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  • Six Articles, Act of (British history)

    Thomas Cranmer: Archbishop of Canterbury: …far from comfortable after the Act of Six Articles (1539), which attacked those advocating marriage of the clergy and those denying transubstantiation, and Cromwell’s fall in 1540.

  • Six Bookes of a Commonweale, The (work by Bodin)

    history of Europe: Political, economic, and social background: …able to write, in his Six Books of the Commonweal, that the king of France had absolute sovereignty because he alone in the kingdom had the power to give law unto all of his subjects in general and to every one of them in particular.

  • Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs (work by Copernicus)

    Aristarchus of Samos: In his manuscript of Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs (1543), Copernicus cited Aristarchus as an ancient authority who had espoused the motion of Earth. However, Copernicus later crossed out this reference, and Aristarchus’s theory was not mentioned in the published book.

  • Six Books of Instructions for Baptismal Candidates (work by Nicetas)

    Nicetas of Remesiana: …his principal doctrinal work, the Competentibus ad baptismum instructionis libelli sex (“Six Books of Instructions for Baptismal Candidates”). The lengthy excerpts from this catechetical series, particularly “On the Meaning of Faith,” “On the Power of the Holy Spirit,” and the “Commentary on the Apostolic-Nicene Creed,” indicate that Nicetas stressed the…

  • Six Books of Politics or Political Instruction (work by Lipsius)

    Stoicism: Revival of Stoicism in modern times: …civilis doctrinae libri sex (1589; Six Books of Politics or Political Instruction) were widely known in many editions and translations. His defense of Stoic doctrine in Manuductio ad Stoicam Philosophiam (1604; Digest of Stoic Philosophy) and Physiologia Stoicorum (1604; Physics of the Stoics) provided the basis for the considerable Stoic…

  • Six Characters in Search of an Author (play by Pirandello)

    Six Characters in Search of an Author, play in three acts by Luigi Pirandello, produced and published in Italian in 1921 as Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore. Introducing Pirandello’s device of the “theatre within the theatre,” the play explores various levels of illusion and reality. It had a great

  • Six Characters in Search of an Author (opera by Weisgall)

    Hugo Weisgall: …completed his first full-length opera, Six Characters in Search of an Author, an adaptation of Luigi Pirandello’s play by that name. His next opera, Purgatory (1958), based on a poem by William Butler Yeats, marked his first attempt at 12-tone composition, an atonal musical style that characterized much of his…

  • Six Colonies of New Zealand, The (work by Fox)

    Sir William Fox: …leading up to the constitution, The Six Colonies of New Zealand, was published in 1851.

  • Six Dance Lessons in Six Weeks (film by Seidelman [2014])

    Gena Rowlands: …younger daughter, Zoe Cassavetes), and Six Dance Lessons in Six Weeks (2014).

  • Six Degrees of Separation (film by Schepisi [1993])

    John Guare: …1993 adaptation of his play Six Degrees of Separation.

  • Six Dynasties (Chinese history)

    Six Dynasties, (ad 220–589), in China, the period between the end of the Han dynasty in ad 220 and the final conquest of South China (589) by the Sui (established in 581 in North China). The name is derived from the six successive dynasties of South China that had their capitals at Jianye (later

  • Six Edicts (French history)

    Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, baron de l'Aulne: Ministry: He introduced his Six Edicts in 1776. Four of them (suppressing certain dues and offices) were of no great importance, and the fifth (suppressing the guilds of Paris) encountered no serious opposition. It was against the sixth edict, that abolishing the corvée, that his enemies, who defended privilege,…

  • Six Feet Under (American television series)

    Six Feet Under, highly praised American television drama that aired on the Home Box Office (HBO) network for five seasons (2001–05) and won numerous awards, including nine Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. Created by Alan Ball, who won an Academy Award for his screenplay for American

  • Six Flags, Inc. (American company)

    roller coaster: Introduction of steel coasters: …which arrived in 1966 at Six Flags over Texas. Toomer, who designed some 80 rides for Arrow, worked on the company’s helix-shaped corkscrew coaster, which first appeared at Knott’s Berry Farm (Buena Park, Calif.) in 1975. It added 360-degree rolls to the coaster design canon—the first inversion of the modern…

  • Six Iroquois Nations (American Indian confederation)

    Iroquois Confederacy, confederation of five (later six) Indian tribes across upper New York state that during the 17th and 18th centuries played a strategic role in the struggle between the French and British for mastery of North America. The five original Iroquois nations were the Mohawk

  • Six Livres de la république (work by Bodin)

    history of Europe: Political, economic, and social background: …able to write, in his Six Books of the Commonweal, that the king of France had absolute sovereignty because he alone in the kingdom had the power to give law unto all of his subjects in general and to every one of them in particular.

