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  • Saint-étienne (cathedral, Limoges, France)

    Limoges: The 13th-century cathedral of Saint-étienne has an elegant, partly octagonal bell tower, typical of the Gothic churches of the region. The church of Saint-Michel-des-Lions (14th–15th century) has a tower 198 feet (65 metres) high, with a spire surmounted by a big bronze ball; it also has fine 15th-century stained-glass…

  • Saint-étienne (church, Beauvais, France)

    stained glass: Late 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries: …the Jesse tree window in Saint-étienne at Beauvais.

  • Saint-étienne (cathedral, Chalons-sur-Marne, France)

    Chalons-en-Champagne: The 13th-century cathedral of Saint-étienne suffered some damage then but has been restored. The cathedral has a 17th-century west facade, fine 13th-century stained-glass windows, and a remarkable main altar. The collegiate church of Notre-Dame-en-Vaux (12th century) is a mixture of Gothic and Romanesque styles and has stained-glass windows dating…

  • Saint-étienne (church, Caen, France)

    Caen: The churches of Saint-étienne (the Abbaye-aux-Hommes) La Trinité (the Abbaye-aux-Dames) escaped war damage; both date from the 1060s and are fine specimens of Norman Romanesque. William the Conqueror’s tomb is in front of Saint-étienne’s high altar, and the tomb of his wife, Matilda, stands in La Trinité’s choir.…

  • Saint-étienne Cathedral (cathedral, Meaux, France)

    Meaux: The most outstanding building, Saint-étienne Cathedral (12th to 16th century), has a Flamboyant Gothic facade, which has suffered from crumbling. The cathedral contains the tomb and two statues of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, a 17th-century French writer and religious orator. The former episcopal palace (12th to 17th century) houses a Bossuet…

  • Saint-étienne, Cathedral of (cathedral, Auxerre, France)

    Auxerre: Auxerre’s most notable landmark, the cathedral of Saint-étienne (13th–16th-century Gothic), has three sculptured doorways and a rose window on the west front. A massive tower rises in the northwest corner. The early Gothic choir and the apsidal chapel contain some of the best 13th-century stained glass in France. The church…

  • Saint-Eustache (Quebec, Canada)

    Saint-Eustache, town, Laurentides region, southern Quebec province, Canada, lying on the Mille-?les River opposite Laval (?le Jésus). Settled in the 18th century, it was the site of the final battle of the 1837 uprisings, in which the militia, under General John Colborne, defeated the insurgent

  • Saint-évremond, Charles de Marguetel de Saint-Denis, Seigneur de (French author)

    Charles de Marguetel de Saint-Denis, seigneur de Saint-évremond, French gentleman of letters and amateur moralist who stands as a transitional figure between Michel de Montaigne (d. 1592) and the 18th-century philosophes of the Enlightenment. Pursuing a military career in his early life, he won

  • Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de (French author)

    Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French aviator and writer whose works are the unique testimony of a pilot and a warrior who looked at adventure and danger with a poet’s eyes. His fable Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince) has become a modern classic. Saint-Exupéry came from an impoverished aristocratic

  • Saint-Exupéry, Antoine-Marie-Roger de (French author)

    Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French aviator and writer whose works are the unique testimony of a pilot and a warrior who looked at adventure and danger with a poet’s eyes. His fable Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince) has become a modern classic. Saint-Exupéry came from an impoverished aristocratic

  • Saint-Ferréol dam (dam, Saint-Ferréol, France)

    dam: The 15th to the 18th century: …dam built in 1675 at Saint-Ferréol, near Toulouse, France. This dam provided water for the Midi Canal, and for more than 150 years it was the highest earthen dam in the world.

