You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • skengay (music)

    reggae: …for this distinctive guitar-playing effect, skengay, is identified with the sound of gunshots ricocheting in the streets of Kingston’s ghettos; tellingly, skeng is defined as “gun” or “ratchet knife.” Thus reggae expressed the sounds and pressures of ghetto life. It was the music of the emergent “rude boy” (would-be gangster)…

  • Skeptical Engagements (work by Crews)

    Frederick C. Crews: In such later works as Skeptical Engagements (1986), he sought to debunk psychoanalysis and to discredit Freud as a scientific thinker. The state of American fiction and criticism in the 20th century is the subject of The Critics Bear It Away: American Fiction and the Academy (1992). In Postmodern Pooh…

  • Skeptical Environmentalist, The (work by Lomborg)

    Bj?rn Lomborg: In Verdens sande tilstand (1998; The Skeptical Environmentalist), he maintained that, although the world faces many environmental problems, their severity is often exaggerated, and the proposed remedies are frequently inappropriate and costly. He suggested that the money might be better invested in alleviating poverty in the developing world. As societies…

  • skepticism (philosophy)

    Skepticism, in Western philosophy, the attitude of doubting knowledge claims set forth in various areas. Skeptics have challenged the adequacy or reliability of these claims by asking what principles they are based upon or what they actually establish. They have questioned whether some such claims

  • Skerrit, Roosevelt (prime minister of Dominica)

    Dominica: Independence: …died in January 2004, and Roosevelt Skerrit succeeded him. Skerrit, at age 31, was at the time the world’s youngest head of government. Under his leadership Dominica increased its international alliances, joining in 2008 the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (from 2009, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our…

  • sketch (literary genre)

    Literary sketch, short prose narrative, often an entertaining account of some aspect of a culture written by someone within that culture for readers outside of it—for example, anecdotes of a traveler in India published in an English magazine. Informal in style, the sketch is less dramatic but m

  • sketch (art)

    Sketch, traditionally a rough drawing or painting in which an artist notes down his preliminary ideas for a work that will eventually be realized with greater precision and detail. The term also applies to brief creative pieces that per se may have artistic merit. In a traditional sketch, the

  • Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., The (short stories by Irving)

    The Sketch Book, short-story collection by Washington Irving, first published in 1819–20 in seven separate parts. Most of the book’s 30-odd pieces concern Irving’s impressions of England, but six chapters deal with American subjects. Of these the tales “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van

  • Sketch Book, The (short stories by Irving)

    The Sketch Book, short-story collection by Washington Irving, first published in 1819–20 in seven separate parts. Most of the book’s 30-odd pieces concern Irving’s impressions of England, but six chapters deal with American subjects. Of these the tales “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van

  • Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (work by Condorcet)

    Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet: …progrès de l’esprit humain (1794; Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind). Its fundamental idea is that of the continuous progress of the human race to an ultimate perfection. He represents humans as starting from the lowest stage of savagery with no superiority over the…

  • Sketch of a Course in Chemical Philosophy at the Royal University of Genoa (pamphlet by Cannizzaro)

    Stanislao Cannizzaro: Atomic weights and Avogadro: Università de Genova” (“Sketch of a Course in Chemical Philosophy at the Royal University of Genoa”). To make clear the significance of this pamphlet, it is necessary to describe something of the state of chemical theory at the time.

  • Sketch of the Life and Work of Linda Gilbert (work by Gilbert)

    Linda Gilbert: Her Sketch of the Life and Work of Linda Gilbert (1876), published in the hope of attracting a permanent endowment for her work, made inflated claims. The Gilbert Library and Prisoners’ Aid Society (1876–83) was of genuine, if limited, service; prison libraries were supported, small personal…

  • Sketch of the Past, A (memoir by Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Late work: …her own childhood with “A Sketch of the Past,” a memoir about her mixed feelings toward her parents and her past and about memoir writing itself. (Here surfaced for the first time in writing a memory of the teenage Gerald Duckworth, her other half brother, touching her inappropriately when…

  • sketch, literary (literary genre)

    Literary sketch, short prose narrative, often an entertaining account of some aspect of a culture written by someone within that culture for readers outside of it—for example, anecdotes of a traveler in India published in an English magazine. Informal in style, the sketch is less dramatic but m