  • Six Masters of the early Ch’ing period (Chinese artists)

    Six Masters of the early Qing period, Group of major Chinese artists who worked in the 17th and early 18th centuries (Qing dynasty). Also known as “orthodox masters,” they continued the tradition of the scholar-painter, following the injunctions of the artist-critic Dong Qichang late in the Ming

  • Six Masters of the early Qing period (Chinese artists)

    Six Masters of the early Qing period, Group of major Chinese artists who worked in the 17th and early 18th centuries (Qing dynasty). Also known as “orthodox masters,” they continued the tradition of the scholar-painter, following the injunctions of the artist-critic Dong Qichang late in the Ming

  • Six Mile Prairie (Illinois, United States)

    Granite City, city, Madison county, southwestern Illinois, U.S. Situated on the Mississippi River just northeast of St. Louis, Missouri, it lies within that city’s metropolitan area. Granite City was first settled in the early 19th century as a farming community and known as Six Mile Prairie,

  • Six Million Dollar Man, The (American television show)

    The Six Million Dollar Man, American television show, a science-fiction thriller about a secret agent whose body was equipped with a number of electromechanical aids. The show aired on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) network for five seasons (1974–78). In The Six Million Dollar Man, Col.

  • Six Months in Mexico (work by Bly)

    Nellie Bly: …articles were subsequently collected in Six Months in Mexico (1888).

  • Six Moral Tales (work by Rohmer)

    éric Rohmer: …scripts were later published as Six Moral Tales (1977).

  • Six Nations (American Indian confederation)

    Iroquois Confederacy, confederation of five (later six) Indian tribes across upper New York state that during the 17th and 18th centuries played a strategic role in the struggle between the French and British for mastery of North America. The five original Iroquois nations were the Mohawk

  • Six Nations Championship (rugby)

    Six Nations Championship, annual rugby competition between the national teams of the six most prominent European rugby-playing countries (England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales). It is the most significant international rugby competition that takes place solely in the Northern

  • Six of a Kind (film by McCarey [1934])

    George Burns: …Broadcast (1932), International House (1933), Six of a Kind (1934), Love in Bloom (1935), and College Swing (1938). A Damsel in Distress (1937) provided the team with their best screen roles; the film is particularly memorable for two intricate dance routines performed by Burns, Allen, and Fred Astaire.

  • Six Party Talks

    Agreed Framework: …larger process known as the Six Party Talks, which included the U.S, South Korea, Japan, China, and Russia.

  • Six Persimmons (painting by Muqi Fachang)

    Muqi Fachang: …paintings associated with Muqi include Six Persimmons; a triptych with a white-robed Guanyin at the centre flanked on either side by a scroll of monkeys and a crane; and a surviving set of four sections of an original set of Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers. However the…

  • Six Pieces for Orchestra (work by Webern)

    Anton Webern: Legacy: …even “programmatic,” such as the Six Pieces for Orchestra (1909), which, according to the composer himself, describe episodes connected with his mother’s death. Formal plans, revealing definite extramusical associations, preface sketches to various instrumental compositions, even in the later period. Similarly, literary affinities result in a preponderance of vocal works.