  • Saint-Front (cathedral, Périgueux, France)

    Périgueux: …Périgueux is the cathedral of Saint-Front, built in the 12th century on the ruins of the abbey, which burned in 1120. One of the largest in southwestern France, it is built in the shape of a Greek cross, topped by five lofty domes and numerous colonnaded turrets. A Romanesque bell…

  • Saint-Gall (Switzerland)

    Sankt Gallen, town, capital of Sankt Gallen canton, northeastern Switzerland, in the Steinach Valley, just south of Lake Constance (Bodensee). In 612 the Celtic missionary St. Gall founded a hermitage on the site. Disciples joined him, and c. 720 the foundation became a Benedictine abbey under

  • Saint-Gall (canton, Switzerland)

    Sankt Gallen, canton, northeastern Switzerland, bounded north by Lake Constance (Bodensee); east by the Rhine Valley, which separates it from the Austrian Vorarlberg Bundesland (federal state) and from Liechtenstein; south by the cantons of Graubünden, Glarus, and Schwyz; west by the canton of

  • Saint-Gall, monastery of (monastery, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland)

    Ekkehard I the Elder: …was educated at the Benedictine monastery of Sankt Gallen (St. Gall) in Switzerland, then one of Europe’s greatest centres of learning, at which he later taught.

  • Saint-Gaudens, Augustus (American sculptor)

    Augustus Saint-Gaudens, generally acknowledged to be the foremost American sculptor of the late 19th century, noted for his evocative memorial statues and for the subtle modeling of his low reliefs. Saint-Gaudens was born to a French father and an Irish mother. His family moved to New York City

  • Saint-Germain (street, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: The boulevard Saint-Germain itself begins at the National Assembly building, curving eastward to join the river again at the Sully Bridge. A little less than halfway along the boulevard is the pre-Gothic church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The old church, which belonged to a Benedictine abbey founded in the…

  • Saint-Germain, Claude-Louis, comte de (French general)

    Claude-Louis, count de Saint-Germain, French general who sought reforms in the French armies. Saint-Germain entered the army but left France, apparently because of a duel, and fought in the armies of the elector palatine and the elector of Bavaria. Then, after a brief service under Frederick II the

  • Saint-Germain, comte de (French adventurer)

    Comte de Saint-Germain, 18th-century adventurer, known as der Wundermann (“the Wonderman”). Of his real name or parentage and place of birth, nothing is definitely known; the common version is that he was a Portuguese Jew. He knew nearly all the European languages. He was a musical composer and a

  • Saint-Germain, Fort (fort, Algeria)

    Biskra: Fort Saint-Germain (1849–51; built on the site of the former Turkish Casbah) became the nucleus of modern Biskra. Its location on the railway and road from Constantine to Touggourt, its airport, and its temperate climate (November to April) have made Biskra a winter resort of…

  • Saint-Germain, Peace of (French history)

    Catherine de' Medici: Civil wars: …the more far-reaching Treaty of Saint-Germain (August 1570), but she succeeded in disgracing the Guises.

  • Saint-Germain, Treaty of (1919)

    Treaty of Saint-Germain, (1919), treaty concluding World War I and signed by representatives of Austria on one side and the Allied Powers on the other. It was signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, on September 10, 1919, and came into force on July 16, 1920. The treaty officially registered

  • Saint-Germain-des-Prés (church, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: South of the city centre are the quintessential Left Bank neighbourhoods known as Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter (Quartier Latin). The boulevard Saint-Germain itself begins at the National Assembly building, curving eastward to join the river again at the Sully…

  • Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    Saint-Germain-en-Laye, town, Yvelines département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. A western suburb of Paris, it lies on the left bank of the Seine River, adjoining the Forest of Saint-Germain and just north of the Forest of Marly. The chateau of Saint-Germain and its park are next to a

  • Saint-Germain-en-Laye, chateau of (chateau, France)

    garden and landscape design: 17th- and 18th-century French: …predominant in France only at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where the steep site permitted it. Elsewhere, grandeur on the scale that competitive pride demanded was achieved by extraordinary extension: an axial development suggesting a domain coextensive with the world. The French 17th-century garden, a manifestation of Baroque taste, required variety as well as…

  • Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Treaty of (European history)

