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  • Siren (Greek mythology)

    Siren, in Greek mythology, a creature half bird and half woman who lured sailors to destruction by the sweetness of her song. According to Homer, there were two Sirens on an island in the western sea between Aeaea and the rocks of Scylla. Later the number was usually increased to three, and they

  • siren (amphibian family)

    Siren, (family Sirenidae), any member of the family Sirenidae (order Caudata), a group of five North American species of aquatic salamanders that resemble eels. Their long slender bodies are usually brown, dark gray, or greenish. The forelegs are tiny, and the hind legs and pelvis are absent. Young

  • siren (warning device)

    Siren, noisemaking device producing a piercing sound of definite pitch. Used as a warning signal, it was invented in the late 18th century by the Scottish natural philosopher John Robison. The name was given it by the French engineer Charles Cagniard de La Tour, who devised an acoustical

  • Siren (album by Roxy Music)

    Roxy Music: …in the United States with Siren and its hit single “Love Is the Drug” in 1975. Splitting, re-forming, and splitting again, Roxy Music had commercial success with its albums in the late 1970s and early 1980s, most notably with its final studio album, Avalon (1982), but failed to regain its…

  • Siren intermedia (amphibian)

    siren: The lesser siren (S. intermedia) is about 18–65 cm (7.1–25.6 inches) long and is found from South Carolina to Texas and in the Mississippi River valley northward to Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin. The reticulated siren (S. reticulata) is roughly 61 cm (24 inches) long and is…

  • Siren lacertina (salamander)

    siren: The greater siren (Siren lacertina) is 50–90 cm (20–35 inches) long and occurs in the Atlantic coastal states of the United States from Delaware southward to Florida and westward to northern Mexico. The lesser siren (S. intermedia) is about 18–65 cm (7.1–25.6 inches) long and is…

  • Siren reticulata (amphibian)

    siren: The reticulated siren (S. reticulata) is roughly 61 cm (24 inches) long and is found in shallow marshlands from Alabama through Florida’s panhandle. The dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus striatus) lives in waterways from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and the narrow-striped dwarf siren (P. axanthus) inhabits…

  • Sirena Deep (submarine feature, Pacific Ocean)

    Mariana Trench: …the location) and later renamed Sirena Deep—is situated south of Guam and east of Challenger Deep. First encountered in 1997, its depth has been reported variously as 34,911 and 35,463 feet (10,641 and 10,809 metres).

  • Sirenbang (Chinese politicians)

    Gang of Four, the most powerful members of a radical political elite convicted for implementing the harsh policies directed by Chinese Communist Party (CCP) chairman Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). The group included Mao’s third wife, Jiang Qing, and Wang Hongwen, Zhang

  • Sirenia (mammal)

    Sirenian, (order Sirenia), any of four large aquatic mammalian species now living primarily in tropical waters where food plants grow. The three species of manatee (genus Trichechus) occupy warm latitudes of the coastal Atlantic and associated rivers, and the dugong (Dugong dugon) inhabits the

  • sirenian (mammal)

    Sirenian, (order Sirenia), any of four large aquatic mammalian species now living primarily in tropical waters where food plants grow. The three species of manatee (genus Trichechus) occupy warm latitudes of the coastal Atlantic and associated rivers, and the dugong (Dugong dugon) inhabits the

  • Sirenidae (amphibian family)

    Siren, (family Sirenidae), any member of the family Sirenidae (order Caudata), a group of five North American species of aquatic salamanders that resemble eels. Their long slender bodies are usually brown, dark gray, or greenish. The forelegs are tiny, and the hind legs and pelvis are absent. Young

  • sirenin (pheromone)

    fungus: Sexual pheromones: … (order Blastocladiales) a pheromone named sirenin, secreted by the female gametes, attracts the male gametes, which swim toward the former and fuse with them. In some simple fungi, which may have gametangia that are not differentiated structurally, a complex biochemical interplay between mating types produces trisporic acid, a pheromone that…

  • Sirenoidea (amphibian suborder)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Suborder Sirenoidea Mode of fertilization unknown; angular bone fused with prearticular bone in lower jaw; only anterior pair of limbs present; external gills; aquatic. Family Sirenidae (sirens and dwarf sirens) Small to very large, to about 100 cm; predators; inhabitants of lowland waters; Late Cretaceous (100.5

  • Sirenoidei (fish)

    lungfish: Annotated classification: Order Ceratodontiformes 1 functional lung. Family Ceratodontidae Pectoral and pelvic fins reduced but not tentacle-like. Fin rays present; scales large; larvae without external gills. Length to about 1.25 metres (about 4 feet). 1 living species, Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri). Order

  • sirenomelia (congenital disorder)

    malformation: Somatic characters: …with no separate feet (sirenomelus or symmelus).