  • sketchbook (art)

    drawing: Pen drawings: …models for paintings; gathered in sketchbooks, they were often handed on from one generation to the next. The practical usefulness of these drawings is attested by the supplements added to them by younger artists and by the fact that many metalpoint drawings that had become hard to decipher were redrawn…

  • Sketches by ‘Boz’? (work by Dickens)

    Sketches by “Boz”, title of two series of collected sketches and short tales by Charles Dickens, writing under the pseudonym Boz. First published in book form in 1836, Sketches contains some 60 pieces that had originally been published in the Monthly Magazine and the Morning Chronicle and other

  • Sketches of American Policy (work by Webster)

    Noah Webster: …on many subjects: politics (“Sketches of American Policy,” 1785, sometimes called the first statement of the U.S. Constitution), economics, medicine, physical science, and language. He noted the living language as he traveled but with varying degrees of approbation, according to the degree of correspondence between what he heard and…

  • Sketches of Canada and the United States (work by Mackenzie)

    William Lyon Mackenzie: While in England he wrote Sketches of Canada and the United States, stating Canadian grievances. In 1835 he was returned to the provincial Canadian Parliament in a reform administration. A report by Mackenzie’s committee on grievances exposed the inadequacies of colonial rule and caused the British government to recall the…

  • Sketches of Eighteenth Century America, or More Letters from an American Farmer (work by Crèvecoeur)

    Michel-Guillaume-Saint-Jean de Crèvecoeur: These were brought out as Sketches of Eighteenth Century America, or More Letters from an American Farmer (1925). Crèvecoeur’s books outline the steps through which new immigrants passed, analyze the religious problems of the New World, describe the life of the whalers of Nantucket, reveal much about the Indians and…

  • Sketches of Southern Life (work by Harper)

    African American literature: The Civil War and Reconstruction: In Sketches of Southern Life (1872), a volume of poems based on her own travels among the freed people of the South, Harper created an effective counter to the popular white stereotype of the passive and incompetent ex-slave in the person of Aunt Chloe Fleet, whose…

  • Sketches of Spain (album by Davis)

    Gil Evans: …Porgy and Bess (1958), and Sketches of Spain (1960), all arranged by Evans. The albums “rank with the finest orchestral music of the 20th century,” according to jazz scholar Ian Carr, and Evans’s arrangements were praised as having

  • Sketchpad (computer program)

    Sketchpad, the first interactive computer-graphics program. Sketchpad originated as American engineer Ivan Sutherland’s doctoral thesis project in the early 1960s and was one of the first graphical user interfaces. The program allowed users to visualize and control program functions and became a

  • skew conformation (chemistry)

    hydrocarbon: Cycloalkanes: designated as chair, boat, and skew (or twist), are essentially free of angle strain. Of these three the chair is the most stable, mainly because it has a staggered arrangement of all its bonds. The boat and skew conformations lack perfect staggering of bonds and are destabilized by torsional strain.…

  • skew ray (optics)

    aberration: …in the meridian plane, called skew rays, are focused farther away from the lens than those lying in the plane. In either case the rays do not meet in a point focus but as lines perpendicular to each other. Intermediate between these two positions the images are elliptical in shape.

  • skewness (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Grain size: …variation in grain size, (5) skewness, the degree of symmetry or asymmetry of the grain-size distribution, which is in turn a function of the coincidence or noncoincidence of mean, median, and mode, and (6) kurtosis (peakedness) of a grain-size distribution, which compares sorting in the central portion of the population…

  • Skhira (seaport, Tunisia)

    La Skhira, seaport, eastern Tunisia. It is situated on the Gulf of Gabes, in Al-Sā?il region. La Skhira is one of the six major seaports of Tunisia; it is specialized in handling Algerian and Tunisian petroleum exports. The port is also a pipeline terminal for Al-Dūlāb oil field, in western

  • Skhira, La (seaport, Tunisia)

    La Skhira, seaport, eastern Tunisia. It is situated on the Gulf of Gabes, in Al-Sā?il region. La Skhira is one of the six major seaports of Tunisia; it is specialized in handling Algerian and Tunisian petroleum exports. The port is also a pipeline terminal for Al-Dūlāb oil field, in western