    Canada: The Company of New France: …Acadia were restored by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1632, and the company retook possession in 1633. On the surface all seemed to go smoothly. In 1633 Champlain returned as governor, the government and settlement of Acadia was farmed out to the vigorous Isaac de Razilly, and the Jesuits assumed…

  • Saint-Gobain-Pont-à-Mousson, Compagnie de (French company)

    Compagnie de Saint-Gobain-Pont-à-Mousson, leading French manufacturer and distributor of construction materials, packaging, and containers. Saint-Gobain traces its origins to 1665, when the Manufacture Royale de Glace (“Royal Factory of Mirror Glass”) was founded under Louis XIV. The company became

  • Saint-Gothard Pass (mountain pass, Switzerland)

    St. Gotthard Pass, mountain pass in the Lepontine Alps of southern Switzerland, an important motor and railway route between central Europe and Italy. The pass lies at an elevation of 6,916 feet (2,108 metres) and is 16 miles (26 km) long. Although the pass was known to the Romans, it was not

  • Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand (church, Poitiers, France)

    Poitiers: The Romanesque Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand church was built over the tomb of St. Hilary, the first known bishop of Poitiers, and was restored in the 19th century. The 12th-century ducal palace has been incorporated into the 19th-century H?tel de Ville, which houses the Museum of Fine Arts that contains…

  • Saint-Hubert (Quebec, Canada)

    Saint-Hubert, former city, Montérégie region, Quebec province, Canada, on the east side of the St. Lawrence River. In 2002 it and several other communities were merged administratively into the city of Longueuil. The area is mainly a residential suburb of Montreal city, but it has some

  • Saint-Ignatius’ bean (plant)

    Gentianales: Loganiaceae: …produced by Strychnos ignatii, the Saint Ignatius’s bean of the Philippines, have been used to treat cholera. Strychnos spinosa (Natal orange) of southern Africa produces a yellow berry with edible pulp. Some species of Spigelia are known to be highly poisonous.

  • Saint-Jean, Baptistère (building, Poitiers, France)

    Poitiers: Nearby stands the 4th-century rectangular Baptistère Saint-Jean, probably the oldest Christian edifice in France; it now houses an archaeological museum containing a collection of tombs dating to the era of the Merovingians (5th–8th century). The Romanesque Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand church was built over the tomb of St. Hilary, the first known bishop…

  • Saint-Jean, Fort (fort, Marseille, France)

    Marseille: The city layout: …entrance is guarded by the Fort Saint-Jean, a 13th-century command post of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem; some ruins remain, along with a tower built in the mid-15th century by René I of Provence. The extant fortress, dating from the 17th century, was part of a nationwide…

  • Saint-Jean, ?le (province, Canada)

    Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.), one of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Curving from North Cape to East Point, “the Island,” as Prince Edward Islanders refer to the province, is about 140 miles (225 km) long, ranging from 2 to 40 miles (3 to 65 km) in width. It lies between 46° and 47° N latitude

  • Saint-Jean, Lac (lake, Quebec, Canada)

    Lac Saint-Jean, lake in Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region, south-central Quebec province, Canada. It is a shallow lake that occupies 387 square miles (1,003 square km) of a large graben (a downfaulted basin). It receives the drainage of a 30,000-square-mile (78,000-square-km) area and discharges it

  • Saint-Jean-au-Marché, Church of (church, Troyes, France)

    Troyes: In the church of Saint-Jean-au-Marché (14th–17th century) on June 2, 1420, Henry V of England married Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI. The Treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1420) had just recognized Henry as heir to the throne of France. The remarkable cathedral of Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul (13th–17th

  • Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (Canadian holiday)

    Fête Nationale du Québec, (French: “Quebec National Holiday”) official holiday of Quebec, Canada. Observed on June 24, the holiday marks the summer solstice and honours the patron saint of French Canadians—Jean Baptiste, or John the Baptist. Québécois begin their celebration of the occasion the

  • Saint-Jean-de-Losne, Treaty of (French history)