  • Six Principles (philosophy of painting)

    art criticism: …century), who offered the “Six Principles” for great art—a major principle being the qi yun sheng dong (“spirit resonance, life-motion”)—and to literati, who wrote biographies of great artists. For these and other regional approaches to art evaluation and historiography, see art, African; arts, Central Asian; arts, East Asian; arts,…

  • Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi (work by Borges and Bioy Casares)

    Adolfo Bioy Casares: …para Don Isidro Parodi (1942; Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi) and Crónicas de Bustos Domecq (1967; Chronicles of Bustos Domecq), both of which satirize a variety of Argentine personalities. The two also edited Los mejores cuentos policiales (1943; “The Greatest Detective Stories”), a two-volume book of gaucho poetry (Poesía…

  • Six Schools (Hindu philosophy)

    āstika, in Indian philosophy, any orthodox school of thought, defined as one that accepts the authority of the Vedas (sacred scriptures of ancient India); the superiority of the Brahmans (the class of priests), who are the expositors of the law (dharma); and a society made up of the four

  • six scripts (Chinese writing)

    Chinese writing: Characteristics: …characters into six types (called liu shu, “six scripts”), the most common of which is xingsheng, a type of character that combines a semantic element (called a radical) with a phonetic element intended to remind the reader of the word’s pronunciation. The phonetic element is usually a contracted form of…

  • Six Years (work by Lippard)

    Lucy Lippard: Publication of Six Years (1973), an innovative work she edited and annotated to record the contemporaneous evolution of conceptual art, further cemented her reputation.

  • Six, Les (French composers)

    Les Six, (French: “The Six”) group of early 20th-century French composers whose music represents a strong reaction against the heavy German Romanticism of Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, as well as against the chromaticism and lush orchestration of Claude Debussy. Les Six were Darius Milhaud,

  • Six, Robert Forman (American businessman)

    Continental Airlines, Inc.: …came under the control of Robert Forman Six (president 1938–82), who gave the airline the name Continental and, in the following decades, transformed the shoestring operation into one of the major American transportation companies, headquartered first in Denver and then (from 1963) in Los Angeles, California. By the 1970s it…

  • six-day race (cycling)

    Six-day race, form of indoor bicycle racing in which riders race continuously for six days with only brief stops for rest and refreshment. The contestant who covers the greatest distance in the allotted time is the winner. This type of competition achieved early popularity in the United States,

  • Six-Day War (Middle East [1967])

    Six-Day War, brief war that took place June 5–10, 1967, and was the third of the Arab-Israeli wars. Israel’s decisive victory included the capture of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Old City of Jerusalem, and Golan Heights; the status of these territories subsequently became a major

  • six-eyed crab spider (arachnid)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Sicariidae (six-eyed crab spiders) About 130 species of Southern Hemisphere deserts; includes genus Loxosceles (recluse spiders). Large, 6 eyes, low carapace; legs extended toward sides; burrow in sand. Family Theridiosomatidae (ray spiders) More than 100 species. Globular abdomen; high clypeus

  • six-note scale (music)

    Hexatonic scale, musical scale containing six different tones within an octave. Using the syllables ut, re, me, fa, sol, and la to refer to the pitches, the 11th-century Italian theorist Guido d’Arezzo identified three hexatonic scales—which he called hexachords—built of whole- and half-step

  • six-pack bezique (card game)

    bezique: …four (rubicon bezique), six (Chinese bezique), and even eight decks. Bezique all but died out in the 20th century under the pressure of rummy games, which are quicker and simpler.

  • six-spotted leafhopper (insect)

    leafhopper: The six-spotted leafhopper (Macrosteles fascifrons) is greenish yellow with six black spots. It produces several generations per year. It infects asters and other garden plants and transmits aster yellow virus, which causes excessive branching, stunted growth, and foliage to turn yellow.

  • six-spotted tiger beetle (insect)

    tiger beetle: The six-spotted tiger beetle (C. sexguttata), which is a commonly occurring species in eastern North America, is distinguished by its shiny bluish green colour and by six white markings on its elytra.