  • Skhūl (anthropological and archaeological site, Israel)

    Skhūl, site of a paleoanthropological excavation on the western side of Mount Carmel, Israel, known for early Homo sapiens remains and associated stone tools discovered there between 1929 and 1934. The seven adults and three children found at Skhūl date from 120,000 to 80,000 years ago. At least a

  • ski (equipment)

    Sondre Norheim: …fasten the boot to the ski, thus revolutionizing skiing and making ski jumping possible. He himself won the first known jumping competition, held at Telemark in 1866. He also designed skis with incurving sides, the prototype for modern skis. He developed basic skiing turns, which became standard as the stem…

  • ski boot (sports equipment)

    skiing: Skiing equipment: Close-fitting heavy plastic boots, held firmly by bindings (with release features in case the skier falls), are necessary equipment for all skiers. Alpine and freestyle boots have flat, stiff soles to help maintain precise control of the skis. Lighter, more flexible boots, with a binding that allows the…

  • ski flying (sport)

    ski jumping: Ski flying is similar to ski jumping in every respect except its scoring system, which emphasizes distance over style. Under ideal conditions top contestants are capable of leaps of over 200 metres (656 feet). Ski flying is not included in the Olympics.

  • ski jumping (sport)

    Ski jumping, competitive skiing event in which contestants ski down a steep ramp that curves upward at the end, or takeoff point. Skiers leap from the end, trying to cover as much horizontal distance in the air as possible. Ski jumping has been included in the Winter Olympics since the 1924 Games

  • ski kite-flying (sport)

    waterskiing: Ski kite-flying became a popular waterskiing activity in the 1960s, both for recreation and competition. The skier, wearing either one or two skis, is attached to a large lightweight kite by a body harness. In a good wind, the skier is lifted off the water…

  • ski patrol

    Ski patrol, group of paid or volunteer workers at ski resorts whose primary function is to promote skiing safety and provide first aid for injured skiers. Ski patrolmen are proficient skiers trained in first aid and cold weather rescue and survival techniques. One of the largest such organizations

  • ski touring (sport)

    Cross-country skiing, skiing in open country over rolling, hilly terrain as found in Scandinavian countries, where the sport originated as a means of travel as well as recreation and where it remains popular. In its noncompetitive form the sport is also known as ski touring. The skis used are

  • ski-jump spillway (engineering)

    dam: Spillways: …this is known as a ski-jump spillway.

  • skiagraphia (Greek art)

    Western painting: High Classical (c. 450–400 bc): The Athenian painter Apollodorus introduced skiagraphia (literally “shadow painting”), or shading technique. In its simplest form this consists of hatched areas that give the illusion of both shadow and volume. A few of the white-ground vases exhibit this technique in a discreet fashion, but its true potential comes out in…

  • skibob racing (sport)

    Skibobbing, a winter sport using a guidable, single-track vehicle that has features of the bicycle, the bobsled, and skis. The longer rear ski is fixed, and the shorter front ski is mobile for steering; a saddle like that of a bicycle and a steering bar with handles complete the rig. The assembly

  • skibobbing (sport)

    Skibobbing, a winter sport using a guidable, single-track vehicle that has features of the bicycle, the bobsled, and skis. The longer rear ski is fixed, and the shorter front ski is mobile for steering; a saddle like that of a bicycle and a steering bar with handles complete the rig. The assembly

  • skidding (forestry)

    wood: Marking, felling, and processing: …and elephants are employed for skidding (dragging) the wood from the felling site to a concentration yard.

  • Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (American architectural firm)

    Western architecture: After World War II: …of the largest modern firms, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, to design their new decentralized headquarters outside Hartford, Connecticut (1955–57). Lever Brothers turned to the same firm for New York City’s Lever House (1952), in which the parklike plaza, glass-curtain walls, and thin aluminum mullions realized the dreams of Mies and…

  • Skidoo (film by Preminger [1968])

    Otto Preminger: Later films: …films continued to decline with Skidoo (1968), a gangster comedy with a notable cast that included Groucho Marx, Jackie Gleason, Frankie Avalon, Mickey Rooney, Carol Channing, and George Raft. Universally panned, it was widely considered the worst film Preminger ever made.