    Burgundy: History: By the Treaty of Saint-Jean-de-Losne (1522) with France, the neutrality of the county was ensured during the wars between the Habsburgs and the last French kings of the Valois line. Its enduring prosperity, enhanced by industrial development, can be judged by the splendid Renaissance architecture of its…

  • Saint-Jean-de-Luz (France)

    Saint-Jean-de-Luz, town, Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, southern France, on the Bay of Biscay. It lies on the right bank of the Nivelle River, near the Spanish frontier. The town’s restored 13th-century church of St. John the Baptist, in which Louis XIV was married to

  • Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, Agreement of (Europe [1917])

    Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, (April 1917), pact concluded at Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, on the French-Italian border, between Great Britain, France, and Italy to reconcile conflicting claims of France and Italy over southwestern Anatolia in the event of dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire at

  • Saint-Jean-des-Vignes (abbey, Soissons, France)

    Soissons: The abbey of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes (founded 11th century) was one of the richest in medieval France. The great abbatial church was largely destroyed under Napoleon I, but the magnificent facade (13th–16th century) was spared. Its two unequal towers, surmounted by stone spires (the higher is more than 230 feet…

  • Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (France)

    Kingdom of Navarre: Geography: …Béarn whose capital was at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. In the Middle Ages much of Navarre was Basque-speaking. The other language used was the Navarro-Aragonese dialect, which, together with French (after 1234), was the language of the administration. The whole kingdom was mountainous except for the Tudela salient in the southeast, where the…

  • Saint-John Perse (French poet)

    Saint-John Perse, French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 “for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry.” He studied at the universities of Bordeaux and Paris and in 1914 entered the diplomatic service. He went to China and was successively c

  • Saint-John’s-wort (plant)

    Saint-John’s-wort, (genus Hypericum), genus of nearly 500 species of herbs or low shrubs in the family Hypericaceae that are native to temperate and tropical areas. Several species are cultivated for their attractive flowers, and at least one, common Saint-John’s-wort (Hypericum perforatum), is

  • Saint-Julien (cathedral, Le Mans, France)

    Le Mans: Saint-Julien Cathedral (11th–15th century), which towers over the old city, combines Romanesque and Gothic styles. On the right side there is a beautifully sculptured 12th-century portal and, at the end of the transept, a 12th–15th-century tower 210 feet (64 metres) high. The choir (13th century),…

  • Saint-Julien, Chapel of (church, Le Petit-Quevilly, France)

    Le Petit-Quevilly: Historic buildings include the Chapel of Saint-Julien, formerly part of the leprosarium founded by Henry II of England in 1183. Louis IX (St. Louis) was baptized in the chapel, which is decorated with 12th- and 13th-century paintings. Once an important port and industrial suburb of Rouen, Le Petit-Quevilly has…

  • Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre (church, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: … (1489–94), Gothic and humble, and Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre (1165–1220), which belongs to the transitional period between the Romanesque and the Gothic—are notable. The square in front of the latter church offers one of the finest views of Notre-Dame de Paris.

  • Saint-Just, Charles de Biencourt, Baron de (French colonial administrator and trader)

    Charles de Biencourt, French colonizer who commanded the French colony of Port-Royal. In 1606 Biencourt sailed with his father, Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt, baron de Saint-Just, to Acadia. In 1607 they abandoned their establishment and fort at Port-Royal, Acadia, because of insufficient

  • Saint-Just, Louis de (French revolutionary)

    Louis de Saint-Just, controversial ideologue of the French Revolution, one of the most zealous advocates of the Reign of Terror (1793–94), who was arrested and guillotined in the Thermidorian Reaction. Louis-Antoine-Léon de Saint-Just was born in central France, the son of a cavalry captain. His

  • Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine-Léon de (French revolutionary)

    Louis de Saint-Just, controversial ideologue of the French Revolution, one of the most zealous advocates of the Reign of Terror (1793–94), who was arrested and guillotined in the Thermidorian Reaction. Louis-Antoine-Léon de Saint-Just was born in central France, the son of a cavalry captain. His