  • six-tone scale (music)

    Hexatonic scale, musical scale containing six different tones within an octave. Using the syllables ut, re, me, fa, sol, and la to refer to the pitches, the 11th-century Italian theorist Guido d’Arezzo identified three hexatonic scales—which he called hexachords—built of whole- and half-step

  • SixDegrees.com (American company)

    social network: Early pioneers: com and SixDegrees.com. Classmates.com, founded in 1995, used an aggressive pop-up advertising campaign to draw Web surfers to its site. It based its social network on the existing connection between members of high school and college graduating classes, armed service branches, and workplaces. SixDegrees.com was the first…

  • Sixers (American basketball team)

    Philadelphia 76ers, American professional basketball team based in Philadelphia. The franchise has won three National Basketball Association (NBA) championships (1955, 1967, and 1983) and has advanced to the NBA finals on nine occasions. Often referred to simply as the Sixers, the team is the

  • sixfold rotational symmetry (crystallography)

    quasicrystal: Translational periodicity and symmetry: …Figure 1 has axes of sixfold rotational symmetry passing through each atomic position. The arrows represent translational symmetries of this crystalline structure. That is, if the entire array of atoms is displaced along one of these arrows, say the one labeled a, all new atomic positions coincide with the locations…

  • Sixpenny Song, A (novel by Johnston)

    Jennifer Johnston: …an Irish family’s struggles, and A Sixpenny Song (2013) centres on a woman who uncovers family secrets after inheriting her estranged father’s house following his death. She also wrote short stories and plays, such as Three Monologues: Twinkletoes; Mustn’t Forget High Noon; Christine (1995) and The Desert Lullaby: A Play…

  • Sixteen (French political committee)

    France: The Wars of Religion: …a central committee called the Sixteen set up a Committee of Public Safety and conducted a reign of terror in a manner similar to the much more famous one that occurred during the revolution 200 years later. Paradoxically, this genuinely populist and revolutionary element in the Holy League paved the…

  • sixteen (number)

    number symbolism: 16: Because 16 is the square of 4, it inherits favourable attributes. It was popular in ancient India; the Vedas talk of 16-fold incantations, and the Chinese-Indian goddess Pussa has 16 arms. The Rosicrucians believed that nature consisted of 16 elements.

  • Sixteen Candles (film by Hughes [1984])

    John Hughes: Sixteen Candles (1984), followed by The Breakfast Club (1985) and Pretty in Pink (1986), made stars out of a group of young actors—Molly Ringwald, Emilio Estevez, and Judd Nelson, among them—who collectively became known as the Brat Pack. (This name was a play on

  • Sixteen Kingdoms (ancient kingdom, China)

    China: The Shiliuguo (Sixteen Kingdoms) in the north (303–439): The term Sixteen Kingdoms traditionally denotes the plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that from 303 came to rule the whole or parts of northern China. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks (such as the Xiongnu,…

  • Sixteenth Amendment (United States Constitution)

    Sixteenth Amendment, amendment (1913) to the Constitution of the United States permitting a federal income tax. Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution empowers Congress to “lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare

  • Sixth Amendment (United States Constitution)

    Sixth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that effectively established the procedures governing criminal courts. Based on the principle that justice delayed is justice denied, the amendment balances societal and individual rights in its

  • sixth cranial nerve

    human nervous system: Abducens nerve (CN VI or 6): From its nucleus in the caudal pons, the abducens nerve exits the brainstem at the pons-medulla junction, pierces the dura mater, passes through the cavernous sinus close to the internal carotid artery, and exits the cranial vault via the…

  • Sixth Crusade (European history)

    Crusades: The Crusade of Frederick II: The failure of the Fifth Crusade placed a heavy responsibility on Frederick II, whose motives as a Crusader are difficult to assess. A controversial figure, he has been regarded by some as the archenemy of the popes and by others as…

  • Sixth Day, The (film by Spottiswoode [2000])

    Arnold Schwarzenegger: … (1990), True Lies (1994), and The 6th Day (2000).

  • Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind, The (work by Leakey and Lewin)

    Richard Leakey: …book with Roger Lewin was The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind (1995), in which he argued that human beings have been responsible for a catastrophic reduction in the number of plant and animal species living on the Earth. Leakey later collaborated with Virginia Morell to…

  • sixth mass extinction

    extinction: Human-induced extinctions: …to call modern times the sixth mass extinction. This high extinction rate is largely due to the exponential growth in human numbers: growing from about 1 billion in 1850, the world’s population reached 2 billion in 1930 and more than 7.7 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach about…

  • Sixth Republic (South Korean history)

    South Korea: Constitutional framework: …1987 is known as the Sixth Republic. The constitutional structure is patterned mainly on the presidential system of the United States and is based on separation of powers among the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. The government system, highly centralized during most of South Korea’s existence, is less so…