  • sirenomelus (congenital disorder)

    malformation: Somatic characters: …with no separate feet (sirenomelus or symmelus).

  • Sirens of Titan, The (novel by Vonnegut)

    Kurt Vonnegut: For his second novel, The Sirens of Titan (1959), Vonnegut imagined a scenario in which the entire history of the human race is considered an accident attendant on an alien planet’s search for a spare part for a spaceship.

  • Sirens, Knuckles and Boots (work by Brutus)

    Dennis Brutus: Brutus’s first collection of poetry, Sirens, Knuckles and Boots (1963), was published in Nigeria while he was in prison. His verse, while political in nature, is highly developed and restrained: “. . . all our land is scarred with terror / rendered unlovely and unlovable; / sundered are we and…

  • Siret River (river, Europe)

    Siret River, river, rising on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains in western Ukraine and flowing generally southward about 360 miles (575 km) across eastern Romania to enter the Danube River west of Gala?i. Its upper course cuts longitudinally through a wide valley with a sinuous

  • Sirhak (Korean political philosophy)

    Silhak, (Korean: “Practical Learning”), school of thought that came into existence in the midst of the chaotic conditions of 18th-century Korea, dedicated to a practical approach to statecraft, instead of the blind and uncritical following of Confucian teachings. The Silhak school attacked

  • Sirhan, Sirhan (Palestinian-born Jordanian assassin)

    Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian-born Jordanian citizen who was convicted (1969) of fatally shooting U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy on June 5, 1968. He received the death penalty, but the sentence was later commuted to life. Sirhan, a Christian Palestinian, was born in Jerusalem. In 1948 Jordan took control

  • Sirhan, Sirhan Bishara (Palestinian-born Jordanian assassin)

    Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian-born Jordanian citizen who was convicted (1969) of fatally shooting U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy on June 5, 1968. He received the death penalty, but the sentence was later commuted to life. Sirhan, a Christian Palestinian, was born in Jerusalem. In 1948 Jordan took control

  • Sir?ān, Wadi Al- (river, Arabia)

    Al-Qurayyāt: The valley of the Wadi Sirhān is the main physical feature of the area; it formerly served as an important caravan route from the Mediterranean to the central and southern parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Al-Qurayyāt is sparsely populated. Al-Nabk is its capital. Pop. (2004 prelim.) 100,436.

  • Sirhind Canal (canal, India)

    Sirhind Canal, canal in Punjab state, northwestern India. It opened in 1882 and consists of an extensive canal system that irrigates more than 2,000 square miles (5,200 square km) of farmland. The system’s headworks, where it draws its water, are on the Sutlej River at Ropar, near the border of

  • Sirhindī, Shaykh A?mad (Indian mystic and theologian)

    Shaykh A?mad Sirhindī, Indian mystic and theologian who was largely responsible for the reassertion and revival in India of orthodox Sunnite Islam as a reaction against the syncretistic religious tendencies prevalent during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar. Shaykh A?mad, who through his

  • Siri (computer application)

    Apple Inc.: Apple refocuses on key markets: …contained a personal assistant program, Siri, that could respond to spoken commands and questions (2011), and the iPad Mini, a smaller version of the iPad (2012). In 2014 Apple made its largest acquisition by buying the headphone manufacturer and music-streaming company Beats for $3 billion. The following year Apple introduced…

  • Siribunyasan (king of Vientiane)

    Siribunyasan, king of the Lao principality of Vientiane during whose reign Laos came to be dominated by Siam (Thailand). When Siribunyasan succeeded his father, Ong Rong, on the throne in about 1760, Laos was divided into rival states, Vientiane itself was split in factions, and Burmese armies