  • Saint-Laurent du Maroni (French Guiana)

    Saint-Laurent du Maroni, port, northwest French Guiana, on the east bank of the Maroni River opposite Albina, Suriname. It was formerly headquarters of the country’s penal colonies and the site of the largest prison, closed in 1944. Apart from its port facilities, local economic activities include

  • Saint-Lazare priory (priory, Paris, France)

    Vincentian: …of the former priory of Saint-Lazare at Paris, whence the name Lazarists. From this headquarters 550 missions to the rural poor were organized before Vincent’s death in 1660. The Vincentians also became involved in the work of clerical training very early. They started giving retreats at Saint-Lazare in 1631 for…

  • Saint-Lazare, cathedral of (cathedral, Autun, France)

    Gislebertus: …the western doorway of the cathedral at Autun, depicting the Last Judgment. This work is noted for its expressionistic carving and technical proficiency; some of the figures are abstract in design, and the demon forms foreshadow 20th-century Surrealism. His sculpture for the northern doorway is a reclining, nude “Eve,” a…

  • Saint-Léger (abbey, Soissons, France)

    Soissons: The remaining buildings of Saint-Léger abbey and its 13th-century church house a museum with collections of paintings and sculpture. The buildings include vestiges from Saint-Médard (founded c. 560), one of the most important medieval French abbeys; only a 9th-century crypt remains.

  • Saint-Léon, Arthur (French dancer and musician)

    Arthur Saint-Léon, French dancer, choreographer, violinist, and inventor of a method of dance notation, celebrated as the choreographer of the ballet Coppélia. The son of Léon Michel, a dancer who had served as assistant to Pierre Gardel at the Paris Opéra and who had adopted the name Saint-Léon,

  • Saint-Léon, Charles-Victor-Arthur Michel (French dancer and musician)

    Arthur Saint-Léon, French dancer, choreographer, violinist, and inventor of a method of dance notation, celebrated as the choreographer of the ballet Coppélia. The son of Léon Michel, a dancer who had served as assistant to Pierre Gardel at the Paris Opéra and who had adopted the name Saint-Léon,

  • Saint-Leu, comte de (king of Holland)

    Louis Bonaparte, French soldier and Napoleon I’s third surviving brother. As king of Holland (1806–10) he guarded the welfare of his subjects. His unwillingness to join the Continental System brought him into conflict with the emperor. After attending military school at Chalons, France, Louis

  • Saint-L? (France)

    Saint-L?, town, capital of Manche département, Normandy région, northwestern France. It lies on a promontory dominating the Vire River valley. Called Briovera in Gallo-Roman times, it was renamed for Saint L?, the 6th-century bishop of Coutances. In the Middle Ages it was a major fortress and was

  • Saint-Louis (Senegal)

    Saint-Louis, island city and seaport near the mouth of the Sénégal River, and rail terminus north-northeast of Dakar, Senegal. The island and city are connected to the mainland by a land bridge. Saint-Louis, founded in 1659, is the oldest colonial city on the western African coast and was the

  • Saint-Louis, Church of (church, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Invalides: …belongs to the church of Saint-Louis. The dome was designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, who employed a style known in France as jésuite because it derives from the Jesuits’ first church in Rome, built in 1568. (The churches of the French Academy [Académie Fran?aise], the Val-de-Grace Hospital, and the Sorbonne, as…

  • Saint-Louis, ?le (Paris, France)

    Paris: ?le Saint-Louis: In 1627 Louis XIII granted a 60-year lease on two mudbanks behind the ?le de la Cité to a contractor, Christophe Marie, and two financiers. It was 37 years before Marie was able to unite the islets, dike the circumference, lay out a…

