refuge from the midday sun and, often, sanctuary for political dissidents. Najaf was long a hotbed of Shi?i resistance to the Sunni rulers in Baghdad,…

  • sirdar (mountain climbing)

    Tenzing Norgay: …War II he became a sirdar, or organizer of porters, and in this capacity accompanied a number of expeditions. In 1952 the Swiss made two attempts on the southern route up Everest, on both of which Tenzing was sirdar. He went as sirdar of the British Everest expedition of 1953…

  • Sirdaryo (river, Central Asia)

    Syr Darya, river in the Central Asian republics of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. The Syr Darya is formed by the confluence of the Naryn and Qoradaryo rivers in the eastern Fergana Valley and generally flows northwest until it empties into the Aral Sea. With a length of 1,374 miles (2,212

  • Siredon mexicanum (amphibian)

    Axolotl, (Ambystoma, formerly Rhyacosiredon or Siredon, mexicanum), salamander of the family Ambystomatidae (order Caudata), notable for its permanent retention of larval features, such as external gills. It is found in lakes near Mexico City, where it is considered edible. The name axolotl is also

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