  • Sirica, John (United States judge)

    John Sirica, U.S. district court judge whose search for the truth about the 1972 Watergate break-in was the first step leading to the resignation of Pres. Richard M. Nixon. Sirica was raised in poverty in several eastern American cities and, after supporting his studies by boxing, received his law

  • Sirica, John Joseph (United States judge)

    John Sirica, U.S. district court judge whose search for the truth about the 1972 Watergate break-in was the first step leading to the resignation of Pres. Richard M. Nixon. Sirica was raised in poverty in several eastern American cities and, after supporting his studies by boxing, received his law

  • Siricidae (insect)

    Horntail, (family Siricidae), any of about 85 species of solitary (nonsocial), primitive wasps (order Hymenoptera), classified in five different genera, that are moderately large, some reaching 3.75 cm (about 1.5 inches) in length. The cylindrical body is usually brown, blue, or black, often with

  • Siricius, Saint (pope)

    Saint Siricius, ; feast day November 26), pope from 384 to 399. Ordained a deacon by Pope Liberius, he was elected as Pope St. Damasus I’s successor in December 384. His famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions

  • Sirico, Tony (American actor)

    The Sopranos: (Tony Sirico), and Sil (Steve Van Zandt) form Tony’s trusted inner circle, through whom Tony’s business deals are played out. The themes of identity, guilt, and denial are highlighted by the selective acknowledgment of the harsh realities of Tony’s crime world by his wife, Carmela…

  • sirige (African mask)

    African art: Dogon and Tellem: One type of mask, called sirige, has a tall, flat projection above the face (a feature found also in the masks of the neighbouring Mossi and Bobo), which is said to represent a multistory house. The Great Mask, which is never worn and is made anew every 60 years, represents…

  • Sirion (mountain, Lebanon-Syria)

    Mount Hermon, snowcapped ridge on the Lebanon-Syria border west of Damascus. It rises to 9,232 feet (2,814 metres) and is the highest point on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is sometimes considered the southernmost extension of the Anti-Lebanon range. At its foot rise the two major

  • Sirionó (people)

    Sirionó, South American Indian people of eastern Bolivia. They live in the dense tropical forests of the eastern and northern parts of the department of Beni. Unlike other Indians of the Chiquitos-Moxos region, the Sirionó are linguistically Tupians (q.v.) who long ago became separated from the

  • SIRIS (physics)

    spectroscopy: Sputter atomization: In contrast, the sputter-initiated RIS (SIRIS) method takes advantage of the much more numerous neutral atoms emitted in the sputtering process. In SIRIS devices the secondary ions are rejected because the yield of these ions can be greatly affected by the composition of the host material (known as…

  • siris (plant species)

    albizia: Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to tropical Asia and Australia, grows about 24 metres tall and bears pods 23–30 cm long. Both species are common ornamental trees.

  • Siris (work by Berkeley)

    George Berkeley: Years as bishop of Cloyne: Siris (1744) passed through some six editions in six months. It is at once a treatise on the medicinal virtues of tar-water (a mixture of water and pine tar), its making and dosage, and a philosopher’s vision of a chain of being, “a gradual evolution…

  • Siris (Greece)

    Sérrai, city and dímos (municipality), periféreia (region) of Central Macedonia (Modern Greek: Kendrikí Makedonía), northern Greece. Sérrai is situated on the east bank of the fertile agricultural valley of the Struma (Strymónas) River. The town was fortified by Byzantine emperors in their efforts

  • Sirisena, Maithripala (president of Sri Lanka)

    Sri Lanka: Reconstruction: …one of his cabinet members, Maithripala Sirisena, defected to the opposition and ran against him. Other UPFA members defected as well. In the early January 2015 polling, Sirisena scored an upset victory over Rajapaksa and was sworn in as president.