  • Saint-Louis-Arzviller (canal, France)

    canals and inland waterways: Inclined planes: , for 1,350-ton vessels; at Saint-Louis-Arzviller, Fr., for 300-ton vessels; and at Krasnoyarsk, Russia, for 1,500-ton vessels. At Ronquières and Krasnoyarsk, vessels are carried longitudinally up relatively gentle inclines with gradients of 1 in 21 and 1 in 12, respectively, while at Arzviller the site permitted only a steep gradient…

  • Saint-Luc, Jean De (Canadian author)

    John Glassco, Canadian author whose poetry, short stories, novels, memoirs, and translations are notable for their versatility and sophistication. Glassco abandoned his studies at McGill University, Montreal, to join the expatriate community in Paris, an experience he chronicled in the celebrated

  • Saint-Maclou (church, Rouen, France)

    Western architecture: Late Gothic: …are in northern France—for example, Saint-Maclou in Rouen (c. 1500–14) and Notre-Dame in Alen?on (c. 1500). France also produced a number of striking 16th-century towers (Rouen and Chartres cathedrals).

  • Saint-Malo (France)

    Saint-Malo, seaport, Ille-et-Vilaine département, Brittany région, northwestern France. It is situated on the English Channel and on the right bank of the estuary of the Rance River. The old walled city stands on a granite islet that is joined to the mainland by an ancient causeway and by an avenue

  • Saint-Malo, Gulf of (gulf, France)

    Gulf of Saint-Malo, gulf of the English Channel indenting the north coast of Brittany, France. The Gulf of Saint-Malo extends from the island of Bréhat (west) to the peninsula of Cotentin of Normandy (east). It is 60 miles (100 km) wide from east to west and 20 miles (32 km) long from south to

  • Saint-Marien, Mount (mountain, France)

    Centre: Mount Saint-Marien in Cher reaches an elevation of 1,653 feet (504 metres) and is the highest point in the région. For the most part, the climate is mild.

  • Saint-Martin (overseas collectivity, France)

    Saint-Martin, overseas collectivity of France on the island of Saint Martin, in the Lesser Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea. The collectivity of Saint-Martin occupies the northern two-thirds of the island; the southern third, named Sint Maarten, formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles, is an

  • Saint-Martin (island, West Indies)

    Saint Martin, island, lying at the northern end of the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The island extends about 12 miles (19 km) from north to south and about the same distance from east to west, including a narrow looping sand spit that extends westward from

  • Saint-Martin Canal (canal, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Bastille: …then emerges to form the Saint-Martin Canal, which, with its bridges and locks and its barges sailing slowly down the centre of city streets, constitutes one of the least-known and most picturesque sections of Paris.

  • Saint-Martin, Louis-Claude de (French philosopher)

    Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, French visionary philosopher who was one of the leading exponents of illuminism, an 18th-century philosophical movement that attempted to refute the rationalistic philosophies prevalent in that period. After practicing law for six months at Tours, Saint-Martin joined

  • Saint-Maur-des-Fossés (France)

    Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, town, Val-de-Marne département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France, a residential southeastern suburb of Paris. The town lies on a loop of the Marne River. The locality received its name from the abbey founded there in the 7th century by Benedictine monks from

  • Saint-Maure, Charles de (French military officer)

    Charles de Saint-Maure, duke de Montausier, French army officer, man of letters and chief tutor of King Louis XIV’s eldest son, the dauphin Louis. Reared a Huguenot, he succeeded his brother Hector as marquis de Montausier in 1635. He distinguished himself in the defense of the north Italian

  • Saint-Maurice River (river, Canada)

    Saint-Maurice River, river in Mauricie–Bois-Francs region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River. From its sources in the mountains of south-central Quebec, the river flows to Gouin Reservoir, draining that 500-square-mile (1,300-square-kilometre) body

  • Saint-Michel (boulevard, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: ” Eastward to the boulevard Saint-Michel, the area toward the river from the boulevard Saint-Germain is a tangle of narrow, animated streets, which typify the tourist’s idea of a vivacious and noisy Paris.