  • Skien (Norway)

    Skien, town, southern Norway, on the Skienselva (river). Originally the site of a monastery, the town, founded in 1110, is one of the oldest in Norway. An industrial centre and port, Skien’s lumber and mining concerns began the development of the area in the mid-1600s. The ore has been exhausted,

  • Skierniewice (Poland)

    Skierniewice, city, ?ódzkie województwo (province), central Poland. It is located 45 miles (72 km) southwest of Warsaw. First chronicled in 1360, Skierniewice received its city rights in 1457. In 1793 it fell to the Prussians. During the 19th century it was successively under German and Russian

  • Skies of America (composition by Coleman)

    Ornette Coleman: …extended composition is the suite Skies of America, which was recorded in 1972 by the London Symphony Orchestra joined by Coleman on alto saxophone. Influenced by his experience of improvising with Rif musicians of Morocco in 1973, Coleman formed an electric band called Prime Time, whose music was a fusion…

  • Skies of Europe, The (work by Prokosch)

    Frederic Prokosch: …one of his best known—The Skies of Europe (1941), which includes a portrait of Adolf Hitler as a failed artist.

  • skiff (watercraft)

    boat: Northern Europe and Britain: Scotland produced many fine skiffs, the class name for a number of open or partly decked, lapstrake, one-masted, lug-rigged boats. The Lock Fyne skiff, the Fifie skiff, and the Scaffie and Zulu skiffs were fine examples of sailing and rowed fishing boats. The Shetland sexern was particularly fast and…

  • skiff beetle (insect)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Hydroscaphidae (skiff beetles) Size about 1.5 mm; found in algae on rocks in streams; sometimes placed in Staphylinoidea; generic example Hydroscapha; widely distributed. Family Lepiceridae (toadlet beetles) A few Central American species. Family Sphaeriusidae (

  • skiffle (music)

    Skiffle, style of music played on rudimentary instruments, first popularized in the United States in the 1920s but revived by British musicians in the mid-1950s. The term was originally applied to music played by jug bands (in addition to jugs, these bands featured guitars, banjos, harmonicas, and

  • skiing (sport)

    Skiing, recreation, sport, and mode of transportation that involves moving over snow by the use of a pair of long, flat runners called skis, attached or bound to shoes or boots. Competitive skiing is divided into Alpine, Nordic, and freestyle events. Competitions are also held in events such as

  • Skikda (Algeria)

    Skikda, town, Mediterranean Sea port, northeastern Algeria, situated on the Gulf of Stora. Founded by French Marshal Sylvain-Charles Valée in 1838 as the port of Constantine, it has an artificial harbour. Skikda occupies the site of ancient Rusicade, port of 4th-century Cirta, and has the largest

  • skill, psychomotor

    psychomotor learning: Age: …differences in human performance on psychomotor apparatus are associated with chronological age. Scores obtained from nearly all the devices mentioned above are sensitive to age differences. Researchers generally report a rapid increase in psychomotor proficiency from about the age of five years to the end of the second decade, followed…

  • Skilling, Jeffrey (American business executive)

    Enron scandal: With the help of Jeffrey Skilling, who was initially a consultant and later became the company’s chief operating officer, Enron transformed itself into a trader of energy derivative contracts, acting as an intermediary between natural-gas producers and their customers. The trades allowed the producers to mitigate the risk of…

  • Skilling, John (American engineer)

    John Skilling, American structural and civil engineer whose firm, Skilling Ward Magnusson Barkshire, designed over 1,000 buildings in 36 states and 27 countries; among his best-known work was the 110-story twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City (b. Oct. 8, 1921, Los Angeles,

  • skim feeding (animal behaviour)

    cetacean: Feeding: …bowhead, pygmy right, and gray), skim-feed by locating a concentration of zooplankton prey and swimming through it with the mouth open. Skimming may last up to several minutes until the whales close their mouths to swallow what they have filtered from the water.