  • Sirius (French publisher and editor)

    Hubert Beuve-Méry, French publisher and editor who directed Le Monde from the paper’s founding in 1944 until 1969. Under his direction, Le Monde became an independent, self-supporting, and highly prestigious daily with a large national and international readership. From 1928 to 1939 Beuve-Méry was

  • Sirius (star)

    Sirius, brightest star in the night sky, with apparent visual magnitude ?1.46. It is a binary star in the constellation Canis Major. The bright component of the binary is a blue-white star 25.4 times as luminous as the Sun. It has a radius 1.71 times that of the Sun and a surface temperature of

  • Sirius (steamship)

    Sirius, first ship to cross the Atlantic entirely under steam. Built originally for service in the Irish Sea, the 703-ton Sirius, a side-wheeler, was chartered by the British & American Steam Navigation Company and sailed from London to New York by way of Cork in 1838 with 40 passengers. Her fuel

  • Sirius A (star)

    Sirius, brightest star in the night sky, with apparent visual magnitude ?1.46. It is a binary star in the constellation Canis Major. The bright component of the binary is a blue-white star 25.4 times as luminous as the Sun. It has a radius 1.71 times that of the Sun and a surface temperature of

  • Sirius B (star)

    Sirius: This companion star, Sirius B, is about as massive as the Sun, though much more condensed, and was the first white dwarf star to be discovered.

  • Sirius XM Radio (American company)

    radio: Radio’s digital future: …two American digital satellite services, XM and Sirius, began operating from satellite systems, each providing 100 channels of specialized music and talk programming, some with no advertising. Would-be listeners had to pay a monthly subscription fee (paying for audio content that most had long considered to be “free”), and they…

  • Sirk, Douglas (German-American director)

    Douglas Sirk, German-born American film director whose extremely popular melodramas offered cynical visions of American values. Though Sirk also directed comedies, westerns, and war films, he was most noted for his complicated family melodramas that showed frightful emotional warfare lurking

  • sirkari disease (pathology)

    Kala-azar, infectious disease that is a type of leishmaniasis

  • Sirkeli (ancient city, Turkey)

    Anatolian art and architecture: Hittite period: …this period elsewhere in Anatolia—Sirkeli, Gavur Kalesi, and Fraktin, for example—are mainly of archaeological interest. They are inferior in carving to contemporary reliefs and to those of the Iron Age, of which there is a fine example at ?vriz Harabesi in the Taurus Mountains, showing a local ruler of…

  • Sirkusdirekt?rens datter (novel by Gaarder)

    Jostein Gaarder: …Same Flower), Sirkusdirekt?rens datter (2001; The Ringmaster’s Daughter), Slottet i Pyreneene (2008; The Castle in the Pyrenees), and Dukkef?reren (2016; “The Puppet Master”).

  • Sirmium (Serbia)

    Tiberius II Constantinus: …(582) to surrender Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Yugos.). Meanwhile, the Slavs poured into Thrace, Thessaly, Illyricum, and other regions of Greece.

  • siRNA (biochemistry)

    RNA interference: RNAi in research and medicine: These pieces are called short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and are about 20 to 25 nucleotides in length. Similar to miRNA, siRNA binds to RISC and cleaves targeted sequences of mRNA.

  • sirocco (wind)

    Sirocco, warm, humid wind occurring over the northern Mediterranean Sea and southern Europe, where it blows from the south or southeast and brings uncomfortably humid air. The sirocco is produced on the east sides of low-pressure centres that travel eastward over the southern Mediterranean. It

  • Sirocco (film by Bernhardt [1951])

    Curtis Bernhardt: 1950s and ’60s: Sirocco (1951), a solid period action film, featured Bogart as a gunrunner, while The Blue Veil (1951) was a soap opera of a high order, centring on a nurse (Jane Wyman) who sets aside her own desires to serve a variety of patients over a…

  • Sirohi (India)

    Sirohi, town, southwestern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated in a tract broken by hills and rocky ranges and stands on the western slopes of Sarawan Hill (for which it is said to be named) in the Aravalli Range. Sirohi was founded in the early 15th century and was the capital of

  • ?iroky, Viliám (Czech statesman)

    Czechoslovak history: Stalinism in Czechoslovakia: …Zápotocky was elected president, while Viliám ?iroky, a Slovak, became premier; the powerful post of the party’s first secretary went to Antonín Novotny, who had played a very active role in conducting the purges. That May a monetary reform, which effectively deprived the farmers and better-paid workers of all their…

  • sirolimus (drug)

    Rapamycin, drug characterized primarily by its ability to suppress the immune system, which led to its use in the prevention of transplant rejection. Rapamycin is produced by the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The drug’s name comes from Rapa Nui, the indigenous name of Easter Island,

  • Síros (island, Greece)

    Syros, island near the centre of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, in the Aegean Sea, South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region), southeastern Greece. Its chief town and port, Hermoúpolis, on a bay of the east coast, is the capital of the nomós (department) of Cyclades. The island

  • Siroua, Mount (mountain, Morocco)

    Anti-Atlas: …High Atlas (Haut Atlas) by Mount Siroua, a volcanic peak rising to 10,840 feet (3,304 metres).