  • Saint-Michel-des-Lions, church of (church, Limoges, France)

    Limoges: The church of Saint-Michel-des-Lions (14th–15th century) has a tower 198 feet (65 metres) high, with a spire surmounted by a big bronze ball; it also has fine 15th-century stained-glass windows. The 18th-century Palais de l’évêché now houses the municipal museum, which has a large collection of…

  • Saint-Mihiel (France)

    Saint-Mihiel, town, Meuse département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It lies on the right bank of the Meuse River, 22 miles (35 km) south-southeast of Verdun. The town grew around a Benedictine abbey, founded in 709. The abbey buildings (17th- and 18th-century) are now occupied mainly by a

  • Saint-Mihiel, Battle of (World War I [1918])

    Battle of Saint-Mihiel, (12–16 September 1918), Allied victory and the first U.S.-led offensive in World War I. The Allied attack against the Saint-Mihiel salient provided the Americans with an opportunity to use their forces on the Western Front en masse. Although lacking some of the tactical

  • Saint-Nazaire (France)

    Saint-Nazaire, town and seaport, Loire-Atlantique département, Pays de la Loire région, western France. It lies on the right bank of the Loire River estuary, 38 miles (61 km) west-northwest of Nantes. Saint-Nazaire is thought to be the site of the ancient Gallo-Roman seaport of Corbilo. It was

  • Saint-Nazaire, Cathedral of (cathedral, Béziers, France)

    Béziers: The former cathedral of Saint-Nazaire, dominating the old town, is a typical ecclesiastical fortification of the 13th–14th century. The street named for Paul Riquet, who built the Canal of the Midi, separates the old town (west) from the modern.

  • Saint-Nicolas tower (tower, La Rochelle, France)

    La Rochelle: The pentagonal Saint-Nicolas Tower, the larger of the two, is an imposing fortress with crenellated walls and a keep. Opposite it stands the Tower de la Cha?ne, so named because at night a big chain was strung between it and Saint-Nicolas Tower to close the port. In…

  • Saint-Nicolas, M?le (Haiti)

    M?le Saint-Nicolas, village, just northeast of Cap Saint-Nicolas, on the northwestern coast of Haiti. Situated on an inlet of the Windward Passage (a strait between Haiti and Cuba), it is the site where Christopher Columbus first landed (Dec. 6, 1492) on the island, which he named La Isla Espa?ola

  • Saint-Non, Jean-Claude Richard, abbé de (French art patron)

    Jean-Honoré Fragonard: …a wealthy French amateur artist, Jean-Claude Richard, abbé de Saint-Non, who was to become one of his chief patrons. Early in 1760 Saint-Non took Fragonard and Robert on a prolonged tour of Italy, where the two artists studied Italian paintings and antiquities and made hundreds of sketches of local scenery.

  • Saint-Omer (France)

    Saint-Omer, town, Pas-de-Calais département, Hauts-de-France région, northeastern France. It lies along the canalized Aa River and is 22 miles (36 km) southwest of the Belgian frontier. The town grew around a monastery and a chapel, founded in the 7th century by St. Omer and his companions. The

  • Saint-Ouen (France)

    Saint-Ouen, town, northern industrial suburb of Paris, Seine–Saint-Denis département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. It is bounded to the northwest by the Seine River, along the banks of which are vast docks. Saint-Ouen contains in its southeastern section, north of the Porte de

  • Saint-Paul, ?le (island, Indian Ocean)

    Saint Paul Island, island in the southern Indian Ocean, administratively a part of French Southern and Antarctic Territories. A volcanic island, the crater of which has been inundated by the sea, Saint Paul has an area of 2.7 square miles (7 square km) and a maximum elevation of 1,618 feet (493

  • Saint-Paulin (cheese)

    Port Salut cheese: …Anonyme des Fermiers Réunis for Saint-Paulin, a generic cheese type similar to the original Port Salut, with a mild, savoury flavour and a smooth, semisoft texture.