  • Sixth Sense, The (film by Shyamalan [1999])

    Toni Collette: Her performance in The Sixth Sense (1999)—in which she evinced the distress of a mother whose son can see ghosts—brought her an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actress. She received a Tony Award nomination for The Wild Party (2000), her Broadway debut. Though occasionally relegated to one-dimensional…

  • Sixth Symphony (work by Tchaikovsky)

    rhythm: Time: …the second movement of Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony. Rimsky-Korsakov, in Sadko, and Stravinsky, in Le Sacre du printemps, use 11 as a unit. Ravel’s piano trio opens with a signature of 88 with the internal organization 3 + 2 + 3. Folk song and folk

  • sixth tone (music)

    Alois Hába: … (1940), is written in a sixth-tone system.

  • sixties, generation of the (Ukrainian history)

    Ukraine: Ukraine under Shelest: …“generation of the ’60s” (shestydesyatnyky) who, without the formative firsthand experience of Stalin’s reign of terror, experimented with themes and forms that at times provoked the ire of the preceding generation. More proscribed figures from the past were rehabilitated as literary scholars, and historians explored previously forbidden topics. New…

  • Sixtus I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Sixtus I, ; feast day April 3), pope from c. 115 to c. 125. He succeeded Pope St. Alexander I and ruled the church under the Roman emperor Hadrian. Although authoritative sources vary on the dates of his pontificate, they all agree that he reigned for nine or 10 years. Sixtus’ martyrdom is

  • Sixtus II, Saint (pope)

    Saint Sixtus II, ; feast day August 7), pope from 257 to 258, one of the early Roman Church’s most venerated martyrs. He was elected in August 257 to succeed Pope St. Stephen I, during whose pontificate there arose a conflict with certain Eastern churches over the rebaptism of converted heretics.

  • Sixtus III, Saint (pope)

    Saint Sixtus III, ; feast day March 28), pope from 432 to 440. A chief Roman priest when he succeeded Pope St. Celestine I on July 31, 432, Sixtus had previously been suspected of favouring Pelagianism (heretical doctrine that minimized the role of divine grace in man’s salvation), but on becoming

  • Sixtus IV (pope)

    Sixtus IV, pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. Neither a crusader nor

  • Sixtus IV Founding the Vatican Library (work by Melozzo da Forlì)

    Melozzo da Forlì: …first major work in Rome, Sixtus IV Founding the Vatican Library (completed 1477), a fresco showing the investiture of Bartolomeo Sacchi (called the Platina) as librarian to the pope, was painted in Sixtus IV’s library in the Vatican. This painting reveals Melozzo’s mastery of perspective, showing six figures—the pope and…

  • Sixtus V (pope)

    Sixtus V, pope from 1585 to 1590, who reformed the Curia. He entered the Franciscan order in 1533 and was ordained at Siena, Republic of Florence, in 1547. He served twice (1557–60) as inquisitor general in Venice, his severity there causing his recall. Pope Pius V made him vicar general of the

  • sixty-six (card game)

    Sixty-six, two-player card game, ancestral to bezique and pinochle, that was first recorded in 1718 under the name Mariagen-Spiel (German: “the marriage game”). It is still popular in Germany, even more so in Austria under the name Schnapsen (“booze”). The game uses a deck of 24 cards, ranked

  • Siyaad Barre, Maxamed (president of Somalia)

    Mohamed Siad Barre, president of Somalia who held dictatorial rule over the country from October 1969, when he led a bloodless military coup against the elected government, until January 1991, when he was overthrown in a bloody civil war. Siad was born about 1919 (or earlier) into a nomadic family

  • siyar sha?biyyah (Arabic saga literature)

    Arabic literature: Popular narratives: … of Arab lore (in Arabic, siyar sha?biyyah). These include the exploits of the legendary poet-cavalier ?Antar (see Romance of ?Antar), the much-traveled tribal confederacy of the Banū Hilāl, the warrior-princess Dhāt al-Himmah, and the wily ?Alī Zaybaq. In the context of such a public tradition of multi-episodic storytelling, the status…