  • Siroza (Zoroastrian text)

    Zoroastrianism: Sources: The Siroza enumerates the deities presiding over the 30 days of the month. The yashts (hymns) are each addressed to one of 21 deities such as Mithra, Anahita, or Verethraghna. The Hadhoxt Nask (“Section Containing Sayings”) describes the fate of the soul after death. The Khūrda…

  • SIRS (pathology)

    sepsis: Related conditions: Sepsis is also distinguished from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a condition that can arise independent of infection (e.g., from factors such as burns or trauma).

  • Sirsa (India)

    Sirsa, city, extreme western Haryana state, northwestern India. It is situated on the edge of the Thar (Great Indian) Desert. Sirsa town and fort, known in antiquity as Sarsuti, are said to have been built by a Raja Saras (c. 250 ce). It was one of the most important 14th-century towns of northern

  • Sirt Gulf (gulf, Libya)

    Gulf of Sidra, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, indenting the Libyan coast of northern Africa. It extends eastward for 275 mi (443 km) from Mi?rātah to Banghāzī. A highway links scattered oases along its shore, which is chiefly desert, with salt marshes. In August the gulf’s water temperature reaches

  • Sirte, Battle of (World War II)

    Gulf of Sidra: …was the scene of the Battle of Sirte (March 1942), in which a British naval convoy thwarted attacks from Italian warships and German bombers. In the 1980s Libya established across the gulf a national boundary and stated that no foreign vessels were allowed to pass; this precipitated several brief military…

  • Sirte, Golfo della (gulf, Libya)

    Gulf of Sidra, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, indenting the Libyan coast of northern Africa. It extends eastward for 275 mi (443 km) from Mi?rātah to Banghāzī. A highway links scattered oases along its shore, which is chiefly desert, with salt marshes. In August the gulf’s water temperature reaches

  • Sirtica (region, Libya)

    Sirtica, sandy desert region that is essentially a northward extension of the Sahara (desert), north-central Libya; it is the site of one of the world’s largest oil fields. The region fronts the Mediterranean Sea for about 300 miles (480 km) along the southern part of the Gulf of Sidra and extends

  • sirtuin (genetics)

    aging: Sirtuins: Calorie restriction can activate genes known as sirtuins (Sir2 in yeast, Sirt1 in mice, and SIRT1 in humans). In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila, sirtuins actually function as anti-aging genes. In yeast Sir2 regulates genes across large segments of chromosomes.

  • sirventes (music)

    vocal music: Medieval and Renaissance periods: Service songs, called sirventes in southern France (Spruch in German), deal with didactic, political, or personal matters, perhaps in a satirical fashion. Other texts record events of the court, such as marriages, deaths, or participation in Crusades. Among the more traditional songs from northern France are the chansons…

  • ?irvydas, Konstantinas (Lithuanian scholar)

    Lithuanian literature: ?irvydas’ Dictionarium trium linguarum (1629), is noteworthy.

  • ?irwāh (Yemen)

    Saba?: A second major city was ?irwā?.

  • sirwāl (garment)

    Saudi Arabia: Daily life and social customs: …of slacks known as a sirwāl. In public women are expected to be fully veiled, however, and a long black cloak known as an ?abāyah is worn. A veil called a ?ijāb covers the head, and another known as a niqāb covers the face. Among Bedouin, women’s clothing is often…

  • Sis (historical state, Anatolia)

    Anatolia: The Cimmerians, Lydia, and Cilicia, c. 700–547 bce: …prince of Kundu (Cyinda) and Sissu (Sisium, modern Sis), who had allied himself with Phoenician rebels against Assyrian rule. The regions to the north of the Cilician plain repeatedly caused trouble for Assyria. Early in the reign of Ashurbanipal (668–627), however, another Cimmerian invasion threatened the Anatolian states, arousing such…