  • Saint-Peter’s-wort (plant)

    Saint-Andrew's-cross: …similar but shorter species is St.-Peter’s-wort (H. stans), native to southeastern North America. It has larger flowers and leaves that clasp the stem.

  • Saint-Philippe-du-Roule (church, Paris, France)

    Jean-Fran?ois-Thérèse Chalgrin: His Saint-Philippe-du-Roule (designed 1764) was the main church of this type in Paris. Prominent features of the interior are twin rows of columns, extending down the sides of the nave and around the periphery of the apse, that support a coffered barrel-vault ceiling. The structure is…

  • Saint-Pierre (Martinique)

    Saint-Pierre, town and small port on the island of Martinique, in the West Indies. Founded in 1635 by French settlers, it was the island’s commercial centre until May 8, 1902, when Mount Pelée erupted, killing all but two inhabitants of the town—a prisoner in a strong underground jail cell and a

  • Saint-Pierre (island, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

    Saint-Pierre and Miquelon: But the island of Saint-Pierre, only 10 square miles (26 square km) in area, has almost 90 percent of the total population and is the administrative and commercial centre.

  • Saint-Pierre (Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

    Saint-Pierre, port town on the eastern shore of Saint-Pierre island and capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Settled by European fishermen in the 17th century, the town grew in the 19th century as a service and supply

  • Saint-Pierre (cathedral, Poitiers, France)

    Poitiers: The Saint-Pierre cathedral (12th–16th century), built largely in the local Gothic style known as Angevin (after the counts of Anjou and their descendants), has a Crucifixion window (12th century) that is said to be a gift of Henry II of England. The carved wooden pews in…

  • Saint-Pierre (chapel, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France)

    Villefranche-sur-Mer: Its ancient Saint-Pierre chapel was entirely decorated by the French 20th-century writer and artist Jean Cocteau. The citadel was built in 1560, under the rule of the duke of Savoy. The town overlooks a beautiful roadstead that is well sheltered and is often used by naval and…

  • Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (archipelago, North America)

    Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, archipelago about 15 miles (25 km) off the southern coast of the island of Newfoundland, Canada, a collectivité of France since 1985. The area of the main islands is 93 square miles (242 square km), 83 square miles (215 square km) of which are in the Miquelons (Miquelon

  • Saint-Pierre, Abbey Church of (church, Vienne, France)

    Vienne: The former Abbey Church of Saint-Pierre was begun in the 4th century and is one of the oldest Christian churches in France. It now houses a museum of Roman sculptures and other antiquities. The largest church in the town is Saint-Maurice Cathedral, which was built in the…

  • Saint-Pierre, Cathedral of (cathedral, Angoulême, France)

    Angoulême: The Cathedral of Saint-Pierre (1105–28; restored 19th century) is a domed Romanesque-Byzantine structure whose elaborate facade, enriched with Romanesque sculpture, contrasts sharply with the stark aisleless interior. Angoulême’s old city ramparts have been razed to make way for boulevards with extensive views.

  • Saint-Pierre, Cathedral of (cathedral, Beauvais, France)

    Beauvais: The cathedral of Saint-Pierre was ambitiously conceived as the largest in Europe; the apse and transept have survived several collapses, and the choir (157 feet [48 metres]) remains the loftiest ever built. The whole dates from the 10th to the 16th century, with the Romanesque church…

  • Saint-Pierre, Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de (French author)

    Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de Saint-Pierre, influential French publicist and reformist, one of the first modern European writers to propose an international organization for maintaining peace. In 1693 Saint-Pierre gained a footing at court as almoner to the Duchess d’Orléans, who presented him

  • Saint-Pierre-de-la-Pointe-aux-Esquimaux (Quebec, Canada)

    Havre-Saint-Pierre, village, C?te-Nord (North Shore) region, eastern Quebec province, Canada. It lies along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, north of Anticosti Island. Settled in 1857 as an Acadian fishing community, it was known as Saint-Pierre-de-la-Pointe-aux-Esquimaux until the

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