  • siyāsah (Islamic law)
  • Siyuan yujian (work by Zhu Shijie)

    Zhu Shijie: …“Introduction to Mathematical Science”) and Siyuan yujian (1303; “Precious Mirror of Four Elements”). The former is an introductory mathematics textbook, proceeding from elementary arithmetic to algebraic calculations. Through its layout and progression it clearly testifies to the author’s didactic concern. Following the southern Chinese tradition of mathematics, this book contains…

  • siyyum (Judaism)

    Siyyum, (Hebrew: “termination”), joyous celebration observed by Jews, either when a study group completes a tractate of the Talmud (rabbinic compendium of law, lore, and commentary) or when the writing of a Torah scroll (first five books of the Bible) is completed. The study of the Talmud is

  • Siza Vieira, álvaro Joaquim de Melo (Portuguese architect)

    álvaro Siza, Portuguese architect and designer whose structures, ranging from swimming pools to public housing developments, were characterized by a quiet clarity of form and function, a sensitive integration into their environment, and a purposeful engagement with both cultural and architectural

  • Siza, álvaro (Portuguese architect)

    álvaro Siza, Portuguese architect and designer whose structures, ranging from swimming pools to public housing developments, were characterized by a quiet clarity of form and function, a sensitive integration into their environment, and a purposeful engagement with both cultural and architectural

  • size (of a computation)

    NP-complete problem: , for a problem of size n, the time or number of steps needed to find the solution is a polynomial function of n. Algorithms for solving hard, or intractable, problems, on the other hand, require times that are exponential functions of the problem size n. Polynomial-time algorithms are considered…

  • size (biology)

    animal: Evolution of ecological roles: …permitted an increase in body size, which gave rise to successive levels of predators. Quite early in the rapid diversification of animal life, protective hard shells appeared, a defense against predators but later also a means of enabling animals to expand outward from the seas. The intertidal areas, with partial…

  • size analysis

    mineral processing: Size analysis: Coarsely ground minerals can be classified according to size by running them through special sieves or screens, for which various national and international standards have been accepted. One old standard (now obsolete) was the Tyler Series, in which wire screens were identified by…

  • size, atomic (physics)

    Atomic radius, half the distance between the nuclei of identical neighbouring atoms in the solid form of an element. An atom has no rigid spherical boundary, but it may be thought of as a tiny, dense positive nucleus surrounded by a diffuse negative cloud of electrons. The value of atomic radii

  • size-exclusion chromatography (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Exclusion and clathration: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has proved effective for the separation and analysis of mixtures of polymers. In this method the largest molecules emerge from the chromatographic column first, because they are unable to penetrate the porous matrix of the support. Smaller molecules appear later, because they…

  • Sizer, Theodore R. (American educator and administrator)

    Theodore R. Sizer, American educator and administrator who was best known for founding (1984) the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), which advocated greater flexibility within schools and more-personalized instruction, among other reforms. After earning a B.A. (1953) at Yale University, Sizer

  • Sizer, Theodore Ryland (American educator and administrator)

    Theodore R. Sizer, American educator and administrator who was best known for founding (1984) the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), which advocated greater flexibility within schools and more-personalized instruction, among other reforms. After earning a B.A. (1953) at Yale University, Sizer

  • sizhu (Chinese chamber music ensemble)

    Sizhu, (Chinese: “silk and bamboo”) any of the traditional Chinese chamber music ensembles made up of stringed and wind instruments. Silk (strings) and bamboo (winds) were two of the materials of the bayin (“eight sounds”) classification system established during the Xi (Western) Zhou dynasty

  • sizing (technology)

    Sizing, coating with a gelatinous or other substance to add strength or stiffness or to reduce absorbency. In the visual arts, a canvas or panel is prepared for painting by applying size, a dilute mixture of glue or a resinous substance. In oil painting it is essential that the canvas be coated

  • Sizong (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Chongzhen, reign name (nianhao) of the 16th and last emperor (reigned 1627–44) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The Chongzhen emperor ascended the throne at the age of 16 on the death of his brother, the Tianqi emperor (reigned 1620–27), and tried to revive the deteriorating Ming government. He

  • Sizova, Alla Ivanovna (Soviet ballerina)