  • skim milk

    dairy product: Buttermilk: …starting ingredient for buttermilk is skim or low-fat milk. The milk is pasteurized at 82 to 88 °C (180 to 190 °F) for 30 minutes, or at 90 °C (195 °F) for two to three minutes. This heating process is done to destroy all naturally occurring bacteria and to denature…

  • skimmer (electronic device)

    cybercrime: ATM fraud: …American bank accounts had been skimmed by a single group engaged in acquiring ATM information illegally. A particularly effective form of fraud has involved the use of ATMs in shopping centres and convenience stores. These machines are free-standing and not physically part of a bank. Criminals can easily set up…

  • skimmer (bird)

    Skimmer, any of three species of water birds that constitute the family Rynchopidae in the order Charadriiformes. The skimmer is distinguished by a unique bladelike bill, the lower mandible of which is one-third longer than the upper mandible. By day the skimmer rests onshore, and at twilight the

  • skimmer (insect)

    Water strider, any insect of the family Gerridae (order Heteroptera), which numbers about 350 species. Water striders, often seen running or skating in groups over the surface of a pond or stream, are slender, dark coloured, and generally more than 5 mm (0.2 inch) long. With their short front legs

  • Skimmia japonica (plant)

    Rutaceae: …shrub of temperate regions, and Japanese skimmia (Skimmia japonica) and Chinese skimmia (S. reevesiana), which have attractive white flowers and red berries. Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata) is native to Southeast Asia and is widely grown in the tropics as an ornamental. Perhaps the most unusual is the gas plant (Dictamnus…

  • Skimmia reevesiana (plant)

    Rutaceae: …Japanese skimmia (Skimmia japonica) and Chinese skimmia (S. reevesiana), which have attractive white flowers and red berries. Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata) is native to Southeast Asia and is widely grown in the tropics as an ornamental. Perhaps the most unusual is the gas plant (Dictamnus albus), a poisonous perennial herb…

  • skimming (animal behaviour)

    cetacean: Feeding: …bowhead, pygmy right, and gray), skim-feed by locating a concentration of zooplankton prey and swimming through it with the mouth open. Skimming may last up to several minutes until the whales close their mouths to swallow what they have filtered from the water.

  • skimming (cleaning technique)

    oil spill: Oil-spill cleanup: Skimming, a technique that, like the use of booms, is most effective in calm waters, involves various mechanisms that physically separate the oil from the water and place the oil into collection tanks. Another approach is to use various sorbents (e.g., straw, volcanic ash, and…

  • skin (anatomy)

    integument: Skin layers: In all vertebrates the skin has two major layers. The outer, relatively thin epidermis is composed of closely packed cells with little intercellular material; it provides the barrier against attack by chemicals, radiation, or microbes. The underlying dermis (cutis, corium) is thicker and…

  • skin (leather)
  • skin beetle (insect)

    Skin beetle, (family Trogidae), any of approximately 300 widely distributed species of beetles in the superfamily Scarabaeoida (insect order Coleoptera) that are also classified by some authorities in the subfamily Troginae in the scarab family Scarabaediae. Skin beetles have a rough body surface,

  • skin cancer (pathology)

    Skin cancer, disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the skin. Skin cancers are of two distinct types: nonmelanoma and melanoma. Together they account for approximately half of all reported cancers. Melanomas are cancers of pigmented cells and are far more dangerous than

  • Skin Deep (film by Edwards [1989])

    Blake Edwards: Later films: With Skin Deep (1989), Edwards returned to the world of the sexual farce, this time with John Ritter playing the role of a novelist with writer’s block. Switch (1991), Edwards’s penultimate theatrical release, had an intriguing concept—an egomaniacal ladies’ man is killed by a jealous girlfriend…

  • skin depth (physics)

    electromagnetism: Effects of varying electric fields: The skin depth δ (which is the distance in the conducting medium traversed for an amplitude decrease of 1/e, about 1/3) is given by

  • skin disease, human (pathology)

    Skin disease, any of the diseases or disorders that affect the human skin. They have a wide range of causes. Although most diseases affecting the skin originate in the layers of the skin, such abnormalities are also important factors in the diagnosis of a variety of internal diseases. There is some

  • skin diving (sport)

    Skin diving, swimming done underwater, usually with a face mask and flippers but without portable oxygen equipment. See underwater

  • skin effect (electronics)

    Skin effect, in electricity, the tendency of alternating high-frequency currents to crowd toward the surface of a conducting material. This phenomenon restricts the current to a small part of the total cross-sectional area and so has the effect of increasing the resistance of the conductor.