  • SIS (database)

    police: Computerization: …established a computerized information system—the Schengen Information System (SIS)—which allows the authorities of certain member states, plus some other European countries, to send or receive data about criminals, missing persons, stolen property, and other matters of interest to law enforcement officers. Each member of the EU, however, must devise its…

  • SIS (British government)

    MI6, British government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and appropriate dissemination of foreign intelligence. MI6 is also charged with the conduct of espionage activities outside British territory. It has existed in various forms since the establishment of a secret service in 1569

  • SIS (copolymer)

    styrene-butadiene and styrene-isoprene block copolymers: SBS and SIS are thermoplastic elastomers, blends that exhibit both the elasticity and resilience of butadiene rubber or isoprene rubber (natural rubber) and the ability of polystyrene to be molded and shaped under the influence of heat.

  • sis-cévap (food)

    Shish kebab, dish of small pieces of lamb threaded on a skewer and cooked over an open fire. The name of the dish is derived from the Turkish ?i?, a spit or skewer, and kebab, mutton or lamb. Variants of this dish are found throughout the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. In Greece it is

  • Sisaket (Thailand)

    Sisaket, town, eastern Thailand. Sisaket lies on the railway between Nakhon Ratchasima and Udon Thani. The surrounding area is one of Thailand’s poorest regions; rice and tobacco are the main products. The region borders Cambodia and has a substantial Khmer-speaking population. Pop. (2000)

  • sisal (plant species)

    Sisal, (Agave sisalana), plant of the family Asparagaceae and its fibre, the most important of the leaf fibre group. The plant is native to Central America, where its fibre has been used since pre-Columbian times. Commercial interest in sisal was stimulated by the development of the machine grain

  • sisal fibre (fibre)

    Agavoideae: Sisal hemp, from A. sisalana, is the most-valuable hard fibre. Henequen fibre is obtained from A. fourcroyoides and cantala, or Manila-Maguey fibre, from A. cantala. Some species of Agave, notably A. tequilana, contain a sap that is fermented to produce alcoholic drinks,

  • sisal hemp (fibre)

    Agavoideae: Sisal hemp, from A. sisalana, is the most-valuable hard fibre. Henequen fibre is obtained from A. fourcroyoides and cantala, or Manila-Maguey fibre, from A. cantala. Some species of Agave, notably A. tequilana, contain a sap that is fermented to produce alcoholic drinks,

  • Sisar (Iran)

    Sanandaj, city, capital of Kordestan province, northwestern Iran. It is located at an elevation of 4,990 feet (1,521 metres) at the foot of Mount Abidar. The city was called Sisar, meaning “30 heads,” in the itineraries of Ibn Khuradādhbih and Qudāmeh. The population is mostly Kurdish. The city was

  • Sisco, Joseph John (American diplomat)

    Joseph John Sisco, American diplomat (born Oct. 31, 1919, Chicago, Ill.—died Nov. 23, 2004, Chevy Chase, Md.), shaped American foreign policy in the Middle East as the chief mediator for that region from 1968 to 1976. Widely regarded as then secretary of state Henry Kissinger’s top aide, Sisco u

  • siserskite (mineral)

    iridosmine: …osmium than iridium are called siserskite. Both iridosmine and siserskite crystallize in the hexagonal system. For detailed properties, see native element (table).

  • Sishu (Confucian texts)

    Sishu, (Chinese: “Four Books”) four ancient Confucian texts that were used as official subject matter for civil service examinations in China from 1313 to 1905 and that usually serve to introduce Chinese students to Confucian literature. Students later turn to the more extensive and, generally

  • Sisi, Abdel Fattah al- (president of Egypt)

    Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Egyptian military officer who became Egypt’s de facto leader in July 2013, after the country’s military removed Pres. Mohammed Morsi from power following mass protests against his rule. Sisi was elected president in May 2014 and elected to a second term in March 2018. Sisi

  • Sisimiut (Greenland)

    Sisimiut, town on the west-central coast of Greenland, near the mouth of Amerloq Fjord. The Danish settled the site in 1764, and a church (still standing) was built in 1773. The Gammelhuset (Old House), constructed in 1756, served as the residence of the first Danish governor of Greenland.