    Alla Ivanovna Sizova, Soviet ballerina (born Sept. 22, 1939, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died Nov. 23, 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia), thrilled audiences during her 30 years (1958–88) with the Kirov Ballet (now the Mariinsky Ballet). She was particularly admired for her technical perfection and elegant

  • Sj?lland (island, Denmark)

    Zealand, largest and most populous island of Denmark, lying between the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea, separated from Sweden by The Sound (?resund) and from Funen (Fyn) island by the Great Belt. Zealand’s basal rock platform is exposed in the chalk and limestone cliffs at Stevns Klint—which was

  • Sjahrir, Sutan (prime minister of Indonesia)

    Sutan Sjahrir, influential Indonesian nationalist and prime minister who favoured the adoption of Western constitutional democracy for Indonesia. Sjahrir, son of a public prosecutor, received a Dutch education in Sumatra and Java and attended the Law Faculty at the University of Leiden. In the

  • Sjailendra (Indonesian dynasty)

    Shailendra dynasty, a dynasty that flourished in Java from about 750 to 850 after the fall of the Funan kingdom of mainland Southeast Asia. The dynasty was marked by a great cultural renaissance associated with the introduction of Mahāyāna Buddhism, and it attained a high level of artistic

  • Sjálfst?t fólk (novel by Laxness)

    Halldór Laxness: …fishing village; Sjálfst?tt fólk (1934–35; Independent People), the story of an impoverished farmer and his struggle to retain his economic independence; and Heimsljós (1937–40; World Light), a four-volume novel about the struggles of a peasant poet. These novels criticized Icelandic society from a socialist viewpoint, and they attracted a great…

  • Sje?a? li se Dolly Bell? (film by Kusturica [1981])

    Emir Kusturica: Films of the 1980s: …li se Dolly Bell? (1981; Do You Remember Dolly Bell?), is a tale of an adolescent growing up in a poor family dominated by his despotic father in the 1960s. Poetic and nostalgic, the movie, which was written by the Bosnian author Abdulah Sidran, won the Golden Lion award at…

  • Sj?berg, Alf (Swedish director)

    Alf Sj?berg, Swedish motion-picture director whose films were preeminent in the post-World War II Swedish film revival. He broke with the stage traditions that were inhibiting the artistic development of the Swedish cinema and was among the first to use a lyrical style that was further developed by

  • Sj?berg, Birger (Swedish poet)

    Birger Sj?berg, songwriter and poet known for his development of a strikingly original form in modern Swedish poetry. After very little formal education and a number of occupations, Sj?berg became a journalist. In his spare time he wrote the lyrics and music of songs, which he sang occasionally to

  • Sj?berg, E. (scholar)

    biblical literature: The Gospel According to Mark: unique structure: E. Sj?berg (1955) has interpreted the messianic secret not as a literary invention but as an understanding both that the Messiah would appear without recognition except by those who are chosen and to whom he reveals himself and that he must suffer. For outsiders, then,…

  • Sj?berg, Gideon (Swedish author)

    urban culture: Definitions of the city and urban cultures: Gideon Sjoberg (The Preindustrial City, Past and Present, 1960), in the next step toward a cross-culturally valid understanding of cities, challenged this conception of urban culture as ethnocentric and historically narrow. He divided the world’s urban centres into two types, the preindustrial city and the…

  • Sj?delius, Sven-Olov (Swedish athlete)

    Gert Fredriksson: …1,000-metre kayak pairs, paddling with Sven-Olov Sj?delius. Fredriksson coached the Swedish men’s kayaking team at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City.

  • Sj?gren syndrome (pathology)

    Sj?gren’s syndrome, chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by severe dryness of the eyes and the mouth that results from a diminution in secretion of tears and saliva. Dryness may also involve the nose, pharynx, larynx, and tracheobronchial tree. Approximately half the persons affected also

  • Sjogren, William (scientist)

    mascon: NASA scientists Paul Muller and William Sjogren discovered that as the spacecraft passed over certain surface regions, the stronger gravity field caused the craft to dip slightly and speed up. Muller and Sjogren used the Doppler-shifted radio signals of the spacecraft to make the first detailed gravity map of the…

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