  • skin flap (medicine)

    therapeutics: Reconstructive surgery: …nerve, or tendon requires a skin flap. This can be a local flap, in which tissue is freed and rotated from an adjacent area to cover the defect, or a free flap, in which tissue from another area of the body is used. An example of a local flap is…

  • Skin for Skin (book by Powys)

    Llewelyn Powys: …Kenya from 1914 to 1919; Skin for Skin (1925), a philosophical narrative of his confrontation with tuberculosis (from which he suffered until his death); Impassioned Clay (1931), an exploration of spirituality; and Love and Death (1939), a partly fictionalized account of and reflection on a love affair.

  • skin graft (medicine)

    Skin graft, transplantation of healthy skin from one area of the body to cover and heal a large wound or burn in another area of a similar skin type. The two most widely used techniques are (1) split-thickness grafts, which remove the upper layer (epidermis) and part of the middle layer (dermis)

  • Skin I Live In, The (film by Almodóvar [2011])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …La piel que habito (2011; The Skin I Live In), a psychological thriller about a plastic surgeon who performs experiments on a woman he holds captive. The campy, socially pointed comedy Los amantes pasajeros (I’m So Excited!), set aboard an airplane preparing for an emergency landing, followed in 2013. Three…

  • Skin of Our Teeth, The (play by Wilder)

    The Skin of Our Teeth, comedy in three acts by Thornton Wilder, performed and published in 1942. Known for its experimental representation of all of human history, it won Wilder one of his three Pulitzer Prizes. With a cast of characters that includes a dinosaur and drum majorettes, The Skin of Our

  • skin perfume

    perfume: …concentrated bath oils, sometimes called skin perfumes.

  • skin squeeze (pathology)

    Skin squeeze, effect on the skin of exposure to a pressure less than that of the surrounding environmental pressure. Skin squeeze is most prevalent among pilots and underwater divers working in pressurized suits. In both professions the participants encounter unusual pressures. In deep-sea diving,

  • skin test (medicine)

    Skin test, introduction of a specific test substance into the skin of an individual, either by injection or by scratching the skin, to determine that individual’s possible allergy to certain substances or his susceptibility or immunity to certain diseases. A skin test is usually considered

  • skin, human (anatomy)

    Human skin, in human anatomy, the covering, or integument, of the body’s surface that both provides protection and receives sensory stimuli from the external environment. The skin consists of three layers of tissue: the epidermis, an outermost layer that contains the primary protective structure,

  • Skin, The (work by Malaparte)

    Curzio Malaparte: … (1944); and La pelle (1949; The Skin), a terrifying, surrealistically presented series of episodes showing the suffering and degradation that the war had brought to the people of Naples.

  • skin-on-skin process (fur industry)

    fur: …the letting-out technique or the skin-on-skin method. The letting-out process involves slicing a skin into narrow diagonal strips and then sewing them together to form a longer and narrower strip that will run the full length of a coat. The skin-on-skin process is much simpler and consists of sewing one…

  • skinhead (youth subculture)

    Skinhead, youth subculture characterized by aggressively masculine hair and dress styles, including shaved heads and heavy boots. In many countries skinheads are commonly viewed as extreme right-wing nationalists or neofascists who espouse anti-Semitic and other racist views, though the skinhead

  • skink (lizard)

    Skink, (family Scincidae), any of about 1,275 species of lizards, mostly secretive ground dwellers or burrowers, that are represented throughout most of the world but are especially diverse in Southeast Asia and its associated islands, the deserts of Australia, and the temperate regions of North

  • Skinner box (scientific apparatus)

    B.F. Skinner: …of his best-known inventions, the Skinner box, has been adopted in pharmaceutical research for observing how drugs may modify animal behaviour.

  • Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Association (law case)

    Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Association, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 21, 1989, ruled (7–2) that an alcohol- and drug-testing program for railroad employees in safety-sensitive positions did not violate the Fourth Amendment. After a number of railroad accidents in which

  • Skinner, B. F. (American psychologist)

    B.F. Skinner, American psychologist and an influential exponent of behaviourism, which views human behaviour in terms of responses to environmental stimuli and favours the controlled, scientific study of responses as the most direct means of elucidating human nature. Skinner was attracted to

  • Skinner, Burrhus Frederic (American psychologist)

    B.F. Skinner, American psychologist and an influential exponent of behaviourism, which views human behaviour in terms of responses to environmental stimuli and favours the controlled, scientific study of responses as the most direct means of elucidating human nature. Skinner was attracted to

  • Skinner, Clarence (American theologian)

    Unitarianism and Universalism: American Universalism: Clarence Skinner (1881–1949), dean of Crane Theological School, greatly influenced American Universalists by his emphasis on social issues and his reinterpretation of Universalism as referring not to salvation after death but to the unities and universals in human life (A Religion for Greatness, 1945). In…

  • Skinner, Constance Annie Lindsay (American writer and historian)

    Constance Lindsay Skinner, Canadian-born American writer, critic, editor, and historian, remembered for her contributions to popular historical series on American and Canadian frontiers and rivers. Skinner was the daughter of an agent for the Hudson’s Bay Company, and she grew up at a trading post

  • Skinner, Constance Lindsay (American writer and historian)

    Constance Lindsay Skinner, Canadian-born American writer, critic, editor, and historian, remembered for her contributions to popular historical series on American and Canadian frontiers and rivers. Skinner was the daughter of an agent for the Hudson’s Bay Company, and she grew up at a trading post

  • Skinner, Cornelia Otis (American actress and author)

    Cornelia Otis Skinner, American actress and author who, with satirical wit, wrote light verse, monologues, anecdotes, sketches, and monodramas in which she displayed her versatile and distinctive acting skills. Skinner made her first professional stage appearance with her father, the tragedian Otis

  • Skinner, Otis (American actor)

    Otis Skinner, American actor who played hundreds of roles in all parts of the world in a career extending over more than 60 years. Skinner’s first stage appearance was at the Philadelphia Museum in 1877 in Woodleigh. After two years in the stock company at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia,

  • Skinner, Quentin (British historian)

    Quentin Skinner, British historian of modern political thought, best known for his work on the methodology of historical research, republicanism, and the political theories of Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Skinner’s father was a colonial administrator and his mother a former schoolteacher.

  • Skinner, Quentin Robert Duthie (British historian)

    Quentin Skinner, British historian of modern political thought, best known for his work on the methodology of historical research, republicanism, and the political theories of Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Skinner’s father was a colonial administrator and his mother a former schoolteacher.

  • Skinner, Samuel K. (United States government official)

    Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives' Association: …post in 1989, his successor, Samuel K. Skinner, was named in the suit. A federal district court subsequently upheld the program’s constitutionality, but the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed, finding that the program violated the Fourth Amendment, which forbids unreasonable searches and seizure. The court objected to testing for…

  • Skinner, Stephen (English philologist)

    dictionary: Specialized dictionaries: …of etymology for English was Stephen Skinner’s Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae of 1671, in Latin, with a strong bias for finding a Classical origin for every English word. In the 18th century, a number of dictionaries were published that traced most English words to Celtic sources, because the authors did not…

  • Skinny Island (work by Auchincloss)

    Louis Auchincloss: …Tales of Manhattan (1967) and Skinny Island (1987), which are set exclusively in Manhattan. Subsequent works include the novels Tales of Yesteryear (1994) and Education of Oscar Fairfax (1995) and a number of short-story anthologies, notably Three Lives (1993), The Anniversary and Other Stories (1999), and Manhattan Monologues (2002), all…

  • Skinny Legs and All (novel by Robbins)

    Tom Robbins: …janitor in Albert Einstein’s laboratory; Skinny Legs and All (1990), a fantastical novel that follows five inanimate objects on a journey to Jerusalem while exploring the Arab-Israeli conflict and religious fundamentalism, among other political themes; Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas (1994); Fierce Invalids Home from Hot Climates (2000), the story…

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载