  • Sisines, Archelaus (king of Cappadocia)

    Archelaus, last king of Cappadocia (reigned 36 bc–c. ad 17), a Roman client during the late republic and the early empire. Although granted the kingdom by Mark Antony, Archelaus retained his crown by making peace with Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) after Antony’s defeat at the Battle of

  • Sisinnes (Persian governor)

    Tattenai, Persian governor of the province west of the Euphrates River (eber nāri, “beyond the river”) during the reign of Darius I (522–486 bce). According to the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) Book of Ezra, Tattenai led an investigation into the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem about 519 bce.

  • Sisinnius (pope)

    Sisinnius, pope from Jan. 15 to Feb. 4, 708. He was consecrated about Jan. 15, 708. Threatened by the exarch of Ravenna, the Lombards, and the Muslims, Sisinnius ordered the walls of Rome reinforced. He was buried in St. Peter’s

  • Sisium (historical state, Anatolia)

    Anatolia: The Cimmerians, Lydia, and Cilicia, c. 700–547 bce: …prince of Kundu (Cyinda) and Sissu (Sisium, modern Sis), who had allied himself with Phoenician rebels against Assyrian rule. The regions to the north of the Cilician plain repeatedly caused trouble for Assyria. Early in the reign of Ashurbanipal (668–627), however, another Cimmerian invasion threatened the Anatolian states, arousing such…

  • Siskel & Ebert (American television program)

    Roger Ebert: …Ebert & the Movies (later Siskel & Ebert). As part of his on-air commentary, Ebert originated the famed thumbs-up, thumbs-down rating system, and the phrase “two thumbs up” was later copyrighted. Each week Ebert and Siskel carried on unscripted discussions of the films they reviewed, and their immense popularity was…

  • Siskel & Ebert & the Movies (American television program)

    Roger Ebert: …Ebert & the Movies (later Siskel & Ebert). As part of his on-air commentary, Ebert originated the famed thumbs-up, thumbs-down rating system, and the phrase “two thumbs up” was later copyrighted. Each week Ebert and Siskel carried on unscripted discussions of the films they reviewed, and their immense popularity was…

  • Siskel, Eugene Kal (American journalist and critic)

    Gene Siskel, American journalist and film critic for the Chicago Tribune who became one of the most-influential movie reviewers in the United States when he teamed up with fellow film critic Roger Ebert from the rival Chicago Sun-Times on a weekly television program. Their signature “thumbs up” or

  • Siskel, Gene (American journalist and critic)

    Gene Siskel, American journalist and film critic for the Chicago Tribune who became one of the most-influential movie reviewers in the United States when he teamed up with fellow film critic Roger Ebert from the rival Chicago Sun-Times on a weekly television program. Their signature “thumbs up” or

  • siskin (bird)

    Siskin, any of about 20 small brown-streaked birds, marked with yellow, that belong chiefly to the genus Carduelis (including Spinus) of the family Fringillidae. Siskins occur from cold northern regions, worldwide, to the Cape of Good Hope and to Cape Horn. All have conical bills and short forked

  • Siskind, Aaron (American photographer)

    Aaron Siskind, influential American teacher, editor, and photographer who is best known for his innovations in abstract photography. Siskind began to photograph in 1932, while he was an English teacher in the New York City public-school system. As a member of the Photo League, he participated in

  • Sisler, George (American baseball player)

    George Sisler, American professional baseball player, considered by some the greatest of all first basemen. As a student at the University of Michigan, Sisler excelled in baseball, football, and basketball. He entered the major leagues directly with the St. Louis Browns of the American League in

  • Sisler, George Harold (American baseball player)

    George Sisler, American professional baseball player, considered by some the greatest of all first basemen. As a student at the University of Michigan, Sisler excelled in baseball, football, and basketball. He entered the major leagues directly with the St. Louis Browns of the American League in

  • Sisley, Alfred (French painter)

    Alfred Sisley, painter who was one of the creators of French Impressionism. Although his wealthy English parents had originally intended him for commerce, Sisley began painting as an amateur, and in Charles Gleyre’s studio in 1862 he began his association with Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir,

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